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Joshua lederberg ppt

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Joshua Lederberg - encyclopedist of the XX century

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Joshua lederberg ppt

  1. 1. Joshua Lederberg (May 23, 1925 – February 2, 2008) – энциклопедист нашего времени или как стать Нобелевским лауреатом Доклад на заседании Санкт-Петербургского отделения Общества медицинских генетиков 11 января (четверг) 2007 г.медицинских генетиков 11 января (четверг) 2007 г. Никита Николаевич Хромов-Борисов Nikita.KhromovBorisov@gmail.com Тел.: +7 (812) 234-1840 – дом., 8-952-204-89-49 – моб.
  2. 2. The Joshua Lederberg Papers • http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/BB/ • Biographical Information • The Development of Bacterial Genetics • Transduction, Plasmids, and the Foundation of Biotechnologyof Biotechnology • Launching a New Science: Exobiology and the Exploration of Space • Computers, Artificial Intelligence, and Expert Systems in Biomedical Research • Science and the Public Interest
  3. 3. Место рождения и родители • Joshua Lederberg born 23 May, 1925 in Montclair, New Jersey • Mother: • Esther Goldenbaum Schulman• Esther Goldenbaum Schulman Lederberg, a homemaker. • Father: • Zvi Hirsch Lederberg, a rabbi. • He had two younger brothers.
  4. 4. Montclair, New Jersey, 1924
  5. 5. Montclair, New Jersey, 1925
  6. 6. Montclair, New Jersey, 1933
  7. 7. Zvi and Esther Lederberg at their wedding, 1924.
  8. 8. Joshua Lederberg (age 4) and his mother, Esther. 1928.
  9. 9. Joshua Lederberg, "What I would like to Be" essay, 1932. Original in the possession of Joshua Lederberg.
  10. 10. Круг чтения • Meyer Bodansky's Introduction to Physiological Chemistry (1934) was his most prized Bar-Mitzvah present, the Washington Heights branch of the New York Public Library his sanctuary during adolescent years in which, by his own admission, he was lonely for "intellectual sparring partners." • There he read hundreds of works in the sciences,• There he read hundreds of works in the sciences, mathematics, history, philosophy, and fiction, among them Paul de Kruif's The Microbe Hunters (1926), a book that portrayed the work of early bacteriologists like Pasteur and Koch as a heroic quest for human betterment. • As Lederberg remembers, the book "turned my entire generation toward a career in medical research."
  11. 11. Meyer Bodansky (1896-1941), biochemist and pathologist • BODANSKY, MEYER, medical scientist, was born at Elizabetgrad, Russia (Елизаветград, Елиcаветград, Зиновьевск, Кирово, Кировоград - Украина),Кировоград - Украина), on August 30, 1896, one of seven children of Phineas and Eva Bodansky. • He immigrated to the United States with his family in 1907
  12. 12. Bar Mitzvah • According to Jewish law, when Jewish children reach the age of maturity (12 years for girls, 13 years for boys) they become responsible for their actions. • At this point a boy is said to become Bar Mitzvah (Hebrew: ‫מצוה‬ ‫,בר‬ "one (m.) to whom the commandments apply"); a girl is said to become Bat Mitzvah (‫מצוה‬ ‫,בת‬ "one (f.) to whom theMitzvah (‫מצוה‬ ‫,בת‬ "one (f.) to whom the commandments apply"). • Before this age, all the child's responsibility to follow Jewish law and tradition lies with the parents. • After this age, the children are privileged to participate in all areas of Jewish community life and bear their own responsibility for Jewish ritual law, tradition, and ethics.
  13. 13. Paul Henry De Kruif March 2, 1890 - February 28, 1971 • American microbiologist and author. • Co-author of Arrowsmith, author of Microbe Hunters. • He flirted with communism in the 1930s and 1940s; • he became an advisor to President Roosevelt’s March of Dimes campaignRoosevelt’s March of Dimes campaign against polio; • he helped develop a medieval looking "fever machine" to treat syphilis (which at the time was being treated by an even more macabre kind of fever, one generated by deliberately infecting the patient with malaria); • His style of writing has been described as "jazz style." • "America's first great science writer."
  14. 14. Среднее образование, 1938-1940 • Lederberg graduated from • Stuyvesant High School in New York City at the age of 15 in 1940. • After graduation, he was allowed lab• After graduation, he was allowed lab space as part of the American Institute Science Laboratory, a forerunner of the Westinghouse Science Talent Search.
  15. 15. Stuyvesant High School • Stuyvesant High School, commonly known as Stuy, is a New York City public high school that specializes in mathematics and science. • The school opened in 1904 on Manhattan's East Side and moved to a new building inEast Side and moved to a new building in Battery Park City in 1992. • The school is noted for its strong academic programs and for having produced many notable alumni (including four Nobel laureates). • A large percentage of its graduates go on to attend prestigious universities.
