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Space Test Review


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Space Test Review

  1. 1. SPACE EXPLORATIONCanadas history of participating in spaceexploration can be traced back to 1839 with theestablishment of the first magnetic observatory,to study the northern lights. Today, Canadaenjoys its role as a leader in space robotics andsatellite communications.
  2. 2. Chris Hadfield operated the space Marc Garneau was a arm. Hadfield robotics expert he performed two became first Canadian in spacewalks, which space in 1984 made him the first Canadian to ever leave a spacecraft and float freely in space.Julie Payette served as amission specialist, was Roberta Bondar was the firstresponsible for the Station woman in space. Shesystems, supervised the experimented on the bloodspace walk and operated flow in the brain during nothe Canadarm robotic arm. gravity.Ms. Payette was the firstCanadian to participate inan ISS assembly missionand to board the SpaceStation. Four of twelve Canadian Astronauts
  3. 3. •Some Canadian Scientist’scontributions to space exploration•Canadarm - The Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS) or Canadarm onthe Space Shuttle, is a mechanical arm that maneuvers a payload from the spaceshuttle orbiter to its deployment position and then releases it. There is also one onthe ISS to maneuver things outside the station.•Anti-Gravity Suit - In 1940, the anti gravity suit was first inventedunder the name Franks Flying Suit by Wilbur R. Franks at theUniversity of Toronto. The suit was made with rubber and water-filled pads. It counteracted the effects of high G forces on aircraftpilots, which otherwise would cause them to black out; all G-Suitsworn by air force pilots as well as astronauts and cosmonautsaround the world are based on his original designs. •Radarsat Constellation (satellites)-The RADARSAT Constellation Mission (RCM) consists of a three spacecraft fleet of Earth observation satellites. They are used for: - national security (maritime surveillance (e.g., ship detection)) - resource management -disaster management and ecosystem monitoring for example, monitoring/tracking ice,- detecting oil spills, monitoring floods, landslides, eruptions, - aiding forest firefighting - transportation
  4. 4. •Life Support systems (canadians havehelped to design and make improvementsin space suit technology Apollo lunar module- Canadian engineer Eugene Maynard, working for NASA in the USA, is considered to be the person at NASA most responsible for the design of the lunar module. The lunar module was the spacecraft that landed astronauts on the moon for all Apollo missions. •ESAs Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELISSA) (providing food and water - mini habitats) for long term space exploration
  5. 5. •Biological Air Filter (to maintain air quality in space station)•Radiation Dosimetry (radiation therapy for medical treatments•Have done research on stopping Bone Loss (osteoporosisparticularly in women)•A variety of Medical Support•And more
  6. 6. Space exploration has brought many benefits to society.•High-quality radio and television signals are now relayed around theglobe by satellite.•Biological experiments in space, such as the growing of insulin crystals,are contributing to our ability to fight disease.•The technology used for space shuttle fuel pumps is now being used tomake better artificial hearts.•Geographical data obtained by satellites have improved the quality ofmaps and made navigation safer.•Also many inventions are related to space are developed for otherpurposes such as cell phones, fire fighter suits, computers and computergames (joy sticks) smoke detectors, the metal wire for braces,rechargeable batteries sports safety helmets, cars plexiglass and manymoreBut space exploration also•is very expensive, money could be spent elsewhere•involves risks to the lives of astronauts and others•produces pollution, and creates space junk that may eventually fall backto Earth•Some argue It is partially done for militaristic reasons•Could result in some deadly bacteria being brought to earthWhat do you think??? Be prepared to discuss your opinion giving specific reasons
  7. 7. Constellations The constellations are totally imaginary things that poets, farmers andastronomers have made up over the past 6,000 years (and probably even more!). The realpurpose for the constellations is to help us tell which stars are which. Stars are used fornavigation and people need a way to help recognize which stars to follow. It also provided astory as to why the stars behave as they do.You should be able to discuss and draw one constellation and name one of the primary stars The little dipper Know One
  8. 8. Some objects emit light (stars) and otherbodies in space reflect light (moons andplanets). Objects in the night skyThat emit light twinkle and those that reflectlight do not. The sun burns gasses and so twinkles Venus reflects the light from the sun and so does not twinkle
  9. 9. The four planets closest to the sun—Mercury, Venus, Earth, andMars—are called the terrestrial planets because they have solidrocky surfaces. Mercury (terrestrial) is the closest planet to the sun and is the smallest planet in the Solar System, Surface Mars (terrestrial) is the fourth temperatures range from about 90 to planet from the Sun in the Solar 700 K (-183 degrees C to 427 degrees System. It is also referred to as C, the ""Red Planet"" because of its Orbits (revolves around) the Sun once reddish appearance, due to iron every 88 days. Rotation: 59days oxide (rust) on its surface. Moons 0 Mars is currently host to three functional orbiting spacecraft: Mars Odyssey, Mars Express, and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The surface is also home to the two Mars Exploration Rovers (Spirit and Opportunity) Rotation: 25 hours Orbit: 1.88 Venus (terrestrial) is the second- year(s) Moons 2 closest planet to the Sun. It is the brightest natural object in the night sky, except for the Moon Often called the morning or evening star Rotation: 5376 hours Orbit: 225 days Moons 0
