Causes of tsunami
Conseqences of tsunami
What to do when its tsunami
Early Warning System
A Tsunami is a series of waves in a
water body caused by the
displacement of large volume of
water , generally in a ocean or a
Tsunami is natural rapid disaster.
The term seismic sea wave is also used to refer to the phenomenon
because the waves most often are generated by seismic activity such as
Tsunamis are sometimes referred to as tidal waves. This once-popular
term derives from the most common appearance of a tsunami.
A tsunami can travel at well over 970 kph (600 mph) in the open ocean – as fast as a
jet flies. It can take only a few hours for a tsunami to travel across an entire ocean.
When they strike land, most tsunamis are less than 10 feet high, but in extreme cases, they can
exceed 100 feet near their source. A tsunami may come onshore like a fast-rising flood.
Tsunamis can have wavelengths ranging from 10 to 500 km.
Amount of time that a tsunami wave takes to complete a cycle, or one wavelength. Tsunami periods
typically range from 5-60 minutes.
The origin of Tsunami word is as a
Japanese word and made-up from
two sub words “tsu” and “nami”.
Where “tsu” is stands for Harbour
and “nami” is stands for Wave.
The first tsunami was recorded on
1480 B.C. in eastern Mediterranean
,when Minoan civilization wiped out.
Loss of life and property :-- Tsunamis can have worst effects on life and
property. This large displacement of water destroys housing and
infrastructure in the areas affected by it.
Many people lose their lives. Records say that since 1850, tsunamis
have been responsible for the loss of more than 430,000 lives.
Tsunamis cause collapsing of buildings, electrocution, gas leakage and
explosions, damaging of tanks that further cause injury and death.
Disease – Tsunami causes flood in the affected areas and destroy the basic infrastructure like the sewage
systems. Flooding and contamination caused due to the destruction of sewage systems cause outbreaks of
diseases, infections and illness thus causing more death.
Effect on environment and biodiversity – Tsunamis not only affect human beings but also cause harm to
insects, animals, plants, and natural resources. Plants are uprooted due to violent waves of a tsunami, nesting
sites are destroyed, land animals get killed by drowning and marine life is harmed by the flow of toxic
chemicals into the waterbody. Solid waste and disaster debris are other critical environmental problems faced
by a disaster-hit area.
Economical Impact – Tsunami causes contamination of soil and water. It increases the salinity of the soil. The
mixing up of disaster debris with the soil and high salinity makes the soil infertile and unfit for cultivation thus
adding to financial loss to the farmers and raising the chances of food insecurity.
Post-tsunami reconstruction :- It also requires a huge amount of financial investment. Thus, tsunami has a
huge economic cost for an economy.
North Pacific Coast
1. Sumatra, Indonesia– 26 December 2004
Reason:- 9.1 magnitude earthquake
Depth of 30 km.
Tsunami was as tall as 50 m, reaching 5 km inland near Meubolah,
US$10b of damages is attributed to the disaster
Around 230,000 people reported dead.
2. NorthPacific Coast,Japan – 11 March2011
Reason:- 9.0 magnitude earthquake
Speed:- 800km per hour
Height:-10 m high waves swept over the east coast of Japan
Killed more than 18,000 people.
The tsunami was spawned 24.4km.
$235 billion damages.
3. Lisbon, Portugal – 1 November 1755
Reason:- 8.5 magnitude earthquake caused a series of three huge waves
Height:-Up to 30 m high
Tsunami killed 60,000 in the Portugal, Morocco and Spain.
EARLY WARNING SYSTEM
There are two distinct types of early
tsunami warning systems:
Early tsunami warning systems starts
with seismic monitoring. Sensors on the
seafloor monitor for seismic activity
caused by earthquakes and volcanoes.
If any substantial seismic incident
occurs, surface buoy sensors then
monitor the changes in the sea level.