A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from
natural processes of the Earth.
•Primary Effects: occur as a result of the process itself.
•Secondary Effects: occur only because a primary effect has causedthem.
•Tertiary Effects: are long-termeffects that are set off as a result of a
An avalanche (also called a snow slide or snowslip) is a rapid
flow of snow down a sloping surface.
Examples of Avalanches
1.Tyrolean Alps avalanches (Italy, 1916) -
Death Toll: 10,000
2. Winter of Terror (Austria-Switzerland, 1951) -
Series of 649 avalanches
Death Toll - 265
3. Lenin Peak (Kyrgyzstan, 1990) -
Death Toll: 43
4. Afghanistan Avalanche (Afghanistan, 2015) -
Death Toll- 310
5. Mount Everest Avalanche (Nepal, 2014 & 2015) -
Death Toll: 16 & 18
A cyclone is an area of closed, circular fluid motion rotating in the
same direction as the Earth. This is usually characterized by inward
spiraling winds that rotate counterclockwise in the Northern
Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere of the
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a
low-pressure center, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of
thunderstorms that produce heavy rain.
Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by
names such as hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical
depression, and simply cyclone.
Examples of Cyclones
1. Great Bhola Cyclone (Bangladesh, 13 Nov 1970) –
Death Toll: 300,000 - 500,000
2. Coringa Cyclone (India, 25 Nov 1839) –
Death Toll: 300,000
3. Super Typhoon Nina (China, 7 Aug 1975) –
Death Toll: 229,000
4. Haiphong Typhoon (Vietnam, 8 Oct 1881) –
Death Toll: 300,000
5. Cyclone Nargis (Myanmar, 2 May 2008)–
Death Toll: 138,366
Drought is the unusual dryness of soil, resulting in crop failure and
shortage of water and for other uses which is caused by significant
low rainfall than average over a prolonged period.
Examples of Droughts
1. The Famine (India, 1876–1877) –
Death Toll: over five million
2. North America Drought
(Southern U.S. & Mexico,2010-2013)
3. Ethiopia Drought (Ethiopia, 1983–85)
Death Toll: more than 400,000
4. Sahel Drought
(Sahel Region, Africa, 2012)
5. East Africa Drought
(Eastern African Countries, 2011)
DeathRate: 0.6-2.8 per 10,000 per day
(Japanese: "harbor wave“)
A Tsunami is a series of ocean waves (seismic sea waves) with very long
wavelengths (typically hundreds of kilometres) caused by large-scale
disturbances of the ocean.
Examples of Tsunami
1. Indian Ocean Earthquake
(26 December 2004) –
Death Toll - 230,210 people
(168,000 in Indonesia alone)
2. Sumatra Earthquake and Tsunami
(October 2010) –
Death Toll – 408
3. Papua New Guinea Earthquake (17 July 1998) –
DeathToll - 2,200 people
4. Tōhoku Earthquake and Tsunami
(Pacific coast of Japan, 11 March2011) –
DeathToll - 18,550people
5. Illapel Earthquake (Chile, September 16, 2015)
Volcanic Eruptions happen when lava and gas are
discharged froma volcanic vent.
A volcano is a mountain that opens downward to a
reservoir of molten rock below the surface of the
When pressure from gases within the molten rock
becomes too great, an eruption occurs.
Examples of Volcanic Eruption
1. Eruption of Mount Tambora
(Indonesia, 10 April 1815) –
Death Toll: 92,000
2. Eruption of Krakatoa (Indonesia, 26-27 Aug 1886) –
Death Toll: 36,000
(Papua New Guinea, December 2014
to August 2015 (ongoing) –
4. Nishi-no-shima Volcano (Japan, 2013 to 2015) –
(Hawaii, November 2013 to September 16, 2015) –
It shouldbe in the formof money, manpower & materials.
•Evaluation frompast, risk areas.
•Location of disaster prone places.
•Assured co-ordination& response mechanism.
•Organized communication, information& warning system.
•Keeping stocks of food, drugs & other essential commodities.