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Job design


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Job design

  2. 2. THROUGH THE HISTORY…….  Adam Smith  pioneer to introduce division of labor and specialization.  Henry Fayol  later introduced a new set of management principles based on primacy of administration.  He laid stress on doing job in a scientific way.  Fredrick W.Taylor  introduced scientific management  he emphasized that the work design must take into consideration specialization, standardization and simplification to ensure optimum productivity.  He emphasized that the job is divided into basic components and that one of the components of job be assigned to a worker thereby achieving specialization.
  3. 3.  Peter Ducker  stated that restrictive work rules “forbid workers moving from one job to another, thus restricting them to narrow repetitive tasks.”  Elton Mayo,  proposed a behavioral approach to management that established production and managerial efficiency through understanding of human relations.  Maslow  identify the need hierarchy and formulated a motivational model based on satisfaction of human needs in a systematic manner. (This did not solve the problem and basic nature of the job remained static.)
  4. 4.  Herzberg introduced a concept of work design.  He concluded that workers were happier on their jobs based on intrinsic value of the job itself(personal growth, higher responsibility ,sense of achievement and recognition).  work motivation and higher productivity can be achieved if appropriate changes are incorporated in the job design. FREDERICK IRVING HERZBERG
  5. 5. Job enrichment  properly defined job.  given higher responsibility for the accomplishment of assigned  This would bring  sense of commitment  increased work performance,  greater satisfaction  a sense of achievement Enhanced responsibility Greater control over resources •autonomy to the employees in decision making. Workers should be permitted to manage their own time. Greater freedom in adopting methods and procedures
  6. 6. Job context Social setting differences Job content Job analysis Job design Job performance Perceived job content Job requirements Individual differences
  7. 7. Job analysis Job context Job content Job analysis Job requirements •The purpose of job analysis is to provide description of the job •The result of job analysis is a job description •A Job analysis gathers and identifies information about three aspects of all jobs: •Job content •Job requirements •Job context
  8. 8. Job Content  Refers to the activities required of the job  factors that define the general nature of a job  Functional Job Analysis (FJA) describes job content in terms of: 1. What the worker does in relation to data, people, and jobs? 2. What methods and techniques the worker uses? 3. What machines, tools, and equipment the worker uses? 4. What materials, products, subject matter, or services the worker produces?
  9. 9. Job Requirements (1 of 2)  Refer to education, experience, licenses, and other personal characteristics an individual needs to perform the job content  Position analysis questionnaire (PAQ), takes into account human characteristics as well as task and technological factors of jobs and job classes
  10. 10. The PAQ identifies and analyzes the following job aspects: 1.Information sources critical to job performance 2.Information processing and critical decision making related to job performance 3.Physical activity and dexterity related to the job 4. Interpersonal relationships required for the job 5. Reactions of individuals to working conditions
  11. 11. Job Context  Job context refers to factors such as the:  Physical demands and working conditions of the job  Degree of accountability and responsibility  Extent of supervision required or exercised  Consequences of error  Job context describes the environment within which the job is to be performed
  12. 12. Job Analysis in Different Settings Jobs in the Factory  Specialization  Motion and time study  Work simplification  Standard methods Jobs in the New Economy  Human factors  Technology  Knowledge workers  Team-based  Broadly stated job descriptions
  13. 13. Job range Job depth  Number of tasks a person is expected to perform while doing a job  The more tasks required, the greater the job range  Degree of influence or discretion that an individual possesses to choose how a job will be performed Job Designs: The Results of Job Analysis
  14. 14. Mechanism of Job Design Variety of task of similar nature Variety of tasks of different nature Few tasks of similar nature Few tasks of different nature No of Tasks Task complexity
  16. 16. JOB SIMPLIFICATION  jobs are broken down into very small parts where a fragment called “task” is repeatedly done over and over again by the same individual. •ADVANTAGES •Employee therefore is paid higher rewards. •the productivity is high. •Achieves specialization. •Training cost to the organization is practically negligible. •DISADVANTAGES • a worker is likely to get bored and remain absent frequently. •Quality and quantity may suffer in the long run due to frustration. •Organization may have to attract workers by offering higher wages
  17. 17. JOB ENLARGEMENT  Job Enlargement means where two or more simple tasks are combined and allotted to an employee  Eg: As in the case of vehicle driver, apart from driving he can undertake the job of maintenance of the vehicle.  Increases job range, but not depth  Advantage :  more variety in a job  acquiring additional proficiency.  Dissatisfaction of employees can not be avoided after a long period due to boredom.