  16. 16. Stuyvesant High School
  17. 17. Stuyvesant High School • Together with Brooklyn Technical High School and Bronx High School of Science, Stuyvesant is one of the three original Specialized High Schools of New York City. • These schools are operated by the New York City Department of Education and are open, with no tuition fee, to all – and only – residents of New York City. • Admission is by competitive examination only. • There has been a long-standing friendly rivalry between Stuyvesant and Bronx Science over the Intel Science Talent Search, with eitherand Bronx Science over the Intel Science Talent Search, with either school claiming dominance over the other at various times. • The school was boys-only for 65 years. • It became coeducational in 1969, and upon the construction of its Battery Park City building, the facilities for girls became on par with those for boys. • Classes were in session at Stuyvesant when the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack destroyed the nearby World Trade Center towers, and the school building served as a command post for several weeks afterwards. • The school was temporarily relocated and shared facilities with Brooklyn Tech until it could return to its own building.
  18. 18. • Lederberg used this microscope while a student at Stuyvesant High School in ManhattanSchool in Manhattan between 1938 and 1941.
  19. 19. Среди выпускников Stuyvesant 4 Нобелевских лауреата Joshua Lederberg (Class of 1941) - 1958 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine • Robert Fogel (Class of 1944) - 1993 Nobel Memorial Prize in economicsNobel Memorial Prize in economics • Roald Hoffmann (Class of 1954) - 1981 Nobel Prize in Chemistry • Richard Axel (Class of 1963) - 2004 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  20. 20. Абрам Федорович Иоффе (29.10.1880-14.10.1960) • наст. имя Аврахам Файвиш- Израилевич • Он создал едва ли не самую крупную физическую школу XX века, • сравнимую со школами Э. Резерфорда в Кембридже и М. Борна в Геттингене.Борна в Геттингене. • Среди его учеников и соратников Нобелевские лауреаты П. Л. Капица, Н. Н. Семенов, Л. Д. Ландау, И. Е. Тамм, • Академики, Герои Соцтруда. • Сейчас в Физтехе им. А.Ф. Иоффе его научные «внуки» и «правнуки», • а его идеи в области образования воплощаются ныне в подготовке исследователей-физиков прямо со школьной скамьи на базе Научно- образовательного центра института.
  21. 21. Борис Михайлович Кустодиев (23 февраля [7 марта] 1878 — 26 мая 1927)
  22. 22. После школы • After graduation from Stuyvesant at age fifteen, Joshua continued his experiments at the American Institute Science Laboratory, • an offspring of the 1939 New York World's Fair and a forerunner of theWorld's Fair and a forerunner of the Westinghouse Science Talent Search, • which provided selected high school students (including fellow future Nobel laureate Baruch Blumberg) laboratory space and equipment.
  23. 23. George Westinghouse • In 1886 • Westinghouse • formed the "Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing& Manufacturing Company", • which was renamed the • "Westinghouse Electric Corporation" • in 1889.
  24. 24. George Westinghouse, Jr. • (October 6, 1846 – March 12, 1914) was an American entrepreneur and engineer now best known for the brand of electrical goods that bear his name. • Friend to Nikola Tesla and one of Thomas Edison's main rivals in the early implementation of the American electricity Edison's main rivals in the early implementation of the American electricity system, he was also active in the railroad and telephone industries. • In 1911, he received the AIEE's Edison Medal 'For meritorious achievement in connection with the development of the alternating current system for light and power.'
  25. 25. Никола Тесла - Nikola Tesla ( 09.07.1856 - 07.01.1943) • Многие считают его величайшим изобретателем в истории, незаслуженно редко упоминаемым в учебниках физики. • Он открыл переменный ток, флюоресцентный свет, беспроводную передачу энергии, впервые разработал принципы дистанционного управления, основы лечения токами высокойуправления, основы лечения токами высокой частоты, построил первые электрические часы, двигатель на солнечной энергии и многое другое, получив на свои изобретения 300 патентов в разных странах. • Он изобрёл радио раньше Маркони и Попова, получил трёхфазный ток раньше Доливо- Добровольского. • Вся современная электроэнергетика была бы невозможна без его открытий.
  26. 26. Nikola Tesla • Друживший с ним Марк Твен • называл Николу "повелителем молний",молний", • а великий Резерфорд • нарёк его "вдохновенным пророком электричества".
  27. 27. Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 – October 18, 1931) • "Genius is one percent inspiration, ninety-nine percent perspiration." - Thomas EdisonThomas Edison
  28. 28. The Intel Science Talent Search (Intel STS) • The Intel Science Talent Search (Intel STS) is a prestigious research-based science competition in the United States primarily for high school students. • The Intel STS is administered by the Science Service, which began the competition in 1942 withService, which began the competition in 1942 with Westinghouse; for many years, the competition was known as the "Westinghouse Science Talent Search." • In 1998, Intel became the sponsor of the "Westinghouse Competition." • Over the years, over $3.8 million in scholarships have been awarded through the program.
