types of simple machines

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  • Simple machine- is a mechanical device that changes the direction or magnitude of a force. In general, they can be defined as the simplest mechanisms that provide mechanical advantage (also called leverage).There are six examples of simple machine:

    1. Wedge- Helps to cut or split things.
    Ex. scissors blades, ax, and hoe
    2. Levers- Helps move things with less force.
    Ex. shovel, seesaw, baseball bat, pulling end of a hammer
    3. Wheels and Gears- Used to move things more easily from one place to another.
    Ex. Wagon wheel, bike wheel, car wheel, wheel barrel wheel
    4. Screw- Holds things together; used for lifting.
    Ex. screw, neck of a light bulb, corkscrew
    5. Inclined Plane- Used to move things from a low place to a high place or vice versa.
    Ex. ramp, step, ladder
    6. Pulleys- Used to lift loads more easily.
    Ex. rig on flagpole, sailing mast, elevator
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types of simple machines

  1. 1. Types of Simple Machines
  2. 2. The Lever
  3. 3. The Lever a rigid bar that is free to turn about a fixed point called the fulcrum <ul><li>Every Lever has three (3) parts: </li></ul><ul><li>1.  Resistance Force, Input Force or Load, What you are trying to move or lift. </li></ul><ul><li>2.  Effort Force or Output Force - The work done on the Lever. </li></ul><ul><li>3.  Fulcrum – A fixed pivot point. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Lever
  5. 5. 1 st Class Lever
  6. 6. 1 st Class Lever <ul><li>The Fulcrum (fixed pivot point) is located between the Effort (Input) and the Resistance (Output) Forces.  </li></ul><ul><li>The effort and the resistance move in opposite directions.  </li></ul><ul><li>The effort force pushes down in order to lift the resistance or load. </li></ul>
  7. 7. 1 st Class Lever <ul><li>When the fulcrum is closer to the effort than to the load: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>there is a loss in force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is a gain in speed and distance. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. 1 st Class Lever <ul><li>When the fulcrum is closer to the load than to the effort: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>there is a loss in speed and distance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is a gain in force. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. 1 st Class Lever <ul><li>When the fulcrum is midway between the effort and the load: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>there is no change in force, speed or distance </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. 1 st Class Lever <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seesaw </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crowbar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scissors </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. 2 nd Class Levers
  12. 12. 2 nd Class Lever <ul><li>The load is between the effort and the fulcrum. </li></ul><ul><li>The fulcrum is at one end of the lever. </li></ul><ul><li>The fulcrum is usually closer to the load. </li></ul><ul><li>Produce a gain in force. </li></ul>
  13. 13. 2 nd Class Levers <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wheelbarrow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bottle opener </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutcrackers </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. 3 rd Class Levers
  15. 15. 3 rd Class Levers <ul><li>The effort is between the load and the fulcrum. </li></ul><ul><li>There is usually a loss in force, but a gain in speed and distance. </li></ul>
  16. 16. 3 rd Class Levers <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shovel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fishing rod </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. The Pulley
  18. 18. The Pulley <ul><li>A pulley changes the direction of the force: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instead of lifting up, you can pull down using your body weigh against the load (what is being lifted) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A pulley gains nothing in force, distance or speed </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Pulley a wheel that turns around an axle <ul><li>A pulley is a grooved wheel that turns around an axle (fulcrum), and a rope or a chain is used in the grove to lift heavy objects. </li></ul><ul><li>A pulley may be fixed, moveable, or used in combination. </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Fixed Pulley <ul><li>Is attached to something that doesn't move such as the ceiling or wall) </li></ul><ul><li>It acts as a first class lever with the fulcrum located at the axis </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of a bar the pulley uses a rope or chain. </li></ul>
  21. 21. The Pulley <ul><li>A moveable pulley acts as second class lever </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the load is between the fulcrum and the effort </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. The Pulley <ul><li>A compound pulley is a system of movable pulleys. </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical advantage can be increased by using more than one pulley. </li></ul>
  23. 23. The Inclined Plane
  24. 24. The Inclined Plane a sloping surface that does not move <ul><li>An inclined plane provides for NOT Less work but less effort.  </li></ul><ul><li>The trade off is greater distance to travel. </li></ul>
  25. 25. The Inclined Plane <ul><li>Used to reduce the force needed to overcome the force of gravity when lifting or lowering a heavy object. </li></ul>
  26. 26. The Inclined Plane
  27. 27. The Screw
  28. 28. The Screw an inclined plane wrapped around a central cylinder <ul><li>A Screw has two (2) parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Body – Cylinder Post </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Thread – Inclined Plane wrapped around the cylinder. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. The Screw <ul><li>Functions of the screw </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To fasten things – the standard screw or nuts & bolts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drill bits are screws used to make holes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A jackscrew is used to lift heavy objects; car jack. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. The Screw <ul><li>When you turn a screw: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The input force is changed by the threads into an output force. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The output force pulls the screw into the materials. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Friction between the threads & the material holds the screw in place. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. The Wedge
  32. 32. The Wedge an inclined plane that tapers to a sharp edge <ul><li>The wedge used to increase force.  </li></ul><ul><li>The material remains in place while he wedge moves through it. </li></ul><ul><li>A wedge changes the direction of the input force. </li></ul>
  33. 33. The Wedge <ul><li>Wedges can be forced between two things to hold them tightly together, like nails or a doorstop. </li></ul><ul><li>Wedges can be used to split, cut or fasten. </li></ul>
  34. 34. The Wheel & Axle
  35. 35. The Wheel & Axle a wheel connected to a rigid pole <ul><li>The Wheel & axle is a modified lever: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The center of the axle acts as a fulcrum – making the wheel a lever that rotates around in a circle. </li></ul></ul>

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