  18. 18. JOB ENRICHMENT  The concept of job enrichment was developed by Fredrik Herzberg in the 1950s.  Job enrichment involves providing an employee with more responsibility for a job and challenges the individual‟s skills at work.  Enrichment involves increasing the decision-making authority and encouraging the employee with their tasks.
  19. 19. FEATURES OF JOB ENRICHMENT  The characteristics or features of job enrichment are:-  Nature of Job : Job enrichment is a vertical expansion of the job.  Objective : The objective of Job enrichment is to make the job more lively and challenging.  Positive Results : Job enrichment gives positive results if the workers are highly skilled.  Direction and Control : Job enrichment encourages self-discipline.
  20. 20. ADVANTAGES  The importance or merits or advantages of job enrichment are:-  Job enrichment is useful to both the workers and the organization.  The worker gets achievement, recognition and self-actualization.  The worker gets a sense of belonging to the organization.  The worker finds the job meaningful.  Job enrichment reduces absenteeism, labour-turnover and grievances.  It motivates the workers to give best performance.
  21. 21. LIMITATIONS The shortcomings or demerits or limitations of job enrichment are:-  In many cases, job enrichment does not give the expected results.  It makes many changes in the job. So many workers oppose it.  It has limited use for highly skilled managers and professionals.  The consent of workers is not taken before implementing job enrichment.  Managers force the workers to accept job enrichment, which is not good.
  22. 22. JOB ENRICHMENT OPTIONS • Give people the opportunity to use a variety of skills, and perform different kinds of work Rotate Jobs • Combine work activities to provide a more challenging and complex work assignment. Combine Tasks • Break your typical functional lines and form project-focused units. Identify Project- Focused Work Units • This is job enrichment at the group level.Create Autonomous Work Teams • Allow team members to participate in decision making and get involved in strategic planning. Implement Participative Management
  23. 23. Job Enrichment Job Enrichment Job Enrichment + Job Enlargement Routine Job Job Enlargement No. of Task Focus of Depth
  24. 24. JOB ROTATION  Job rotation refers to a technique where the employee is periodically rotated from one job to another within the work design.  It involves moving employees among different jobs over a period of time
  25. 25.  1) Meaningfulness of work: Skill variety: Using an appropriate variety of your skills and talents:  Task Identity: Being able to identify with the work at hand as more whole and complete,.  Task Significance: Being able to identify the task as contributing to something wider, to society or a group over and beyond the self. Characteristic of Job Rotation
  26. 26. 1.Variety of skills: o improve and increase the skills of the employee due to organization as well as the individual benefit. 2.Improves earning capacity: o Due to job enlargement the person learns many new activities. o such people apply for jobs to other companies and can bargain for more salary. 3.Wide range of activities: o Since a single employee handles multiple activities the company can try and reduce the number of employee‟s. Advantages of Job Rotation
  27. 27.  1. Frequent interruption: o A person who is doing a particular job and get it comfortable suddenly finds himself shifted to another job or department this interrupts the work in both the departments  2. Reduces uniformity in quality: o when a new worker I shifted or rotated in the department, he takes time to learn the new job, makes mistakes in the process and affects the quality of the job. Disadvantages of Job Rotation
  28. 28. Job design model  Hackman and Oldham (1976)1 developed the Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS) which provides  measures for some job related variables. The study provides certain guidelines and analysis  of independent variables like core job Characteristics, intervening factors based on  psychological states of people and consideration of dependant variable in terms of outcome  that provides high intrinsic value to the worker. The
  29. 29. Job design model of Hackman & Oldham
  30. 30. The Hackman and Oldham Model of Job Design  Skill variety  different job activities involving several skills and talents.  Task identity  the completion of a whole, identifiable piece of work  Task significance  an important, positive impact on the lives of others  Autonomy  independence and discretion in making decisions.  Feedback  information about job performance 13-31
  31. 31. Experienced Psychological States: (Intervening Variables)  1. Experienced Meaningfulness  It is the extent to which the individual experiences and perceives his work as meaningful ,valuable and worthwhile  2. Experience Responsibility  It is degree to which an individual feels fully responsible for the job he is doing.  3. Experience, Knowledge and Results of the Work  In this psychological experience, individual perceives as to how well he is working?.
