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Walking and cycling in accessibility research

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IMPROn järjestämässä Paikkatieto sote-uudistuksen tukena seminaarissa 8.10.2019 Helsingin yliopiston Digital Geography Labin tohtorikoulutettava Elias Willberg esitteli matka-aikojen optimointia. Tutkimuksessaan hän keskittyy palveluiden saavutettavuuteen pyöräilyn ja kävelyn näkökulmasta.

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Walking and cycling in accessibility research

  1. 1. WALKING AND CYCLING IN ACCESSIBILITY RESEARCH ELIAS WILLBERG PHD CANDIDATE DIGITAL GEOGRAPHY LAB / HY @EliasW_ @digigeolab
  2. 2. DIGITAL GEOGRAPHY LAB Department of Geosciences and Geography University of Helsinki Elias Willberg 2.10.2019 DIGITAL GEOGRAPHY LAB
  3. 3. ELIAS WILLBERG PHD CANDIDATE DIGITAL GEOGRAPHY LAB / HY @EliasW_ @digigeolab OUR DAILY MOBILITY CHOICES HAVE AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN OUR HEALTH
  4. 4. ROLE OF ACTIVE TRAVEL IS GROWING IN CITIES HS 22.6.2015 Aims of transportation planning in Helsinki (2018) Yle 7.4.2019 Guardian 7.2.2016 ELIAS WILLBERG PHD CANDIDATE DIGITAL GEOGRAPHY LAB / HY @EliasW_ @digigeolab
  5. 5. TRADITIONAL APPROACH IN ACCESSIBILITY RESEARCH  Often either or both are neglected altogether  Focus mostly on travel time only  When applied, cycling is seen as speeded walking  Constant speed assumed for both e.g. 5km/h e.g. 18km/h ELIAS WILLBERG PHD CANDIDATE DIGITAL GEOGRAPHY LAB / HY @EliasW_ @digigeolab
  6. 6. BIG DATA CAN PROVIDE OPPORTUNITIES FOR NEW APPROACHES Pyöräilyn reitit ja sujuvuus (2017) https://www.hel.fi/static/liitteet/kaupunkiymparisto/jul kaisut/julkaisut/julkaisu-16-17.pdf ELIAS WILLBERG PHD CANDIDATE DIGITAL GEOGRAPHY LAB / HY @EliasW_ @digigeolab
  7. 7. IN TRAVEL TIME MATRIX 2018 Cycling was added as a new travel mode 1. Travel speeds by road segment derived from Strava data 2. Constant speeds (12kmh & 19km/h) calibrated with segment- level information 3. Separate network used for cycling and walking 4. Time for taking and leaving the bike added to the travel time Travel time matrix for the Helsinki region available here: https://blogs.helsinki.fi/saavutettavuus/paakaupunkiseudun-matka-aikamatriisi/ ELIAS WILLBERG PHD CANDIDATE DIGITAL GEOGRAPHY LAB / HY @EliasW_ @digigeolab
  8. 8. BUT, EVEN IF SPEEDS VARY AT SEGMENT-LEVEL, AT AREA-LEVEL DIFFERENCES EVEN OUT (EXCEPT THE CITY CENTER) Tarnanen (2017) ELIAS WILLBERG PHD CANDIDATE DIGITAL GEOGRAPHY LAB / HY @EliasW_ @digigeolab
  9. 9. WHO ARE WE STUDYING? ELIAS WILLBERG PHD CANDIDATE DIGITAL GEOGRAPHY LAB / HY @EliasW_ @digigeolab https://unsplash.com/photos/DMlGp-eYP-o https://www.flickr.com/photos/12344526@N00/49068808
  10. 10. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND PREFERENCES ARE CRUCIAL TO ACKNOWLEDGE… ELIAS WILLBERG PHD CANDIDATE DIGITAL GEOGRAPHY LAB / HY @EliasW_ @digigeolab https://unsplash.com/photos/jyd1S0QLpfE https://bit.ly/35dD6vM