  29. 29. Science Service • Edward W. Scripps, a renowned journalist, and William Emerson Ritter, a California zoologist, founded the Science Service in 1921 with the goal ofScience Service in 1921 with the goal of keeping the public informed of scientific achievements. • Scripps funded the project and Ritter served as the first scientific director.
  30. 30. Science Service • Science Service is a non-profit organization for the promotion of science. • Because they often persuade students to research biology, bioethics is a significant concern for Science Service. • Their extensive set of guidelines for the use of laboratory animalsfor the use of laboratory animals has become standard protocol for most student research. • Science Service publishes Science News and sponsors events including the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair, the Intel Science Talent Search, and the Discovery Channel Young Scientist Challenge.
  31. 31. Выпускники Intel Science Talent Search (Intel STS) • 6 finalists have won the Nobel Prize. • 2 have earned the Fields Medal, the Nobel equivalent in math. • 3 have been awarded National Medals of Science. • 10 have won MacArthur Foundation Fellowships, the• 10 have won MacArthur Foundation Fellowships, the so-called "genius awards." • 56 have been named Sloan Research Fellows. • 30 have been elected to the National Academy of Sciences. • 5 have been elected to the National Academy of Engineering.
  32. 32. The 40 Finalists of the 2006 Intel STS met with President Bush during STI week in Washington, DC
  33. 33. American Institute Science Laboratory • In facilities located in the shadow of the Empire State Building Lederberg learned • to prepare and stain tissue samples by using formaldehyde, dyes, and other chemicals, • techniques required to preserve and make visible the details of cell structure for study under the microscope.microscope. • During these experiments he became interested in the cytochemistry of the nucleolus in plant cells, part of the cell nucleus rich in ribosomal nucleic acid. • This was Lederberg's first foray into the study of the nucleic acids.
  34. 34. Joshua Lederberg at the Microtome at the American Institute, 1941.
  35. 35. Joshua Lederberg lecturing at the Biology Symposium, American Institute. 13 August 1941.
  36. 36. Университет, 1941-44 • Lederberg took advantage of a $400 scholarship to enroll as a zoology major at Columbia University in the fall of 1941, where he met his most important mentor, the biochemist Francis J. Ryan. • Ryan, a gifted teacher, encouraged Lederberg in his self-described "passion to learn how to bring the power of chemical analysis to the secrets of life," and introduced him to the red bread mold, Neurospora, as an important new experimental system in the emerging field of biochemicalsystem in the emerging field of biochemical genetics. • Ryan also instilled discipline in his precocious student, a trait much needed, as Ryan's widow remembered: • "You could tell that Joshua was in the lab because you could hear the tinkle of breaking glass. • He was so young, bursting with potential over which he had no control. • His mind was far ahead of his hands."
  37. 37. Columbia University V-12 USNR units. 1944.
  38. 38. Francis J. Ryan at work at Columbia University. 1950
  39. 39. Francis J. Ryan with a dogfish. 1950.
  40. 40. Военная обязанность, 1943-45 • Lederberg's career goal was to bring advances in basic science to medical problems such as cancer and neurological malfunction. • In pursuit of a medical degree, and to discharge his military service obligation at the same time, Lederberg in 1943 enrolled in the United States Navy's V-12 training program. • He performed his military training duties as a hospital• He performed his military training duties as a hospital corpsman in the clinical pathology laboratory at St. Albans Naval Hospital on Long Island, where he examined stool and blood specimen of servicemen recently returned from the Guadalcanal campaign for the parasites that cause malaria. • His first-hand experience with parasites at St. Albans helped shape his later thinking about the life cycle of bacteria.
  41. 41. Guadalcanal campaign, the Battle of Guadalcanal • It was fought between August 7, 1942 and February 9, 1943 in the Pacific theatre of World War II. • This campaign, fought• This campaign, fought on the ground, at sea, and in the air, pitted Allied forces against Imperial Japanese forces, and was a decisive campaign of World War II.
  42. 42. Joshua Lederberg in U.S. Naval Reserve uniform. October 1943
  43. 43. Университет, 1944-1947 • After receiving his bachelor's degree in zoology in 1944, Lederberg began his medical training at Columbia University's College of Physicians and Surgeons. • Although research was not encouraged among first-year medical students, he continued to do experiments under Ryan's supervision. • Columbia's zoology department had been "ignited," said• Columbia's zoology department had been "ignited," said Lederberg, by news of Oswald Avery's discovery that deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was the genetic material, in Pneumococcus bacteria. • Inspired by Avery, Lederberg decided to investigate further the genetics of bacteria, and specifically to challenge the common but unproven assumption that bacteria were "schizomycetes," primitive organisms that reproduced by cell division and thus produced offspring that were genetically indistinguishable from one another.
