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Job Design


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Job Design

  1. 1. JOB DESIGN BY SURENDHAR.D II Yr.MBA Rai Business School Chennai
  2. 2. JOB DESIGN <ul><li>WHAT IS JOB DESIGN? </li></ul><ul><li>FACTORS AFFECTING JOB DESIGN </li></ul><ul><li>ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS </li></ul><ul><li>ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS </li></ul><ul><li>BEHAVIORAL FACTORS </li></ul><ul><li>JOB ROTATION </li></ul><ul><li>JOB ENGINEERING </li></ul><ul><li>JOB ENLARGEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>JOB ENRICHMENT </li></ul>
  3. 3. JOB DESIGN <ul><li>SOCIO-TECHNICAL SYSTEMS </li></ul><ul><li>ERGONOMICS </li></ul><ul><li>PRINCIPLE OF MOTION ECONOMY </li></ul><ul><li>THEORIES OF JOB DESIGN </li></ul><ul><li>ACTIVITY </li></ul>
  4. 4. WHAT IS JOB DESIGN? <ul><li>Job design involves systematic attempt to organize tasks, duties and responsibilities into a unit of work to achieve certain objectives. The process by which managers decide individual job tasks and authority </li></ul>
  5. 5. The factors affecting job design <ul><li>Organizational factors </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ergonomics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental factors </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral factors </li></ul>
  6. 6. Job design approaches <ul><li>Job rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Job Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Job Enlargement </li></ul><ul><li>Job Enrichment </li></ul><ul><li>Socio-technical systems </li></ul><ul><li>Ergonomics </li></ul>
  7. 7. Job rotation <ul><li>Job rotation is the method in which an employee is made to change his or her job from one to the other which requires the same skill set. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Job engineering <ul><li>It is the approach where the job engineers focus on tasks to be performed, workflows, layout of the workplace, performance standards and interdependence between man and machines. The hallmark of job engineering is specialization of the employees. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Rules for Job engineering <ul><li>End product of the work is clearly defined </li></ul><ul><li>The steps and tasks required to achieve the end result </li></ul><ul><li>Employees know where their responsibilities start and finishes. </li></ul><ul><li>Tools and information required to carry out the process were understood by the employees. </li></ul><ul><li>employees can suggest possible improvement and implement them. </li></ul><ul><li>Employees are involved in the work design process. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Job enlargement <ul><li>This approach allows the employee to add some extra tasks somewhat similar to their existing tasks. Here the employee is not rotated on job but is given additional tasks. This provides more variety in their job and makes their work more interesting. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Job enlargement <ul><li>task variety helps reduce boredom </li></ul><ul><li>Meaningful work modules which creates a sense of achievement among the worker as they feel they contribute a lot towards the project. </li></ul><ul><li>Ability utilization is felt by the employees as the contribute more physical and mental skills and abilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Worker paced control jobs allow the employee to work in their pace and not at machine pace. </li></ul><ul><li>Performance feedback is more meaningful as it is not monotonous. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Dis advantages <ul><li>Job enlargement even after having these facilities is faced with acute criticisms. The first being the implementation is expensive as the training cost for employees may rise. There can be additional training required. The most important being that if a drastic change if brought about may lead to a productivity decline. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Job enrichment <ul><li>Coined by the famous motivation theory expert Herzberg. This is a very popular approach. Here it states that a few motivational factors if included in the job the employee contributes more due to the fact that the job is enriched. </li></ul><ul><li>The Herzberg’s characters are </li></ul><ul><li>Direct feedback to the employee </li></ul><ul><li>Client relationship </li></ul><ul><li>New learning </li></ul><ul><li>Scheduling own work </li></ul><ul><li>Unique experience </li></ul><ul><li>Control over resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Direct communication authority like quality assurance manager dealing with the customer directly. </li></ul><ul><li>Personal accountability towards success and failure. