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  1. 1. GCSE SociologySocial Inequality
  2. 2.  By the end of these lessons you should: Know the sociological definitions of ethnicity and ethnic group. Be able to explain how sociologists believe that age and ethnicity create unequal life chances. Understand the inequalities based on age and ethnicity.
  3. 3. A group of people who share an identitybased on…Cultural traditionsRegionLanguage A group of people who are from a different ethnic group from the majority of the population.
  4. 4. Group PercentageWhite British 88.2Indian 1.8Pakistani 1.3Bangladeshi 0.5Black Caribbean 1.0Chinese 0.4Black African 0.8
  5. 5. Not used in sociologyHumankind being split up into different groups depending on physicalcharacteristics.This has been used by some to justify oppression.A good example of this – colonisation of Africa – the Europeansthought them selves racially more superior. Sociology rejects the idea that we are split into different races – they think that these racial differences (like gender differences) are created by society rather than biology. They recognise that racial discrimination exists and that come people are treated less favourably on the grounds of their ethnicity.
  6. 6. Equality legislation – The Race Relations Act 1976 – outlaweddiscrimination on the basis of ethnicity.The Commission for Racial Equality and the Equal OpportunitiesCommission – help to fight racism and inequality.The recognition that racism exists within institutions and efforts madeto address this.Equal opportunities statements support diversity in theworkplace, schools etc.Exploring inequality based on ethnicity.294 to 295 – tasksStretch and Challenge activity 295
  7. 7. Social Inequality
  8. 8. How long you have been alive.Used to decide if you are allowed to participatein certain activities.
  9. 9. Physical changes which occur, what happens to the body.
  10. 10. Vincent (2001)A social category which appears in allsocieties. Sociologists interested in how age is viewed – do we have different expectations of people at different times in their lives?
  11. 11. Ideas about age differ between societies and over time.Can you think of examples where agecan be seen both positively andnegatively? Do different cultures view age in different ways?
  12. 12. Research shows that the way that childhood is viewed has changed over time.Aires (1962)In the Middle Ages Children were treatedas mini adults who entered the adultworld at a much younger age. 19th century child labour was common, especially amongst the poor. Children worked in mills and factories to help to support their families.
  13. 13. Now attitudes have changed andthere have been changes in thelaw to present this. Full time education was made compulsory from 1880. This move meant that children were not in the work place and become more dependent on their parents. The status of children has changed over time, today families are much more child centred and children have a wider range of rights. Childhood is a separate stage where the person in vulnerable and in need of protection. Although this is not the same all- over the world as there are some children who are expected to work and fend for themselves. In this way childhood varies cross culturally.
  14. 14.  How do we define youth? What changes may happen to people at this phase in their lives? At what age do you think youth starts and ends? Justify your answer? Should any age based restrictions change or should they say the same? Explain your answer. Why are many people depended on their parents during this time? Do all societies view this period of development in the same way? Give examples.
  15. 15.  How might the status of older people differ between societies? (use the text and source material to help you) What is age discrimination? Give examples of age discrimination. What has the government done to try to stop age discrimination? What other factors might affect an older person’s life chances? Give examples to explain your answer.
  16. 16.  Discuss how far sociologists would agree that inequality based on ethnicity is a more significant cause of social division than social class in modern Britain. (12 marks) Discuss how far sociologists would agree that inequality based on gender is the most significant form of inequality found in Britain today.(12 marks)