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  1. 1. Learning objectives : • Know some of the ways in which policies may affect families • Understand the different sociological perspectives in families and social policy • Be able to analyse these perspectives and evaluate thier usefulness in understanding the relationship between families and social policy
  2. 2. Unit 1 ~ Families & HouseholdsUnit 1 of your A/s course is the sociological study of families & households. It is worth 40% of the A/s level& 20% of the complete A level qualification.Candidates will choose one topic from three & answer one question. Each question consists of five parts.This is a written paper, has a total of sixty marks & will last for one hour.Past A level exam papers and mark schemes are available to download from have been examining the following areas of the Sociology of Families & households ~ • The relationship of the family to the social structure & social change, with particular reference to the economy & to state policies. • We have looked at the relationship of the family to the social structure and social change – especially in reference to the six theories we have looked at FUNCTIONALISM, MARXISM,FEMINISM, NEW RIGHT,RADICAL PYSCHIATRY AND MODERNITY/POST MODERNITY . • For the next two weeks (7th and 14th of march 2011) we will look at social policies in reference to family • We will look at social policies around the world and specifically UK social policies that means looking at social policies set by the government • This means looking at the policies set by the different political groups in the UK, conservative , labour and liberal democrats • We will look at current policies as outlined by AQA this is policies post 1997 – meaning labour government policies and coalition government policies • We will also look at this policies from a theoretical point of view by observing how functionalist, new right , Marxists and feminist would evaluate this policies
  3. 3. A/s sociology Academic timetable & exam timetableTuesdays class – remaining weeks – and topics still to doWeek 1 – 01/03/11 – New right and post modernism- DONEWeek 2- 08/03/11- Social policy - startWeek 3- 14/05/11- social policy - finishWeek 4 – 22/03/11- Demography - startWeek 5 – 29/03/11- demography – finishWeek 6 – 05/04/11- revision – AFTER this 2 weeks Easter holidayWeek 7 – 26/04/11 revisionWeek 8 - 03/05/11- revision –Week 9 10/05/11 – revision
  4. 4. Unit 1 January 2011 – May 2011 Exam – 18th of May Sociology of 2011 Families & Wednesday Households Time : Unit 2 Retake Sociology of 20th of May 2011 Education with Friday Research Methods COMPARATIVE VIEW OF SOCIAL POLICY CHINA ONE CHILD POLICY NAZI GERMANY* ** OTHER * OTHER* *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ** *
  5. 5. Effects of China’s one-child policyRead the following account of demographic changes in China:Patterns of fertility in China have been significantly affected in the last thirty years byseveral factors. In 1979 China introduced a strict family planning policy that allows mostcouples to have only one child. Without this policy the Chinese government says that thecountry’s population would have continued to grow at an alarming rate. However, one of theresults of this policy is the gradual emergence of a gender imbalance. In China as a whole,there are 120 males born for every 100 females. In some provinces, the number of malesrises to160. The typical average ratio worldwide is about 105 boys for every 100 girls. Thereare now 18 million more men than there are women of marriageable age and the numbers arestill growing.
  6. 6. The main reason for this imbalance lies in Chinese cultural traditions. When a womanmarried, she lived with, and worked for, her husband’s family. Therefore, male children weremore valued, as they carried on the family line, earned money for the family and looked aftertheir parents in old age. This is still particularly true for rural areas – baby girls are not agood investment!At first there were incidents of baby girls being abandoned, or sometimes even killed. Todaymany female foetuses are aborted. Modern ultrasound techniques can identify the sex of afoetus and this can then influence a decision about abortion. Although there are now laws toprevent doctors telling parents the sex of their unborn child, such sex-determined abortionsare still occurring.The Chinese version of ‘Blind Date’ now attracts thousands of applicants from young men,who are willing to sing, dance and ridicule themselves for the chance of a date with a youngwoman. The status of older women as potential brides has improved and homosexuality hasbecome more common. More worrying are the increase of kidnapping of women, sextrafficking from other Asian countries, and sexual crime by gangs of young men. Inresponse, the government has introduced a propaganda campaign stressing the importance ofgirls.Now discuss each of the following questions:1 Explain how a range of different social, cultural and political influences have brought about this situation. in China.
  7. 7. 2 Look back to the section on fertility (page 49) and identify which factors identified there are relevant in. this case also.3 What policies do you think the Chinese government could use to ease the growing problem of gender. imbalance?The family and Social policyThis exercise will help you devise a revision diagramDivorce reform act (1969) Child support agency Council housing policy Explain the impact of this on family life Explain the impact of this on family Explain the impact of this on the models To what extent does the CSA attempt to life of family people live in engineer an ideal type of family? Has it been successful?
