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Sc2220 Lecture 5 2009

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Lecture 5: Gender Socialization and Enculturation

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Sc2220 Lecture 5 2009

  1. 1. SC2220: Gender Studies Gender Socialization and Enculturation Eric C. Thompson National University of Singapore
  2. 2. In This Lecture <ul><li>Enculturation & Socialization </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Socialization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple Models and Influences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Q&A with Experts in Childhood Gender Socialization </li></ul>
  3. 3. Enculturation & Socialization <ul><li>Enculturation: The process of learning a culture (system of beliefs and associated practices). </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization: Learning group norms and values from others. </li></ul><ul><li>Often used interchangably. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enculturation emphasizes the influence of a general cultural system of beliefs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socialization emphasizes the sources of information (parents, peers, media, etc.). </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Gender Socialization (3 Models) Model 1: Direct Teaching/ Rewards & Punishment Model 2: Indirect Teaching/ Identification & Modeling Behavior Adults set the agenda, provide rewards or punishment Children identify with adults/parents of same sex and imitate their behavior
  5. 5. Gender Socialization Model 3 (Maccoby): Peer-to-Peer Socialization Children learn gender roles & behavior from each other
  6. 6. Gender Socialization Up to age 2 Equal Same-Sex, Cross-Sex Interaction 18 Interactions 9 Same Sex 9 Cross Sex
  7. 7. Gender Socialization Age 3 to 6 Same-Sex 66%, Cross-Sex 33% 18 Interactions 12 Same Sex 6 Cross Sex
  8. 8. Gender Socialization Age 6 to 10 Same-Sex 75%, Cross-Sex 25%* 18 Interactions 14 Same Sex 4 Cross Sex *These are all rough estimates, based on the research cited in Maccoby, pp.15-29
  9. 9. From the perspective of an individual (child), we see how children’s worlds become segregated as they grow up. Increasingly, they are learning, playing, growing in “male” and “female” cultures.
  10. 10. Children’s Worlds become Gender Segregated Age Two Boy’s World Girl’s World
  11. 11. Children’s Worlds become Gender Segregated Age Four Boy’s World Girl’s World
  12. 12. Children’s Worlds become Gender Segregated Age Six Boy’s World Girl’s World
  13. 13. Children’s Worlds become Gender Segregated Age Eight Boy’s World Girl’s World
  14. 14. Children’s Worlds become Gender Segregated Age Ten Boy’s World Girl’s World
  15. 15. Children Reinforce Segregation, Stereotypes and Styles of Play between each other Boy’s World Girl’s World Don’t sit with the girls ! Only sissy’s play with dolls. Look at my new Power Rangers ™ toy! Let’s go play football Ewwww… boys are yucky! That dress is so cute, can I borrow it? I’m so glad Barbie ™ finally dumped Ken™! Poor Ken Let’s go play football Boys are so mean! “ Distinctions between males and females are of the group contextual kind. ” Maccoby, p.12 In other words, children grow up in different gendered cultures .
  16. 16. Socialization Involves Complex, Multiple Influences 3. PEER SOCIALIZATION 1. DIRECT TEACHING 2. MODELING BEHAVIOR TV 4. GENERAL CULTURAL INFLUENCES
  17. 17. Special Presentation and Q&A on Childhood Socialization (Guest Presentation)
  18. 18. Socialization of Difference (Points to Remember) <ul><li>Gender/Sex segregation is almost never absolute (for example, in the studies cited by Maccoby, a significant minority of interactions are still cross-gender). </li></ul><ul><li>Within a culture or society, a range of socialization and identities are always available to different individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>In the peer-to-peer socialization model (and all three models), messages, attitudes, status relations, etc. from the culture/society in general play an extremely important role. They provide the content of socialization. </li></ul>

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