  44. 44. Frederick Griffith (1879 - 1941) • British medical officer in the British Ministry of Health. • In 1928, in what is today known as Griffith's experiment, he discovered aGriffith's experiment, he discovered a transforming principle, which is today known as DNA.
  45. 45. Oswald Theodore Avery (October 21, 1877–1955) • Canadian-born American physician and medical researcher. • Avery was one of the first molecular biologists and was a pioneer in immunochemistry, • but he is best known for his• but he is best known for his discovery in 1944 with his co-workers Colin MacLeod and Maclyn McCarty that DNA is the material of which genes and chromosomes are made. • The lunar crater Avery was named in his honor.
  46. 46. Colin Munro MacLeod (1909 – 1972) • Canadian-American geneticist.
  47. 47. Maclyn McCarty (June 9, 1911–January 2, 2005)
  48. 48. Joshua Lederberg with Maclyn McCarty. 31 May 1999
  49. 49. 1946-47 - Yale University • After initial failures in his experiments Lederberg proposed a collaboration with Edward L. Tatum at Yale University, who had been Ryan's post-doctoral adviser and who was an expert in bacteriology and the genetics of microorganisms. • During a year-long leave of absence from medical school in 1946, Lederberg carried out experiments with the intestinal bacterium Escherichia coli which demonstrated that certain strains of bacteria can undergo a sexual stage, that they matestrains of bacteria can undergo a sexual stage, that they mate and exchange genes. • This discovery, and the methods used to make it, had far- reaching scientific and medical implications. • First, Lederberg demonstrated that successive generations of those bacteria that mate were genetically distinct and therefore suitable for genetic analysis. • Secondly, he created a new understanding of how bacteria evolve and acquire new properties, including antibiotic resistance.
  50. 50. Edward L. Tatum at Stanford University. [ca. 1940]
  51. 51. 1947 - PhD • Buoyed by his success, Lederberg decided to extend his collaboration with Tatum for another year in order to begin mapping the E. coli chromosome, to show the exact locations of its genes.locations of its genes. • With Tatum's support he submitted his research on genetic recombination in bacteria as his doctoral thesis. • He received his PhD degree from Yale in 1947.
  52. 52. Yale University convocation principals on occasion of honorary degree to Lederberg.1960.
  53. 53. 1947-59 - Professor of genetics at the University of Wisconsin. • Conducts research in the genetics of E. coli and Salmonella as well as on antibody formation. • Discovers and names plasmids,• Discovers and names plasmids, particles of DNA in bacterial cells that replicate separately from chromosomal DNA
  54. 54. University of Wisconsin. ca. December 1947
  55. 55. 1950s • By the early 1950s they had pioneered methods for using penicillin and streptomycin to select for antibiotic resistance as an additional genetic marker in nutritional mutants. • Streptomycin-resistance proved especially important because Lederberg was able to use it to quickly identify strains that were fertile and able to mate, until then a laborious procedure.until then a laborious procedure. • Another important genetic marker isolated by Lederberg was that for Beta-galactosidase, a group of enzymes that enable bacteria to ferment the sugar lactose. • This work presaged Jacques Monod's use of Beta- galactosidase some years later in formulating his theories on the mechanism of genetic expression and control in E. coli.
  56. 56. Jacques Lucien Monod (February 9, 1910 – May 31, 1976)
  57. 57. François Jacob, June 17, 1920
  58. 58. Joshua Lederberg at work in a laboratory at the University of Wisconsin. October 1958
  59. 59. Joshua Lederberg at work in the University of Wisconsin's Genetics Building. [1958]
  60. 60. University of Wisconsin Genetics Building. 1958
  61. 61. Esther Miriam Lederberg (December 18, 1922 - November 11, 2006) • He married fellow scientist Esther Zimme (later Lederberg) in 1946; • they divorced in 1966. He married Dr.• He married Dr. Marguerite Stein Kirsch in 1968. • Lederberg and Kirsch have two children, David Kirsch and Anne Lederberg.
  62. 62. Esther Lederberg gives a lecture in Japan in 1962. • She was one of the great pioneers in bacterial genetics. • Experimentally and methodologically she was a genius in the lab. • She developed lab• She developed lab procedures that all of us have used in research. • Her discovery of lambda has had a big influence in molecular genetics and virology. • It became the model for animal viruses that have similar life cycles, including tumor and herpes viruses.
  63. 63. Открытия за открытиями • Over the next twelve years, Lederberg and his wife, Esther Zimmer, a microbiologist herself, together with a handful of postgraduate students, most notably Norton Zinder, published a steady stream of original experimental results. • The most important of these was the discovery of viral transduction, the ability of viruses that infectviral transduction, the ability of viruses that infect bacteria to transfer snippets of DNA from one infected bacterium to another and insert them into the latter's genome. • The use of viruses in manipulating bacterial genomes became the basis of genetic engineering and biothecnology in the 1970s.
