What is Leadership?
Studied scientifically since 1930’s
Three basic categories
Effective leadership theories
Six Core Characteristics
What is Leadership?
The business related website BNET.com offers a
great definition of leadership. . .
One of the greatest contributions of psychology
Existed in ancient times; scientific studies began
in the 1930’s
Kurt Lewin’s three basic
categories of leadership
The Authoritarian Leader
Clear expectations of what needs to be done,
when, and how to do it
Clear division between leader and followers
Leader makes decisions independently without
input from rest of group
Best applied to situations where there is little
time to make the decisions or where the leader is
The Participative Leader
Generally accepted as the most effective style
Leader offers guidance but allows for input from
Participation is encouraged but leader still has
Group members are more engaged and more
motivated and creative
Dwight D. Eisenhower
The Delegative Leader
Offers little or no guidance
Leave decisions up to group members
Can be effective in situations where group
members are expert, but
Often leads to poorly defined roles and lack of
Leader is still responsible for results
Theories of what makes a
Some people are natural leaders and are endowed
with certain traits not possessed by other individuals.
This research compared successful and
unsuccessful leaders to see how they differed in
physical characteristics, personality, and ability.
Traits that appear regularly in leaders
• Ambition, energy, the desire to lead, self-confidence,
• Although certain traits are helpful, these attributes
provide no guarantees that a person possessing them
is an effective leader.
Good leaders set goals, priorities, and standards
Good leaders aren't afraid to surround themselves
with talented, capable people
Good leaders have personal integrity and inspire
trust among their followers
Peter Drucker offers a pragmatic approach to
leadership in the workplace.
He believes that consistency is the key to good
Good leaders have personal integrity and inspire trust
among their followers; their actions are consistent
with what they say.
Keep in mind that no list of leadership traits and skills
is definitive because no two successful
leaders are alike.
What is important is that leaders exhibit some positive
characteristics that make them effective managers at
any level in an organization.
Characteristics of a leader
Six core characteristics that the majority of
effective leaders possess
Leaders are ambitious and take initiative.
Leaders want to lead and are willing to take charge.
Honesty and integrity
Leaders are truthful and do what they say they will do.
Characteristics of a leader
Leaders are assertive and decisive and enjoy taking risks.
They admit mistakes and foster trust and commitment to
Leaders are emotionally stable rather than recklessly
Leaders are intelligent, perceptive, and conceptually
skilled, but are not necessarily geniuses. They show
analytical ability, good judgment, and the capacity to think
Leaders tend to have technical expertise in their
The world's most effective
Think about the most powerful, influential, positive
influence in your life. It doesn't take long, does it?
Usually it's a mother, father, teacher, coach, priest, or
spouse. Now I'll bet they had these qualities:
1. They cared about you
2. They believed in you.
3. They are fair
4. They expect excellence.
ALL GREAT LEADERS HAVE HIGH EXPECTATIONS.
Rewarding performers not only on their financial
results, but various other factors as well.
Top management meet often to discuss methods to
improve their business performance.
Meetings and surveys are conducted at regular
intervals to include employees in decision-making
for company strategy and policies
Understand that recognition by peers is an important
The best leaders show recognition to their performing
employees through different methods
Putting their names on the company’s intranet newsletters
Commending in the presence of people respected by the
Giving small gifts.
Putting in place a system that allows employees to work on
improvement besides providing them the needed resources.
The art of listening
General rules to follow
Accept speakers point of view
Use eye contact and body language
Identify non-verbal communication
Delivery of a message
Be clear and concise
Enlist an open-door policy
Negative feedback can promote positive growth
Refrain from any form of favoritism
Perceptions are reality
Perceptions are based on many things
Communication, body language, clothing, hair style,
Things are not always as they seem
Having empathy at some level is important in order to
understand their perceptions of things.
Did you form an impression of me prior to this meeting?
Has that changed?
Can it change?
Purpose & Goal
“The goal of training should be to provide the supervisor
with the proper understanding and tools so that he (she)
can motivate his (her) employees to do their best for the
People generally want to do well in their job, it is the
motivation that is often times lacking.
The goal is to show people that you appreciate them and
the work they do.
Through effective interpersonal communication training, it
is possible to obtain the results that make everyone
happy. Creating a win-win situation.
Research has found . . .
“In a recent poll conducted by SHRM and USA
Today of both HR professionals and employees, the
importance of communication between employees
and management was ranked as either very
important or important by 98% of all HR
professionals. Participating employees mirrored this
ranking closely at 96%”
The importance of being a leader
How it affects others
Understanding your Leadership style and utilizing your
natural abilities in situations
Understanding and developing skills from other styles
Best Practices of an effective leader