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Applying Ethical Theories on Abortion

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  1. 1. ABORTIONBALLESTEROS, Sarah JeanMANGANTI, Gernina Girlie MaeTAN, Ana May V.
  2. 2. WHAT IS ABORTION? The word abortion comes from the Latin abortio, which means to abort, miscarry, deliver prematurely. Intentional termination of a pregnancy after conception.
  3. 3. ABORTION AND PHILIPPINES LAWS Illegal in the Philippines and is not permitted. Criminalized by the Revised Penal Code Articles 256, 258 and 259 of the Code mandate imprisonment:  forthe woman who undergoes  person who assists in the procedure
  4. 4. REASONS WHY WOMEN CHOOSE ABORTION Inability to afford the economic cost of raising a child. They feared that a pregnancy would damage their health. They felt that their husband, partner or relatives did not want the pregnancy.
  5. 5. REASONS WHY WOMEN CHOOSE ABORTION Pregnancy resulted from forced sex or rape An unintended pregnancy is her age Problems with their partner:  their partner had abandoned them  was not their husband  was not deemed to be a good father
  6. 6. RISKS FACTORS AFTER ABORTION Severe bleeding and infection Having problems in future pregnancy Becoming sterile Needing a Hysterectomy Developing breast cancer Death
  7. 7. IS IT ETHICAL TO GIVE BIRTH TO AN UNWANTEDCHILD? Ethical to force women to carry pregnancies to term, it would not be ethical to force the birth of children who are unwanted and cannot be cared for.
  8. 8. PERSONHOOD Central to one’s view Fundamental to one’s system of belief and their views
  9. 9. J GLOVER Argued that determining the point at which a person becomes a person is not logically possible.
  10. 10. THE RIGHT TO LIFE Rights the fetus is deserving of. Rights the mother has over a growing fetus.
  11. 11. J.J. THOMSON (PRO-CHOICE, SUPPORTSFEMINIST ETHICS A key contributor to the pro-choice movement. Uses an analogy of a violinist to support the right of the mother.
  12. 12. ANALOGY OF A VIOLINIST A man is kidnapped and wired up to a famous violist in a hospital in order to save the violinist. He wakes up and is given the choice of staying attached to the violinist for nine months and saving him, or leaving the hospital and letting the violinist die.
  13. 13. PETER SINGER Developed the analogy of the violinist: You visit a friend in hospital but accidentally get off the elevator on the wrong floor where doctors are waiting to rig you up to someone.
  14. 14. FEMINISM Supporting the rights of the mother. Imagine a world in which pregnancy occurs when little pollen seeds take root in soft furnishings. A woman likes having the window open so she takes precautions by putting up a fine wire mesh to stop the pollen seeds. However one seed still ends up on the rug and she becomes pregnant.
  15. 15. FEMINISM Therefore, a woman who doesn’t want to get pregnant has only two options:  CLOSE THE WINDOW COMPLETELY  HAVE ALL HER FURNISHINGS REMOVED
  16. 16. CRITICISMS OF THOMSON’S ANALOGIES The examples are not relevant. Thomson also fails to take emotions into account . Thomson talks of a baby as if it were a possession or object.
  18. 18. CHRISTIAN ETHICS Division of the Christian church has lead to the development of three main traditions: Authority – Roman Catholic Bible – Protestant Conscience – Orthodox
  19. 19. BIBLICAL ETHICS “So God created man in his own image” Genesis 1:27 “Whoever sheds the blood of man, by man shall his blood be shed; for in the image of God has God made them” Genesis 9:6
  20. 20. BIBLICAL ETHICS “For you created my inmost being; you knit me together in my mother’s womb” Psalm 139:13 “God blessed them and said to them, be fruitful and increase in number” Genesis 1:28
  21. 21. NATURAL LAW (ABSOLUTE, DEONTOLOGICAL) Aquinas -five primary precepts From these five primary precepts, secondary precepts can be deduced abortion goes against two of Aquinas’ primary precepts
  22. 22. NATURAL LAW (ABSOLUTE, DEONTOLOGICAL)Two of Aquinas’ primary precepts: Continuation of the human species through reproduction: Secondary precept: No contraception, no abortion, no homosexuality Self-preservation and preservation of the innocent: Secondary precept: No abortion.
  23. 23. REAL & APPARENT GOODS Aristotle distinguished between real and apparent goods: Real goods lead to flourishing Apparent goods appear to be good but don’t lead to flourishing
  24. 24. DOCTRINE OF DOUBLE EFFECT The doctrine of double effect could be used to justify abortion if it is a secondary consequence of a primary intention.
  25. 25. SITUATION ETHICS (RELATIVIST, TELEOLOGICAL) The morality of abortion depends on the situation. Situation Ethics is based on the single maxim. Abortion could be seen to be:  LOVING  NOT LOVING
  26. 26. SAMPLE CASE NO. 1: An unmarried schizophrenic patient become pregnant after being raped. Her father petitioned for abortion but the hospital refused because they said it was "non- therapeutic" and therefore illegal. The father maintained that it was the loving thing to do to prevent this child’s birth.
  27. 27. SAMPLE CASE NO. 2: In another real situation, a Romanian Jewish doctor aborted 3000 babies of Jewish mothers in concentration camps because, if pregnant, the mothers were to be incinerated.
  28. 28. UTILITARIANISM Jeremy Brentham(1748-1832) John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) Teleological theory  (Greek word telos = end) Rightness and wrongness in the consequence of our behavior.
  29. 29. UTILITARIANISM Good is happiness. Wrongness of an action bring unhappiness. Enormous consequences:  raising the quality of our lives  increase well being and to decrease the pain and suffering
  30. 30. ACT UTILITARIANISM (RELATIVE, TELEOLOGICAL) Acts on a case by case basis Consequential pleasure/pain:  Certainty Remoteness  Intensity Duration  Extent Purity  Richness
  31. 31. SAMPLE CASE: Abortion in pregnant woman who contracted German measles(Rubella).  maximize happiness  minimize suffering  merciful deception
  32. 32. RULE UTILITARIANISM (DEONTOLOGICAL,TELEOLOGICAL) Can be prohibited without exception to the rule. Promote the greatest happiness. Effects of classes, or kinds, of actions
  33. 33. SAMPLE CASE: Abortion in pregnant woman who contracted german measles(Rubella A rule Utilitarian offer greater utility irrespective of the specific situation
  34. 34. KANTIAN ETHICS IMMANUEL KANT (1724-1804) Deontological ethical theory  (Greek word deon = binding of duty) An act is moral only if:  springs from a good will governed
  35. 35. APPLYING KANT’S CATEGORICAL IMPERATIVE TOABORTION: The Universal Law  “All moral statements should be both universal and willed to be universalized.”  “If they are not universal then they are contradictions in the Law of Nature, and if they cannot be willed to be universalized they are contradictions in the Law of the Will.”
  36. 36. APPLYING KANT’S CATEGORICAL IMPERATIVE TOABORTION: Treat Humans as Ends in Themselves  People should always be treated as ends in themselves and not as a means to an end.  Intrinsic value and not instrumental value.
  37. 37. KANTIAN ETHICS Kant distinguished between three types of beings:  People – rational agents  People with partial rights – people who lack rights  Things – animals, plants
  38. 38. SAMPLE CASE: A pregnant woman who have acute appendicitis was aborted after surgical treatment by her physician.  “appendectomy”  tosave and to prolong the life of both patientS  unforeseeable contingency, the baby was aborted.