Organization Behavior - Leadership


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Organization Behavior - Leadership

  1. 1. Leadership   ASSIGNMENT 7 Leadership Organization Behavior Dr. D. Gopala Krishna TITLE: A Study on Pragmatic Approaches and Quality Initiatives for Enhancing Teachers’ Caliber in Post Graduate Institutes offering MBA Programme under Bangalore University Under the Guidance of Dr. T.V. Raju Director, RV Institute of Management, Bangalore CANARA BANK SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES BANGALORE UNIVERSITY SUBMITTED BY Shivananda R Koteshwar PhD Research Scholar, 2013, REG# 350051   Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University  
  2. 2. Leadership   1. Define Leadership Leadership is the process of encouraging and helping others to work enthusiastically towards objectives. Leadership is the ability to influence a group towards achievement of goals. For example, some understand a leader simply as somebody whom people follow, or as somebody who guides or directs others, while others define leadership as "organizing a group of people to achieve a common goal". 2. What are the qualities of an effective leader? Below are some key qualities that every good leader should possess, and learn to emphasize. • • • • • • • Honesty: Whatever ethical plane you hold yourself to, when you are responsible for a team of people, it’s important to raise the bar even higher. Your business and its employees are a reflection of yourself, and if you make honest and ethical behavior a key value, your team will follow suit Ability to Delegate: Finessing your brand vision is essential to creating an organized and efficient business, but if you don’t learn to trust your team with that vision, you might never progress to the next stage.   Delegating tasks to the appropriate departments is one of the most important skills you can develop as your business grows Communication: Being able to clearly and succinctly describe what you want done is extremely important. If you can’t relate your vision to your team, you won’t all be working towards the same goal. Sense of Humor: guiding your team through the process without panicking is as challenging as it is important. Morale is linked to productivity, and it’s your job as the team leader to instill a positive energy. That’s where your sense of humor will finally pay off Confidence: art of your job as a leader is to put out fires and maintain the team morale. Keep up your confidence level, and assure everyone that setbacks are natural and the important thing is to focus on the larger goal. As the leader, by staying calm and confident, you will help keep the team feeling the same. Commitment: If you expect your team to work hard and produce quality content, you’re going to need to lead by example. There is no greater motivation than seeing the boss down in the trenches working alongside everyone else, showing that hard work is being done on every level. By proving your commitment to the brand and your role, you will not only earn the respect of your team, but will also instill that same hardworking energy among your staff Positive Attitude: You want to keep your team motivated towards the continued success of the company, and keep the energy levels up. Whether that means providing snacks, coffee, relationship advice, or even just an occasional beer in the office, remember that everyone on your team is a person. Keep the office mood a fine balance between productivity and playfulness   Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University  
  3. 3. Leadership   • • • Creativity: As a leader, it’s important to learn to think outside the box and to choose which of two bad choices the best option. Don’t immediately choose the first or easiest possibility; sometimes its best to give these issues some thought, and even turn to your team for guidance Intuition: Everything is uncertain, and the higher the risk, the higher the pressure. That is where your natural intuition has to kick in. Guiding your team through the process of your day-to-day tasks can be honed down to a science.   Drawing on past experience is a good reflex, as is reaching out to your mentors for support. Eventually though, the tough decisions will be up to you to decide and you will need to depend on your gut instinct for answers. Ability to Inspire: Creating a business often involves a bit of forecasting. Especially in the beginning stages of a startup, inspiring your team to see the vision of the successes to come is vital. Make your team feel invested in the accomplishments of the company. 3. Explain Ohio state and Michigan state leadership theories • Ohio State Leadership Studies: The Ohio State Leadership Studies which began in the 1940s and focused on how leaders could satisfy common group needs. The findings indicated that the two most important dimensions in leadership included: "initiating structure", and "consideration". These characteristics could be either high or low and were independent of one another. The research was based on questionnaires to leaders and subordinates. These questionnaires are known as the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ) and the Supervisor Behavior Description Questionnaire (SBDQ). o Initiating here refers to rule mindedness and consideration refers to human mindedness   Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University  
  4. 4. Leadership   • Michigan Leadership Studies: The Michigan Leadership Studies, which began in the 1950s and indicated that leaders could be classified as either "employee centered," or "job centered." These studies identified three critical characteristics of effective leaders: task oriented behavior, relationship-oriented behavior, and participative leadership 4. Explain managerial grid with a diagram In response to the early criticisms of the trait approach, theorists began to research leadership as a set of behaviors, evaluating the behavior of successful leaders, determining a behavior taxonomy, and identifying broad leadership styles. Blake & Mouton Managerial Grid (1964)-updated in 1991 to the Blake & McCanse Leadership Grid developed the orientation of "task orientation" and "people orientation" in leader behavior. They developed the leadership grid which focused on concern for results (on the one axis) and concern for people (on the other axis). The grid relates to the Ohio and Michigan studies and the work of Likert in this area in that it compares behavioural styles across two dimensions: • • Concern for People Concern for Production   Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University  
  5. 5. Leadership   The result of the 'grids' is five basic leadership styles which represent different combinations and emphasis of the two dimensions. In the 1991 version of the Leadership Grid ® two more styles were added giving 7 in total: • • • • • • • the Impoverished management style the Authority-compliance management style the Country-club management style the Middle-of-the-road management style the Team management style the Opportunistic management style the Paternalistic management style The grid takes the discussion away from either this way or that way leadership, to one where approaches to people and production are combined. findings showed leaders had one dominant leadership style and one back up leadership style but can move across the other styles dependent on the situation. 5. Discuss leaders are born or made Ask experts what the most asked question about leadership is, and they’ll usually answer "are they made or born?" There are dozens of books, decade’s worth of debates and many well-documented studies on the subject of leadership. Nevertheless, the debate rages on. Perception is everything, even if perception and reality are often at odds. Some perceive leadership to be about nature, others ascribe to the nurture theory. I find it to be a bit of both, with emphasis on nurture. Some people seem to have been born with an “extra something,” a trait of tenacity and take-over-ship that makes them “natural born leaders.” But, as with people like Winston Churchill or Franklin Roosevelt, those who exhibit leadership traits early on — even when born into a privileged lifestyle — don’t become leaders by accident. They’re made into leaders, or they make themselves into one. A survey by The Center for Creative Leadership (CCL) put the question of nature versus nurture (born or made) to C-level executives of companies in 53 countries. In order to better explore how these beliefs affect the workplace, the researchers put a variety of leadership questions to those at both ends of the spectrum (borns and mades). The CCL results were illuminating, including: • • Borns and mades agree leaders should be participative, team oriented, charismatic and humane Borns are more likely than mades to believe that following protocol and behaving in traditional ways according to status and position make leaders more effective, and that leaders need to act in strict accordance with established practices, guidelines, and conventions to be successful   Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University  
  6. 6. Leadership   • • • Slightly more than half (53.4 percent) of the top executives think leaders are made Approximately one fifth (19.1 percent) think they are born Just over a quarter (28.5 percent) think leaders are both born and made. Clearly a consensus on this issue has yet to be reached. I think it’s clear that each group believes that learning from experience plays a big part in leadership development. But while borns are likely to think that organizations should be selective in who gains access to opportunities, researchers suggests that allowing all employees access to developmental experiences, coaching, mentoring, training and other leadership experiences can improve the natural abilities of borns or help mades develop new skills.   Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University