  64. 64. Scientific administration • 1957 - Elected to the National Academy of Sciences. • Scientific prominence brought with it administrative responsibility.administrative responsibility. • In 1957, Lederberg helped found and became chairman of a new Department of Medical Genetics at the University of Wisconsin, one of the first such departments in the country.
  65. 65. Salmonella and serology • The reason to look at salmonella was that there were phenomena about the inheritance of serological characters in salmonella, the serology of salmonella was worked out in much more detail than the E.coli because ofmuch more detail than the E.coli because of its public health importance. • There were literally hundreds if not thousands of different strains that have already been typed serologically, and I thought getting at the genetics... would be an important contribution.
  66. 66. Immunology • He collaborated with Frank Macfarlane Burnet to study viral antibodies. • In 1958 Gustav Nossal and Joshua Lederberg showed that one B cellLederberg showed that one B cell always produces only one antibody, which was the first evidence for clonal selection theory.
  67. 67. Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet (3 September 1899 – 31 August 1985), • As Lederberg noted (personal communication, 1986), • Burnet was at the• Burnet was at the time 'remarkably uninformed with respect • to modern views on the mechanism of protein synthesis, DNA coding, etc.'
  68. 68. Burnet, Lederberg and others • The theory is now sometimes known as Burnet’s clonal selection theory, • which overlooks the contributions of Ehrlich, Jerne, Talmage,Ehrlich, Jerne, Talmage, • and the contributions of Lederberg, who conceptualised the genetics of clonal selection.
  69. 69. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1960 • Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet • 1899 – 1985 • Peter Brian Medawar • 1915 - 1987
  70. 70. 4 October 1957 - Sputnik • With the launching of Sputnik in 1957, Lederberg became concerned about the biological impact of space exploration. • In a letter to the National Academies of Sciences, he outlined his concerns that extraterrestrial microbes might gain entry to Earth onboard spacecraft, causing catastrophic diseases. • He also argued that, conversely, microbial contamination of manmade satellites and probes may obscure the search for extraterrestrial life. manmade satellites and probes may obscure the search for extraterrestrial life. • He advised quarrentine for returning astronauts and equipment and sterilization of equipment prior to launch. • Teaming up with Carl Sagan, his public advocacy for what he termed exobiology helped expand the role of biology in NASA. • In the 1960s, he collaborated with Edward Feigenbaum in Stanford's computer science department to develop DENDRAL.
  71. 71. Первый искусственный Спутник Земли • Начало полёта — 4 октября 1957 в 19:28 по Гринвичу • Окончание полёта — 4 января 1958 • Масса аппарата — 83,6 кг; • Максимальный диаметр —• Максимальный диаметр — 0,58 м. • Наклонение орбиты — 65,1°. • Период обращения — 96,17 мин. • Перигей — 228 км. • Апогей — 947 км. • Витков — 1400
  72. 72. Stanford University, 1958-78 • Following his early ambition to tie genetics closely to medical research, Lederberg in the fall of 1958 accepted an offer to become the first chairman of the newly-established Department of Genetics at Stanford University's School of Medicine, a medical school more broadly oriented towards research than Wisconsin's. • 1959-78 - Founder and chairman of the Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine.Stanford University School of Medicine. • Begins research in the genetics of Bacillus subtilis (1959) and in splicing and recombining DNA (1969). • His decision to move to Palo Alto was followed within days by news that he had been awarded a share of the 1958 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, along with Tatum and George W. Beadle, "for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria."
  73. 73. Edward Albert Feigenbaum (born January 20, 1936) • A computer scientist working in the field of artificial intelligence. • He is often called the "Father of expert systems." • Feigenbaum completed his undergraduate degree, and a Ph.D., at Carnegie Mellon University. • He received the ACM Turing Award, the most prestigious award in computer science, jointly with Raj Reddy in 1993 "Forin computer science, jointly with Raj Reddy in 1993 "For pioneering the design and construction of large scale artificial intelligence systems, demonstrating the practical importance and potential commercial impact of artificial intelligence technology". • A former chief scientist of the Air Force, he received the U.S. Air Force Exceptional Civilian Service Award in 1997. • He founded the Knowledge Systems Laboratory at Stanford University. • He is currently a Professor Emeritus of Computer Science at Stanford.
  74. 74. Edward Albert Feigenbaum January 20, 1936
  75. 75. Carl Djerassi (born October 29, 1923) • A chemist and playwright best known for his contribution to the development of the first oral contraceptive pill (OCP). • He participated in the invention in 1951, together with Mexicans Luis E. Miramontes and Jorge Rosenkranz, of the progestin norethindrone which, unlike progesterone, remained effective when taken orally and was far stronger than the naturally occurring hormone. • His preparation was first administered as an oral contraceptive to animals by Gregory Pincus and Min Chueh Chang and to women by John Rock. • Djerassi remarked that he did not have birth control in mind when he began working with progesterone - "not in our wildest dreams… did we imagine (it)", though he is now referred to by some as the father of the pill. • He is also the author of the novel Cantor's Dilemma, in which he explores the ethics of modern scientific research through his protagonist, Dr. Cantor.