  32. 32. MOTIVATION POTENTIAL SCORE  This formula is used to measure the propensity of each job to be motivating. It can be assessed by using the following formula.
  33. 33. Managerial Implications for Job Design  Based on core dimensions of the job and MPS score, it is necessary to redesign each job so that workers are intrinsically motivated to undertake the same Forming natural work units Combine tasks Establish client identity Expand job vertically Feedback
  34. 34.  1.Forming natural work units:  Though specialization involves division of work, yet formation of „whole‟ job is important because it gives performer an identity and association with completed work.  The job must be identifiable and individual made responsible and accountable with the job with appropriate authority.  For example :an accountant in an office should be given an independent job instead of flittering his energy on various trivial jobs.  This contributes towards the principle of task identity and task significance.
  35. 35.  2. Combine tasks:  Managers must view division of labour and specialization scientifically.  Attention must be paid to combine small jobs or part of job in a whole job so that workers performing it, feel proud of producing item and thus achieve task identity.  Workers in automobile industry for example should be assigned a job as a group so that they develop a sense of group identity and achieve skill variety.
  36. 36.  3.Establish client identity:  While producing product or creating services, worker does not have direct contact with the user of product or services. If the managers can achieve this contact, the workers will be able to get a first hand feedback from the client regarding customer choice.  He may also be able to modify product or services as per the requirement of the ultimate user and achieve autonomy and develop skill variety while producing.  This principle is very important and needs vision on the part of managers.
  37. 37.  4.Expand job vertically:  Taylor in his scientific management has suggested separation  of planning and doing a job. This has led to workers doing a particular job which  has been planned by the managers with very little or no involvement of workers.  Planning, execution and control therefore, need to be unified and gap between  doing and controlling needs to be reduced. This phenomenon is called “vertical  loading”. In typical fractionalized organizations, responsibilities and control that  formerly was reserved for higher level of management are now added to the job  itself. This increases workers autonomy in performance of job. Expansion of the job  can be achieved by workers by scheduling, work methods, quality controls,  prioritizing the work, exercising financial controls and making appropriate decisions  within the parameter of work schedule. This will provide the worker the sense of  „self worth‟ and intrinsic motivation that will lead to higher productivity.
  38. 38.  Feedback: Feedback is an important aspect of employee performance assessment.  Feedback about on-going work should be given to the worker on line as he proceeds  with the job. Negative feedback should be avoided and given in the form of suggestion  and be corrective in nature. Positive feedback is like re-enforcement which builds  up morale, positive attitude and propels individual to higher performance
  39. 39. OPTIONS FOR JOB DESIGN  1. Job Sharing  two persons sharing one full time job with sharing rewards and responsibility for its completion.  This method is suitable for working mothers, doctors, and other professionals who can gainfully utilize their available time.  2. Telecommuting  Use of computer in jobs.  Eg: Jobs having financial implications like billing, accounting, telemarketing, e-commerce, graphics, media can be done at home for global organizations.  This method is also known as flexi place.  It isolates employee from team work and personal physical supervision.  Managers need attitude change to incorporate such system in organizational setting.
