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  1. 1. AIM: TO UNDERSTAND THAT CHILDHOOD IS A SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION<br />Key Question:<br />Using historical evidence/examples, explain the idea that “childhood is socially constructed” <br />
  2. 2. TASK:<br />In your pair fill in the table, using findings from your ½ term homework to decide what childhood was like for the three different age groups you interviewed<br />
  3. 3. What can you conclude about the experiences of childhood from these pictures?<br />
  4. 4. <ul><li>Childhood is a SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION- created and defined by society, rather than simply a biological state
  5. 5. Ideas about childhood vary between different cultures, societies and different historical periods</li></li></ul><li>Historical differences in childhood<br />Sociologist Phillippe Aries (1962) argued that childhood is a relatively ‘recent’ invention......<br />
  7. 7. Pre- industrial society<br />Childhood as we know it did not exist<br />Children were ‘little adults’ who took part in the same work and play activities as adults. <br />Toys and games specifically for children did not exist.<br />Children seen as an economic asset, rather than something to be cared for<br />Children were punished for crimes in the same way that adults were (In Tudor times a 7 year old could be hung for stealing) <br />
  8. 8. Industrial family<br />
  9. 9. Industrialisation<br />Children from W/C families still worked in mines, factories etc<br />BUT!!!<br />M/C attitudes started to change- parents investing emotionally in children as the death rate of children was starting to fall<br />
  10. 10. Mid 19th Century:<br />Adult started to become concerned with children who were begging on the streets and child prostitution. <br />children were banned from working in the factories and mines where many had been killed. <br />BUT some W/C parents resisted changes as they depended on children wages and many children continued to be badly treated<br />
  11. 11. 20th Century:<br />Emergence of child- centred society- ‘children are valued, loved and protected!’<br />As a result of improved standards of living= major decline in infant mortality rates<br />Increased availability of contraception meant couples could choose to have fewer children= invest more time in them in terms of love, socialisation and protection<br />
  12. 12. Give examples of how society has allowed children to become valued, loved and protected?<br />
  13. 13. Child centred society<br />Have their own toys, TV programmes, play areas made especially for them!!<br />Have their own doctors, teachers etc, to care for them<br />Children are provided with an education<br />Special food/drink for kids<br />
  14. 14. Changes in the position of children <br />“ how did the position of children change from being the invisible mini adults to being the centre of our society?” <br />Read page 76 in blue book or page 31 in orange book to answer the question<br />
  15. 15. Watch this video...<br /><br />
  16. 16. Task <br />Read the following statements and decide which period of time it fits into.... <br />Write on your whiteboard <br />PI= pre industrial<br />IS= industrial society<br />TS- today’s society<br />
  17. 17. What period of time am I?<br />Children and adults both work <br />Children’s toys and games do not exist <br />Lots of laws to protect children <br />Childhood seen as separate from adulthood <br />Many middle class children stop working <br /> increased contraception <br />Aries argued that children were regarded as an economic asset<br />
  18. 18. What period am I?<br />High infant mortality rate<br />Child centred society<br />No laws to stop children being over-worked<br />Adults start to become concerned about child prostitution <br />children work in mines, factories etc<br />Infant mortality rate starting to fall<br />Children are like small adults, taking part in the same work and play activities <br />
  19. 19. Homework:<br /> Remember...your exam will consist of 3 short questions worth 12 marks, followed by two 24 mark essay questions<br />Explain what is meant by the term child centred society (2 marks)<br />Suggest 2 reasons why childhood can be argued to be a social construction (4 marks)<br />Identify three changes linked to industrialisation that have led to changes in the position of children (6 marks)<br />