  76. 76. Carl Djerassi (born October 29, 1923) • He was awarded the National Medal of Science by President Nixon. • At the same time, he was on Nixon's Enemies List. • In 1978, he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame. • In 1991 he was awarded the National Medal of• In 1991 he was awarded the National Medal of Technology for "his broad technological contributions to solving environmental problems; and for his initiatives in developing novel, practical approaches to insect control products that are biodegradable and harmless." • Prof. Djerassi is a member of the Board of Sponsors of the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists and is chairman of the Pharmanex Scientific Advisory Board.
  77. 77. Carl Djerassi (born October 29, 1923)
  78. 78. Carl Djerassi (born October 29, 1923) • Djerassi has been a leading collector of the works of Paul Klee. • His pieces are frequently exhibited at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, to which he has bequeathed his Klee collection.he has bequeathed his Klee collection. • He stopped collecting when he founded DRAP, because he decided he'd rather patronize living artists than dead ones—or rather the art dealers and auctioneers who are the only beneficiaries of the immense appreciation in the value of works by dead artists.
  79. 79. Paul Klee (December 18, 1879 to June 29, 1940) • A Swiss painter of German nationality. • He was influenced by many different art styles in his work, including expressionism, cubism including expressionism, cubism and surrealism. • He and his friend, the Russian painter Wassily Kandinsky, were also famous for teaching at the Bauhaus school of art and architecture.
  80. 80. Василий Васильевич Кандинский 16[4] декабря 1866 – 13 декабря 1944
  81. 81. • Василий Васильевич Кандинский (1866— 1944) — русский живописец, графикживописец, график и теоретик изобразительного искусства, один из основоположников абстракционизма.
  82. 82. 1958 – Nobel Prize • 1958 - Shares Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Tatum and George W. Beadle • "for his discoveries concerning genetic• "for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria“.
  83. 83. Telegram from Sten Friberg to Joshua Lederberg. 30 October 1958.
  84. 84. 1958 Nobel Prize recipients in Chemistry, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine. 1958.
  85. 85. 1958 Nobel Prize diploma.
  86. 86. Joshua Lederberg's Nobel medal
  87. 87. 1958-77 - Экзобиология • 1958-77 - Investigates the possibility of life on other planets and of interplanetary contamination as a member of several National Academymember of several National Academy of Sciences and NASA committees on space biology, and as organizer of the Instrumentation Research Laboratory at Stanford
  88. 88. Stanford University Genetics Department. ca. 1960
  89. 89. Stanford University Genetics Department. 1963-1964
  90. 90. October 1967.
  91. 91. December 1972
  92. 92. Joshua Lederberg at a LINC computer teletype. December 1974
  93. 93. Joshua Lederberg at a LINC computer teletype. December 1974
  94. 94. 1978–90 - Rockfeller University • In 1978, he became the president of Rockefeller University, until he stepped down in 1990 and became professor- emeritus of molecular genetics andemeritus of molecular genetics and informatics at Rockefeller
  95. 95. 1950-98 - Member of various panels of the President's Science Advisory Committee. • Throughout his career, Lederberg was active as a scientific advisor to the U.S. government. • Starting in 1950, he has been a member of various panels of the Presidential Science Advisory Committee. • In 1979, he became a member of the U.S. Defense• In 1979, he became a member of the U.S. Defense Science Board and the chairman of President Jimmy Carter's President's Cancer Panel. • In 1989, he received National Medal of Science for his contributions to the scientific world. • In 1994, he headed the Department of Defense's Task Force on Persian Gulf War Health Effects, which investigated Gulf War Syndrome. • In 2006, Lederberg was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom.
  96. 96. • 1961-62 - Member of President John F. Kennedy's Panel on Mental Retardation. • 1969-72 - Consultant to the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency duringControl and Disarmament Agency during negotiations for the Biological Weapons Convention in Geneva. • 1979-81 - Advisor to President Jimmy Carter on cancer research as chairman of the President's Cancer Panel.
  97. 97. Joshua Lederberg with Abe Ribicoff and Wendell Stanley at the White House. 18 October 1961
  98. 98. ca. 1960
  99. 99. Joshua Lederberg with G. Rosenkrantz at the Syntex Institute of Molecular Biology. 1961
  100. 100. ca. 1962
  101. 101. Stanford University, 1962
  102. 102. Photograph contact sheet from Lederberg interview in front of his exobiology equipment at Stanford University. 1962
  103. 103. Joshua Lederberg in front of exobiology equipment at Stanford. 1965
  104. 104. Marguerite Stein Kirsch • In 1968, he married Marguerite Stein Kirsch, a clinical psychologist, with whom he has two children, David Kirsch and Anne Lederberg.Kirsch and Anne Lederberg.
