Bioethics the Moral Issue of Abortion


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Bioethics the Moral Issue of Abortion

  1. 1. A Look at the Life of theUnborn and the Methods Usedto Take that LifeJOFRED M. MARTINEZ, RN
  2. 2. 1. Outline the distinction between “human” and“person”, and to dispute regarding personhoodcriteria.2. List the basic facts of fetal development.3. Explain the different types of abortion.4. Describe the sociology of abortion issue.5. Outline the religious arguments against abortion.6. Explain the pro-choice position from a “life plan”point of view.
  3. 3. In the beginning spermjoins with ovum (egg) toform one cell - smallerthan a grain of salt.This union brings together the 23 chromosomes fromthe father with the 23 chromosomes from the motherto make a single new life with 46 chromosomes - thegenetic blue print for the development of every detailthis new person will ever have.
  4. 4. For the next few days thefertilized egg travels downthe fallopian tube into theuterus.At the end of the first weekit implants itself into thelining of the uterine wall anddraws nourishment from itsmother.
  5. 5. From Days 10-14 thedeveloping embryosignals its presencethrough placentachemicals andhormones to themother’s body telling itto cease menstruation.
  6. 6. By Day 21 the heart begins to beat.By the 4th week, the backbone and muscles areforming. Arms, legs, eyes, and ears begins to show.By only Day 20foundations of thebrain, spinal cord andnervous system arealready established.
  7. 7. Now one month old, theembryo is 10,000 timeslarger than the originalfertilized egg and isdeveloping rapidly.
  8. 8. At Week 5 five fingers canbe discerned in the hand.The eyes darken aspigment is produced.Brain waves can bedetected and recorded.At Week 6 the liver is now taking over production ofblood cells, the brain begins to control musclemovements and organs.
  9. 9. Week 7 - The embryobegins to movespontaneously. The jawforms, including teethbuds in the gums.Soon the eyelids will sealto protect the embryo’sdeveloping light-sensitiveeyes, and will reopen atabout the seventh month.
  10. 10. By the 8th Weekthe now-calledfetus is a littlemore than an inchlong. The fetus hasnow everythingfound in a fullydeveloped adult.The heart has been beating for more than a month, thekidneys are functioning; the stomach is producingdigestive juices. And it responds to touch.
  11. 11. At Week 9 the tiny onehas fingerprints andwill curve its handaround an objectplaced in its palm.By Week 10 the fetuscan squint, swallow,and wrinkle itsforehead.At the 11th week, the fetus is now about 2 inches long.Urination occurs. Muscle movements are becomingmore coordinated.
  12. 12. Now 3 months old, the unborn sleeps, awakens, andexercises its muscles. It “breathes” amniotic fluid tohelp develop its respiratory system. Fine hair isgrowing on the head.
  13. 13. At 4 months the fetus is8-10 inches long andweighs half a pound.The mother starts to“show.” The baby’s earsare functional.It can hear its mother.
  14. 14. The fetus at 5 months is now about 12 inches long.There is definite movement felt by the mother. Theunborn may jump in reactions to startling or loud noises.
  15. 15. At the 6th month oiland sweat glandsare now functioning.The delicate skin isprotected from thefetal waters by aspecial ointmentcalled “vernix.”Born now and given proper care,the baby would survive…
  16. 16. At Month 7 the baby now uses the four senses ofhearing, vision, taste, and touch. The child canrespond to his or her mother’s voice.
  17. 17. In the 8th month theskin begins to thickenwith a layer of fatstored underneath forinsulation andnourishment.Antibodiesincreasingly build up.The baby is nearly ready for life outside the womb.
  18. 18. Toward the end of thismonth the baby isready for birth. By thistime the infantnormally weighs 6 to9 pounds, and his orher heart is pumping300 gallons of bloodper day.
  19. 19. When does life BeginIs the embryo or fetus merely a“globule of tissue”
  20. 20. What exactly is murderIs abortion murder
  21. 21. Does knowing the facts about prebornlife and the methods of abortionmake us more responsible
  22. 22. What is abortionAbortion is the expulsion of a living fetus from themother’s womb before it is viable.