  10. 10. The four large planets beyond the orbit of Mars—Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, andNeptune—are called gas giants. Uranus a gas giant planets, has a ring system, a and Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun numerous moons. The and the largest planet within the Solar Uranian system is System unique configuration It has a Great Red Spot, a giant storm among the planets that is known to have existed since at because its axis of least the 17th century. Surrounding the rotation is tilted planet is a faint planetary ring system sideways, and a powerful magnetosphere. Rotation: 17 hours Rotation: 10 hours Orbit: 11.86 year(s) Orbit: 84.32 year(s) moons at least 63 Number of Moons: 27 Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second largest planet in the Solar System. Saturn has a prominent system of rings, consisting Neptune is a gas giant mostly of ice particles with a smaller and has faint rings. It amount of rocky debris and dust. also has a dark spot Rotation: 11 hours Orbit: 29.66 similar to the great red year(s) moons- 61 known ( not spot on Jupiter counting hundreds of ""moonlets"" Rotation: 16 hours Orbit: 165 year(s) within the rings.) Number of Moons: 13
  11. 11. Earth (terrestrial) third planet from the sunin the Goldilocks zone (water occurs insolid (frozen) gas and liquid states)Rotation: 24 hours Orbit: 365.25 days (1year) Number of Moons: 1The earth rotates once every 24 hours andthis is what provides us with night and day.The Earths axis of rotation is tilted 23degrees and is responsible for producingseasonal variations on the planets surfacewith a period of one tropical year (365.25solar days). Earths only known naturalsatellite, the Moon, which began orbiting itabout 4.53 billion years ago. The moonprovides ocean tides, stabilizes the axial tiltand is gradually slowing the planetsrotation.
  12. 12. Why we have seasons.If you try drawing the locations of sunrise and sunsetnear your house over the course of a year, you will seethat the Sun rises and sets and takes different pathsacross the sky in different seasons. Some people have the misconception that different seasons happen because sometimes the Earth is farther from the Sun and sometimes it is closer. It makes sense -- when you are close to the Sun, it should be warm and summery, and when you are far away, it should be icy winter -- but this is not true. The earths axis is tilted about 23.5 degrees, so the Earth is never straight up and down compared to the Sun. When it is summer in North America that is because the North Pole and the rest of the Northern Hemisphere are pointing toward the Sun. The Sun appears to stay in the sky longer each day (really, we are just pointed toward the Sun for longer each day). Because we spend more time in the sunshine and less in the shadow of night, our part of the Earth gets warmer, and we experience summer. During the summer, the Sun is high in the sky. Therefore, rays of light from the Sun hit us more directly during summer, making the sunlight more intense and warmer. In winter, the Sun is low in the sky. The rays of light are spread more thinly, and they do not warm us as much.
  13. 13. SolsticesThe solstices are days that have the most andleast amount of sunlight. The winter solsticeoccurs on December 21 or 22 and marks thebeginning of winter (this is the shortest day ofthe year). The summer solstice occurs onJune 21 and marks the beginning of summer(this is the longest day of the year).EquinoxesEquinoxes are days in which day and nightare of equal duration. The vernal equinoxoccurs in late March (this is the beginning ofspring in the Northern Hemisphere and thebeginning of fall in the Southern Hemisphere);the autumnal equinox occurs in lateSeptember (this is the beginning of fall in theNorthern Hemisphere and the beginning ofspring in the Southern Hemisphere).
  14. 14. The MoonThe moon (and sun and earth’s rotation) causes the tides (the riseand fall of sea levels) The diagram shows how the moon causes tides on Earth: In this diagram, you can see that the moons gravitational force pulls on water in the oceans so that there are "bulges" in the ocean on both sides of the planet. The moon pulls water toward it, and this causes the bulge toward the moon. The bulge on the side of the Earth opposite the moon is caused by the moon "pulling the Earth away" from the water on that side. If you are on the coast and the moon is directly overhead, you should experience a high tide. If the moon is directly overhead on the opposite side of the planet, you should also experience a high tide.
  15. 15. There are 8 main phase of the moon (one orbit around theEarth), which takes 28 days. The moon does one rotationduring that time and that is why we only ever see the oneside of the moon.
  16. 16. A solar eclipse occurs when the moon passesbetween the Earth and the sun. During a totaleclipse the moon passes completely in front of thesun. Partial eclipses occur when the moon onlypartly blocks out the sun.
  17. 17. A lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes behind the Earth sothat the Earth blocks the Suns rays from striking the Moon. This canoccur only when the Sun, Earth, and Moon are aligned exactly, orvery closely so, with the Earth in the middle. Hence, a lunar eclipsecan only occur the night of a full moon.