  40. 40.  4. Compressed Work Week  work hours can be compressed into five or even four days a week with long hours of daily work with two or three days free at the week end.  This system gives worker more leisure and higher productivity. Five days a week is a popular concept in India. This system ensures less absenteeism, more time available for maintenance of  machines & equipment.  It suffers from a disadvantage of high fatigue and boredom due to extended work days.  5. Quality Circles  Quality circles is one of the recent concepts of group job design.  It consists of a group of 7 – 10 employees from a unit or across units who have volunteered to meet together regularly and analyse, make proposals about product quality, investigate causes and suggest corrective actions. The recommendations of quality circles are later forwarded tocoordinating or steering committee. Meetings of quality circles are held once in a week or when need arises and are chaired by supervisors or any of the group members. Leaders are encouraged for a high degree participation within the group. Group members are trained in group communication skills, product quality and proble promotes a sense of belonging, boosts employee morale, accords job security and develops„we‟ feeling among group members and enrich organizational culture. m solving techniques. This concept
  41. 41. Flexitime  This method allows workers more freedom to select work schedule within the general guidelines laid down by the organization.  Flextime stipulates that all workers must be present during the core time so that interpersonal and inter departmental activities can take place smoothly  From the above figure it will be seen that employees can choose timings of work which are convenient to them.  Flexitime method is beneficial to both as individual has freedom to select own time of work and the organization can attract talented workers.
  42. 42. Quality of worklife  Quality of work life refers to high level of satisfaction an employee enjoys by virtue of job design.  Quality of work life is measured by factors  job involvement,  job satisfaction,  competence,  job performance  productivity
  43. 43. JOB SATISFACTION  Job satisfaction indicates the positive and affective responses of employees to their job environment.  More specifically, job satisfaction indicates employees satisfaction with  1. Nature of work they do.  2. Quality of supervision they receive.  3. Co-workers.  4. Pay and  5. Promotional opportunities. Job satisfaction is correlated to job characteristics (skill, variety, autonomy etc) and to job involvement
  45. 45.  Competence involves knowledge, skill and ability. When an individual attains competence he is more involved in his job because he is intrinsically motivated. By greater involvement the individual achieves higher degree of competence. Hence greater the involvement greater is competence. Thus competence and involvement re-enforces each other.
  46. 46. Achieving Fairness  Equity theory  A theory stating that people assess how fairly they have been treated according to two key factors: outcomes and inputs. 13-47
  47. 47. Equity Theory  Outcomes  refer to the various things the person receives on the job: recognition, pay, benefits, satisfaction, security, job assignments, and punishments  Inputs  refer to the contributions the person makes to the organization: effort, time, talent, performance, extra commitment, and good citizenship 13-48
  48. 48. Procedural Justice  Procedural justice  Using fair process in decision making and making sure others know that the process was as fair as possible. 13-49
  49. 49. Quality of Work Life  Quality of work life (QWL) programs  Programs designed to create a workplace that enhances employee well-being. 13-50
  50. 50. QWL Programs 1. Adequate and fair compensation 2. A safe and healthy environment 3. Jobs that develop human capacities 4. A chance for personal growth and security 5. A social environment that fosters personal identity, freedom from prejudice, a sense of community, and upward mobility 6. Constitutionalism, or the rights of personal privacy, dissent, and due process 7. A work role that minimized infringement on personal leisure and family needs 8. Socially responsible organizational actions 13-51
  51. 51. Psychological Contracts  Psychological contract  A set of perceptions of what employees owe their employers, and what their employers owe them. 13-52
  52. 52. Allstate Employability Contract 13-53 Table 13.2
  53. 53. Destination CEO: Nordstrom  Cite examples of how Nordstrom provides job satisfaction to its employees.  Have you ever felt empowered, only to discover that you had no influence on a decision? 13-54