  23. 23. Reasons for abortionEconomic CostFamily PlanningHealthRape incestAgeSociety’s moralism
  24. 24. Abortion150,000 to 750,000 abortion every year4,000 case of abortion annually in Manila
  25. 25. PHILIPPINESARTICLE II, SECTION 12 OF THE 1986PHILIPPINE CONSTITUTION“The state recognizes the sanctity of life and shallprotect and strengthen the family as a basicautonomous social institution. It shall equally protectthe life of the mother and the life of the unborn fromconception.”Historical Background
  26. 26. Revised Penal Code of the Philippines (enacted in1930 and remains in effect today)Articles 256, 258 and 259 of the Code mandateimprisonment for the woman who undergoes theabortion, as well as for any person who assists in theprocedure, even if they be the womans parents, aphysician or midwife.Historical Background
  27. 27. NATURAL ABORTION/SPONTANEOUS ORACCIDENTAL ABORTIONThe expulsion of the fetus through natural oraccidental causes.Types of Abortion
  28. 28. DIRECT OR INTENTIONAL ABORTIONDeliberately induced expulsion of a living fetusbefore it has become viable.Types of Abortion
  29. 29. THERAPEUTIC ABORTIONDeliberately induced expulsion of a living fetus inorder to save the mother from the danger ofdeath brought on by pregnancy.Types of Abortion
  30. 30. EUGENIC ABORTION/SELECTIVE ABORTION ORABORTION ON FETAL INDICATIONS- This is recommended in cases where certaindefects are discovered in the developing fetus.Types of Abortion
  31. 31. INDIRECT ABORTIONThe removal of the fetus occurs as a secondaryeffect of a legitimate or licit action, which isdirect and primary object of the intention.Types of Abortion
  32. 32. The conservativeThe liberalThe moderate or intermediateViewpoints on Abortion
  33. 33. It declares that abortion is never permissible, or atmost, is permissible if and only it is required to save thepregnant woman’s life, as in the case of the removal ofa cancerous uterus or the removal of the fallopian tube,or a part of it, because of ectopic pregnancy.Conservative Viewpoint
  34. 34. States that abortion is always permissible, whateverthe state of fetal development may be. If women aretruly to be liberated, this view contends, they mustultimately have full freedom to control their ownreproductive capacities.Liberal Viewpoint
  35. 35. “The fetus has no ontological status; it is neither anindividual, human, nor a person, but only a tissue ina woman’s uterus; therefore, it possesses no rightsand no moral status.”Liberals
  36. 36. It holds that abortion is morally permissible up tocertain stage of fetal development, or for some limitedset of reasons sufficient to justify the taking of life inthis or that special circumstances. As far as themoderates are concerned, the fetus attains ontologicalstatus at quickening or viability.Moderate Viewpoint
  37. 37. PLANTS AND PLANT PREPARATIONSe.g.,Makabuhay, Essencia maravilosa.Methods of Abortion
  38. 38. “If you prick us do we not bleed,if you tickle us do we not laugh, ifyou poison us do we not die…”- Shakespeare the Merchant of Venice
  39. 39. PHYSICAL METHODSMassage and abdominal pressure are applied by thehilot, or sometimes by the pregnant woman herself.Methods of Abortion
  40. 40. INSERTION OF CATHETERSWomen have been known to insert hangers,brooms, walis tingting.Methods of Abortion
  41. 41. DILATION AND CURETTAGEUsually, this is done with women who had alreadybegan the abortion, in which case it is calledcompletion curettage.Methods of Abortion
  42. 42. MENSTRUAL REGULATION (MR)This involves the use of suction or vacuum aspiration toterminate a very early pregnancy.Methods of Abortion
  43. 43. MENSTRUAL REGULATION (MR)This involves the use of suction or vacuum aspiration toterminate a very early pregnancy.Methods of Abortion
  44. 44. DRUGSThese include medicines such as quinine, an anti-malarial; methylergometrin, a uterine stimulant andmethotrexate, an anti-cancer drug.Bricanyl (terbutaline) is perceived as anabortifacient in large dosesMethods of Abortion
  45. 45. DRUGSMisoprostol (Cytotec) is actually a drug used toprevent ulcers but has abortion as a side effect.Another drug called RU486 (Mifepristone) is now legalin China and a few European countries.Methods of Abortion
  46. 46. SALT POISONINGA needle is inserted through the mother’s abdomenand 50-250 ml of amniotic fluid is withdrawn andreplaced with a solution of concentrated salt.Methods of Abortion
  47. 47. HYSTEROTOMYIncisions are made in the abdomen and uterus. Thebaby, placenta, and amniotic sac are removed.Methods of Abortion
  48. 48. THE TWO POSITIONSThe pro-life positionThe pro-choice positionMoral Issues
  50. 50. THE DOCTRINE OF DOUBLE EFFECTThe course chosen must be good or atleast morally neutralThe good must not follow as a consequenceof the secondary harmful effectsThe harm must never be intended but merely toleratedas casually connected with the good intendedThe good must outweigh the harmMoral Issues
  51. 51. “HUMAN” OR “PERSON”Consciousness of objects and eventsThe ability to feel painReasoningSelf-motivated activityThe capacity to communicateA concept of the selfMoral Issues
  52. 52. THE VIABILITY ARGUMENTMoral Issues
  53. 53. THE VIOLINIST ANALOGYMoral Issues
  59. 59. The LORD God formed the man from the dust of theground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life,and the man became a living being(Genesis 2:7).Biblical Viewpoint
  60. 60. The word of the LORD came to me, saying,"Before I formed you in the womb I knewyou, before you were born I set you apart;I appointed you as a prophet to the nations"(Jeremiah 1:4-5).Biblical Viewpoint
  61. 61. You shall not murder.(Exodus 20:13)Biblical Viewpoint
  62. 62. 1. Edge, R. S. and Groves, J. R. (1999) Ethics ofHealth Care: A Guide for Clinical Practice (SecondEdition). Albert Complex, Singapore: DelmarPublishers. pp. 180 – 2012. Timbreza, F. T. (2007) Bioethics and MoralDecisions. Quezon Avenue: C & E Publishing Inc.pp. 87 - 106References