  105. 105. Joshua Lederberg with his daughter, Annie (age 18)
  106. 106. Joshua Lederberg with his wife, Marguerite at the Carnegie Council. 3 November 1993
  107. 107. Joshua Lederberg with his wife, Marguerite in Paris. December 1993
  108. 108. Joshua Lederberg with Raymond Sackler and Marguerite Lederberg. 15 June 1995
  109. 109. Joshua Lederberg in front of Mars Lander chart. 1973
  110. 110. Joshua Lederberg at the John F. Kennedy Space Center. August 1975
  111. 111. ок. 1973
  112. 112. 1978-90 Rockfeller University • 1978-90 - President of Rockefeller University in New York City, a graduate university specializing in biomedical research.research.
  113. 113. Joshua Lederberg with David Rockefeller. 20 June 1979
  114. 114. Joshua Lederberg being introduced to British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher by David Rockefeller. December 1979
  115. 115. Stanford • At Stanford Lederberg continued to lead research in bacterial genetics. • He also pursed opportunities his new position provided to relate genetics to the wider context of human health and biology.wider context of human health and biology. • He helped institute an undergraduate human biology curriculum, and launched investigations into the genetic and neurological basis of mental retardation as director of Stanford's Joseph P. Kennedy Jr. Laboratories for Molecular Medicine.
  116. 116. От Спутника к Викингам • His fame as a Nobel laureate made it possible for him to broaden his field of scientific interests even further. • The launch of the Soviet Sputnik satellite in 1957 prompted him to consider the biological implications and hazards of space exploration. • Lederberg gained a place for biologists in the burgeoning U.S. space program when he publicly warned against the dangers ofspace program when he publicly warned against the dangers of contamination of the moon and of other planets by spacecraft carrying microbes from earth. • He explored the possibility of extraterrestrial life as a member of National Academy of Sciences' Space Science Board from 1958 to 1974, and helped develop instruments to detect potential traces of microbes on Mars as part of the National Aeronautic and Space Administration's 1975 Viking mission to the planet.
  117. 117. От экзобиологии к экспертным системам • Lederberg's role in constructing fully automated laboratory equipment for research in space led him in turn to embark on another new pursuit: expanding the role of computers in scientific research. • In collaboration with the chairman of Stanford's computer science department, Edward Feigenbaum,computer science department, Edward Feigenbaum, Lederberg in the 1960s developed DENDRAL, a computer program designed to generate hypotheses about the atomic composition of unknown chemical compounds from spectrometric and other laboratory data through Artificial Intelligence. • It was the first expert system for specialized use in science.
  118. 118. The original DENDRAL team, 25 years later. 1991
  119. 119. 1966-71 – Washington Post • 1966-71 - Publishes "Science and Man," a weekly column on science, society, and public policy in the Washington Post. • Throughout his scientific career Lederberg• Throughout his scientific career Lederberg sought to bring science to bear on matters of public policy, particularly national security and arms control, as a member of several government advisory committees, such as the Pentagon's Defense Science Board, on which he has served since 1979.
  120. 120. Computer network • 1973-78 - Helps establish SUMEX-AIM, a nationwide time-share computer network hosting biomedical research projects.
  121. 121. 1976 - Vikings • 1976 - U.S. Viking I and Viking II spacecraft explore Mars with the help of instruments for soil analysis designed by Lederberg and hisdesigned by Lederberg and his associates at the Instrumentation Research Laboratory. • The spacecraft find no clear signs of life.
  122. 122. Joshua Lederberg receiving The National Medal of Science from President George H. W. Bush. 18 October 1989.
  123. 123. 1990-2008 • Professor emeritus and Raymond and Beverly Sackler Foundation Scholar at Rockefeller University.
  124. 124. Joshua Lederberg and the rest of the Committee on International Security and Arms Control (CISAC) delegation attending meeting in Moscow. 1991
  125. 125. Joshua Lederberg inside a flight simulator. 1991
  126. 126. Members of the 1991 Chief of Naval Operations Executive Panel (CEP) Plenary Session dressed in flight gear. 1991
  127. 127. Joshua Lederberg with John Whitehead at a meeting of the Carnegie Commission's Council of Ethics and International Affairs. 3 November 1993
  128. 128. 1994 - Gulf War syndrome • 1994 – Lederberg is a Heads Defense Department Task Force on Persian Gulf War Health Effects, which concludes that there is insufficient epidemiological evidence for a coherent Gulf War "syndrome“. • Gulf War syndrome (GWS) or Gulf War illness (GWI) is the name given to an illness with symptoms including increases in the rate of immune system disorders and birth defects, reported by combat veterans of the 1991 Gulf War. • It has not always been clear whether these symptoms were related to Gulf War service.to Gulf War service. • Symptoms attributed to this syndrome have been wide-ranging, including chronic fatigue, loss of muscle control, migraines and other headaches, dizziness and loss of balance, memory problems, muscle and joint pain, indigestion, skin problems, and shortness of breath. • U.S. Gulf War veterans have experienced mortality rates exceeding those of U.S. Vietnam veterans. • Brain cancer deaths, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (commonly known as Lou Gehrig's disease) and fibromyalgia are now recognized by the Defense and Veterans Affairs departments as potentially connected to service during the Persian Gulf War.
