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  1. 1. Childhood across the culturesBenedict, 1934, claims that in non-industrial cultures there is less of a distinction between adult & child behaviour &expectations & children are treated very differently to western societies. He suggests 3 distinct differences betweenmodern ‘western’ children and children from simpler, non industrial societies 1. Earlier ResponsibilityBolivia (Punch 2001) 2. Sexual Behaviour (Malinowski – Trobriand Islands) “The age at which a girl begins to amuse herself in this manner is said to coincide with her putting on the small fibre skirt, between, that is, the ages of 4 and 5” 3. Less Obedience to Adult How does this suggest that Authority(Firth1970 - Tikopia) childhood is a social construct?Reasons for the changing position of children e.g.1889 prevention of cruelty to children 1989 children Act (welfare of children central to social services and other agencies) 1989 children acts show parents as having responsibilities.# UN lays out basic children’s rights in the convention Rights of the Child 1989 Minimum age for sex, smoking, drinking, suggest that children are different to adults Restricting child labour meant that children became dependant on their parents and an economic liability with-out being able to earn a wage. This has led to greater emotional and financial investment in children Donzelot (1977) points out that theories on child development form C19th suggest need of child for protection and care. The children of the poor were made more dependent on parents because of this and this increased with the school leaving age being raised. (1880 compulsory schooling begins;1947 - leaving age raised to 15; 1971 - leaving age raised to 16; 2013 leaving age raised to 18)How does industrialisation play its part in the change of the role of children? Webb pg 31