  8. 8. Social policy and the familyMaternity/paternity leave Working families tax credit Children act Who introduced these and why Explain the impact of this on family life What are people’s rights regarding Does the social policy undermine To what extent does the children act this do this rights reinforce traditional traditional gender roles and family attempt to engineer an ideal type of gender roles structures? family Has it been successful? FUNCTIONALISM NEW RIGHT* *THEORITICAL PERSPECTIVES ON FAMILY & SOCIAL POLICY* ** ** ** ** ** ** ** *
  9. 9. MARXISM FEMINISM878(* ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** *The Family and Social PolicyNEW RIGHT1942: Beveridge lays welfare foundationsThe coalition British Government has unveiled plans for a welfare state offering care to all from the cradle tothe grave.The Beveridge report proposes a far-reaching series of changes designed to provide a financial safety net toensure a "freedom from want" after the war is over.Everyone of working age would be expected to pay a weekly national insurance contribution.
  10. 10. In return benefits would be paid to the sick, widowed, retired, and unemployed and there would also be anallowance for families.Serious discrepanciesThe architect of the report, economist Sir William Beveridge, drew on advice from various governmentdepartments including the Home Office, Ministry of Labour and National Service, the Ministry of Pensions,the Ministry of Health and the Treasury.His report was based on research carried out between the two world wars, which looked at issues likepoverty, as well as old age and birth rates.He found provision for old age represented one of the most pressing problems.But there were other failings too. Medical provision was not universally available to all and Britainsachievement, in his words, "fell seriously short" compared with other countries of the world.There were also serious discrepancies in the social security system which meant an unemployed person waspaid a different rate of benefit to someone who was unable to work through sickness.At a time when the war was destroying landmarks of every kind, he said, it was a "revolutionary moment inthe worlds history, a time for revolutions, not for patching".But the attack on want was only part of the way to reconstruction. Other things which needed tackling, hesaid, included disease, ignorance, squalor and idleness.The way to improvement in social security lay in co-operation between the state and the individual. In returnfor offering financial security, the state should not "stifle individual incentive to provide for his or herfamily".The amount of benefit paid should be sufficient to live on but no more.His key recommendations include a basic unemployment benefit for a man and his wife to be paid at 40s aweek and 24s for a single person.There are also plans to extend social expenditure to pay a family allowance of 8s per child and to pay aworking mother to take off up to 13 weeks after a new baby.A national health service would be provided offering free medical treatment and post-medical rehabilitationfor all.The report estimates the cost of his social security scheme would amount to £697m in 1945, compared to£432m for the existing system. Of this increase £86m would be borne by the exchequer - the rest throughindividual contributions. Much of the new right perspective arose as a criticism of the welfare state that had been introduced following the 1942 Beveridge report. Using this information about the beverage report above answer the following questions
  11. 11. In ContextThe Beveridge Report aimed toprovide a universal social insurancescheme covering everything fromunemployment to sickness andfamily allowances. SOCIAL POLICYIt was greeted with great enthusiasm Functionalism – page 82 was Beveridge? 1.Whoand sold over half a million copies -but the wartime coalition under 1. Identify two functions that the families perform for theirConservative Prime Minister members apart from healthcareWinston Churchill agreed topostpone planning for itsimplementation until after the war.During a Commons debate on thereport in February 1943, Labourcame out strongly in favour of all therecommendations made in the report. 2.What were the main parts of the welfare set up atIt was probably this which costChurchill victory in the 1945 2. Suggest the end of the welfare policiesWar and what ‘giant ways in which Second World may help families to carry out thesewere functions morecombat?election and led to Clement Attlee evils’ two these meant to effectivelyleading the first majority Labour New Labour – page 83government. 1. Identify two other means tested benefits that are only 3. What is meant by the phrase ‘welfare from the cradle available to families on a low income to the grave’? What principles underlie this phrase?Under his leadership, the NationalInsurance Act was introduced in1946, offering a state contributorypension for all, and the NationalHealth Service founded in 1948,offering free medical care for all.Feminism –page 83-84 1. Find out about maternity and paternity leave provision. How do the two differ? What effects might it have on family life if they were the same?
  12. 12. Evaluation of the Marxist perspective – page 85-86Read the section on the Marxist approach to family policies on pages 85 to 86 of the book and use thatinformation to help you complete the following passage. The missing words are listed at the end.Strengths1 Marxism offers a more ______________perspective on the family than consensus theories like. functionalism.2 It shows how ________________ may often favour the better off and serve __________________..3 It shows how ______________ for ordinary workers are often too low to make a real difference.4 Marxists believe it is in the interests of capitalism to encourage nuclear families to.________________ workers and prevent________________ .Weaknesses1 It tends to be ‘gender-blind’ in failing to recognise the importance of ___________ in social policy.2 It is very ______________ , in that it assumes all aspects of family life are determined by. ______________ forces.3 The approach focuses on one particular type of family and does not deal adequately with ______________. forms.Missing words:PoliciesSupportDeterministicAlternativeCapitalismPatriarchyResistanceEconomicCriticalBenefits
  13. 13. The family under John Major’s governmentCarol Smart and Bren Neale childcare and divorceConclusion