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Disadvantages <ul><li>job enrichment is not a substitute for good management </li></ul><ul><li>Enriched is a relative term. The job may be challenging but it may actually be perceived as a boring one. </li></ul><ul><li>Enriching jobs create a snow ball effect. </li></ul><ul><li>Job enrichment assumes employees want more responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Job enrichment may have short run effects. </li></ul><ul><li>Job enrichment may become static </li></ul><ul><li>Participation may affect the enrichment process </li></ul><ul><li>Change is difficult to implement. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Sociotechnical Relations <ul><li>The design of the job must be in accordance to the technical tools and the social needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Ergonomic job design has two major components: </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate Exposure to Physical Risk Factors (Force, Repetition, Awkward Posture, Static Posture, Vibration, Contact Stress and Environment) </li></ul><ul><li>Change How Work Is Organized (So that the structure or set-up of the job or task promotes or protects against exposure to ergonomic risk factors) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Sociotechnical Relations <ul><li>Variety of tasks in the total job </li></ul><ul><li>Significance of task in each job to constitute a single, over all task </li></ul><ul><li>Work cycle optimization </li></ul><ul><li>Standardization of quantity and quality of production on feedback od results </li></ul><ul><li>Auxiliary/preparatory task are included in the job </li></ul>
  17. 17. Ergonomic job design <ul><li>1. Eliminating Exposure to Physical Risk Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Workstation Design </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment and Tools </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Handling and Lifting </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Ergonomic job design <ul><li>2. Changing How Work Is Organized </li></ul><ul><li>Workload, pace or speed of work, the ability to take rest breaks, the number of repetitions that must be performed, certain pay and incentive schemes, production quotas, staffing levels, hours of work, the nature of supervision and the presence of machine-paced rather than operator-controlled work are all work organization factors that can affect the development of musculoskeletal disorders. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Principle of motion economy <ul><li>Principle of motion economy as related to the use of human body </li></ul><ul><li>Principle of motion economy as related to arrangement of the place </li></ul><ul><li>Principle of motion economy as related to design of tools and equipment </li></ul>
  20. 20. Principle of motion economy as related to the use of human body <ul><li>The two hands should begin as well as complete the motions at the same time </li></ul><ul><li>The two hands should not be idle at the same time except during rest periods </li></ul><ul><li>Motions of the arms should be made in opposite and symmetrical directions and should be made simultaneously </li></ul><ul><li>Its advantage to similar work on the left and right hand sides of the work place </li></ul>
  21. 21. Principle of motion economy as related to the use of human body <ul><li>Fixation movements </li></ul><ul><li>Ballistic movement </li></ul>
  22. 22. Principles of Motion Economy as Related to the Work Place <ul><li>There should be a definite and fixed place for all tools and materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Tools, materials, and controls should be located close to the point of use. </li></ul><ul><li>Normal Working Area </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum Working Area </li></ul>
  23. 23. Principles of Motion Economy as related to the Design of Tools and Equipment <ul><li>The hands should be relieved of all work that can be done more advantageously by a jig, a fixture, or a foot-operated device. </li></ul><ul><li>Two or more tools should be combined whenever possible. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Theories of job design <ul><li>HACKMAN & OLDHAM'S FIVE DIMENSIONS OF MOTIVATING POTENTIAL: </li></ul><ul><li>Hackman and Oldham (1975) broke the job itself into five dimensions. They say that any given job can be analyzed, utilizing these five dimensions for its motivating potential. The job can then be redesigned to eliminate what is bothering the workers. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Theories of job design <ul><li>HACKMAN & OLDHAM'S FIVE DIMENSIONS OF MOTIVATING POTENTIAL: </li></ul><ul><li>Listed below are the five dimensions of motivating potential: </li></ul><ul><li>Skill variety </li></ul><ul><li>Task identity </li></ul><ul><li>Task significance </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul>
  26. 26. ANY DOUBTS
  27. 27. Activity <ul><li>Are “Happy workers productive workers”? </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss…. </li></ul>