  129. 129. Attendees of the Science Awards of New York City's Department of Cultural Affairs. 18 February 1997
  130. 130. Joshua Lederberg with New York City Mayor Rudolph Giuliani. 18 February 1997
  131. 131. New York City Mayor Rudolph Giuliani handing Science Award to Joshua Lederberg. 18 February 1997
  132. 132. Joshua Lederberg in New Delhi, India. 13 November 1997
  133. 133. 1999
  134. 134. President Clinton chairing White House conference on bioterrorism, January 1999. Lederberg is sixth from the left at the table
  135. 135. Joshua Lederberg with Secretary of the Navy Richard Danzig. 17 August 2000
  136. 136. XXI century • 2005 - Lederberg continues to conduct laboratory research on bacterial and human genetics, and to advise government and industry on globalgovernment and industry on global health policy, biological warfare, and the threat of bioterrorism.
  137. 137. Honors • Among other honors, Lederberg was elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 1957, Foreign Member of the Royal Society of London in 1979, and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1982. • He received the U.S. National Medal of Science in 1989, and the Allen Newell Award from the Association for Computing Machinery in 1995. • He holds honorary doctoral degrees in medicine from the University of Turin in Italy and from Tufts University, in law from the University of Pennsylvania, and in philosophy from Telfrom the University of Pennsylvania, and in philosophy from Tel Aviv University. • Lederberg has published over 300 scientific and policy-related articles and is the editor of several books, including Papers in Microbial Genetics: Bacteria and Bacterial Viruses (1951), Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States (1992), and Biological Weapons: Limiting the Threat (1999). His first marriage ended in divorce in 1966.
  138. 138. Joshua Lederberg in Rio De Janeiro. February 1995
  139. 139. Joshua Lederberg speaking at the University of Toronto Lecture series on global warming. September 1997
  140. 140. Francis Crick
  141. 141. Replica Plating
  142. 142. Perfect order plating: principle and applications Nikita N. Khromov-Borisov Jenifer Saffi João A. P. Henriques
  143. 143. Упорядоченный посев и пуассонер – высокоточная техника количественной микробиологииколичественной микробиологии МЕДИЦИНА. XXI ВЕК № 2 (11) 2008, c. 92-97
  144. 144. Н. Н. Хромов-Борисов, Jenifer Saffi , Joao A. P. Henriques Упорядоченный посев и пуассонер – высокоточная техника количественной микробиологии
  145. 145. Упорядоченный посев
  146. 146. Пуассонер
  147. 147. Сравнение упорядоченного посева с обычным методом
  148. 148. Воспроизводимость
  149. 149. Пуассоновость
  150. 150. Пуассоновость I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X Всего 0 21 23 19 27 25 18 24 23 26 25 231 1 48 48 57 51 48 43 41 54 45 43 478 2 56 54 54 49 59 49 63 54 47 48 533 3 29 29 35 37 32 38 32 34 36 38 340 4 18 17 13 14 11 23 14 13 20 20 1634 18 17 13 14 11 23 14 13 20 20 163 5 13 15 5 8 8 7 11 7 11 11 96 6 2 1 2 1 2 8 0 1 2 1 20 7 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 0 1 5 8 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 9 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 10 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Всего 187 187 187 187 187 187 187 187 187 187 1870 PPoiss ,77 ,98 ,39 ,61 ,47 ,89 ,79 51 ,95 1,0 ,97
  151. 151. The Joshua Lederberg Papers http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/BB/ http://almaz.com/nobel/medicine/ lederberg-interview.html http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/ laureates/1958/lederberg-bio.htmllaureates/1958/lederberg-bio.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joshua_Lederberg http://www.peoples.ru/science/biology/ lederberg/ http://www.nlm.nih.gov/hmd/lederberg/ lederberghome.html
  152. 152. Joshua Lederberg (May 23, 1925 – February 2, 2008) – энциклопедист нашего времени или как стать Нобелевским лауреатом Доклад на заседании Санкт-Петербургского отделения Общества медицинских генетиков 11 января (четверг) 2007 г.медицинских генетиков 11 января (четверг) 2007 г. Никита Николаевич Хромов-Борисов Nikita.KhromovBorisov@gmail.com Тел.: +7 (812) 234-1840 – дом., 8-952-204-89-49 – моб.

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