  11. 11. 19KM/H 12KM/H …BECAUSE THE CONCLUSION CAN DEPEND ON IT CYCLING VS PUBLIC TRANSPORT TO HELSINKI RAILWAY STATION ELIAS WILLBERG PHD CANDIDATE DIGITAL GEOGRAPHY LAB / HY @EliasW_ @digigeolab
  12. 12. …ALSO BY WALKING Walking speed = 4 KM/H Walking speed = 7 KM/H ELIAS WILLBERG PHD CANDIDATE DIGITAL GEOGRAPHY LAB / HY @EliasW_ @digigeolab
  13. 13. AFTER ALL, A CONSTANT SPEED MIGHT BE A SUFFICIENT TO USE FOR TRAVEL TIME AS LONG AS INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES ARE TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT… ELIAS WILLBERG PHD CANDIDATE DIGITAL GEOGRAPHY LAB / HY @EliasW_ @digigeolab
  14. 14. …BUT IS IT MEANINGUL TO ONLY LOOK AT TRAVEL TIME WITH CYCLING AND WALKING? WHAT ABOUT OTHER MEASURES? ELIAS WILLBERG PHD CANDIDATE DIGITAL GEOGRAPHY LAB / HY @EliasW_ @digigeolab
  15. 15. HEALTH BENEFITS? ELIAS WILLBERG PHD CANDIDATE DIGITAL GEOGRAPHY LAB / HY @EliasW_ @digigeolab https://unsplash.com/photos/NrlHjNUqqgM
  16. 16. BENEFICIAL EXPOSURE FROM CYCLING AND WALKING POSITIVE EXPOSURE? ELIAS WILLBERG PHD CANDIDATE DIGITAL GEOGRAPHY LAB / HY @EliasW_ @digigeolab
  17. 17. ELIAS WILLBERG PHD CANDIDATE DIGITAL GEOGRAPHY LAB / HY @EliasW_ @digigeolab Physical activity – OD analysis of commuting trips
  18. 18. Exposure - Green exposure of commuting trips Toikka (2019) ELIAS WILLBERG PHD CANDIDATE DIGITAL GEOGRAPHY LAB / HY @EliasW_ @digigeolab
  19. 19. CONCLUSION • Novel approaches and big data allow fine-scale modelling of active travel modes in accessibility research. • Yet the improvement to traditional constant speed approach might not be very large at area-level. • More important is to account individual differences. Travel times can vary significantly depending on who we assume to represent general cyclist. • Travel time is not the only meaningful measure. Walking and cycling can provide mental and physical health benefits that are important to consider. • Novel data sources can also provide opportunities to study these measures. ELIAS WILLBERG PHD CANDIDATE DIGITAL GEOGRAPHY LAB / HY @EliasW_ @digigeolab
  20. 20. THANK YOU! helsinki.fi/digital-geography ELIAS WILLBERG PHD CANDIDATE DIGITAL GEOGRAPHY LAB / HY @EliasW_ @digigeolab
  21. 21. REFERENCES Tarnanen, A. (2017) Pyöräilyn nopeuksien ja matka-aikojen paikkatietopohjainen mallinnus pääkaupunkiseudulla. Master’s thesis. University of Helsinki. Available at: https://helda.helsinki.fi/handle/10138/228530. Tarnanen, A., Salonen, M., Willberg, E. and Toivonen, T. (2017) Pyöräilyn reitit ja sujuvuus. Helsingin kaupunki, kaupunkiympäristön toimiala. Toikka, A. (2019) Helsingin vihernäkymien kartoitus Googlen katunäkymäkuvista. University of Helsinki. Available at: https://helda.helsinki.fi/handle/10138/302224. Toivonen, T., M. Salonen, H. Tenkanen, P. Saarsalmi, T. Jaakkola & J. Järvi (2014). Helsinki Region Travel Time Matrix 2014. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.2159.3683 ELIAS WILLBERG PHD CANDIDATE DIGITAL GEOGRAPHY LAB / HY @EliasW_ @digigeolab

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