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Your Leadership Is Unique
Good news: There is no one "leadership personality."
by Peter F. Drucker
I have been working with organizations of all kinds for fifty
years or more-as a teacher
and administrator in the university, as a consultant to
corporations, as a board member, as a
volunteer. Over the years, I have discussed with scores-perhaps
even hundreds-of leaders their
roles, their goals, and their performance. I have worked with
manufacturing giants and tiny
firms, with organizations that span the world and others that
work with severely handicapped
children in one small town. I have worked with some
exceedingly bright executives and a few
dummies, with people who talk a good deal about leadership
and others who apparently never
even think of themselves as leaders and who rarely, if ever, talk
about leadership.
The lessons are unambiguous.
The first is that there may be "born leaders," but there surely
are far too few to depend on
them. Leadership must be learned and can be learned …
The second major lesson is that "leadership personality,"
"leadership style," and
"leadership traits" do not exist. Among the most effective
leaders I have encountered and worked
with in a half century, some locked themselves into their office
and others were ultragregarious.
Some (though not many) were "nice guys" and others were stern
disciplinarians. Some were
quick and impulsive; others studied and studied again and then
took forever to come to a
decision. Some were warm and instantly "simpatico"; others
remained aloof even after years of
working closely with others, not only with outsiders like me but
with the people within their own
organization. Some immediately spoke of their family; others
never mentioned anything apart
from the task in hand.
Some leaders were excruciatingly vain-and it did not affect their
performance (as his
spectacular vanity did not affect General Douglas MacArthur's
performance until the very end of
his career). Some were self-effacing to a fault-and again it did
not affect their performance as
leaders (as it did not affect the performance of General George
Marshall or Harry Truman).
Some were as austere in their private lives as a hermit in the
desert; others were ostentatious and
pleasure-loving and whooped it up at every opportunity. Some
were good listeners, but among
the most effective leaders I have worked with were also a few
loners who listened only to their
own inner voice.
The one and only personality trait the effective ones I have
encountered did have in
common was something they did not have: they had little or no
"charisma" and little use either
for the term or for what it signifies.
What leaders know
All the effective leaders I have encountered-both those I worked
with and those I merely
watched-knew four simple things:
1. The only definition of a leader is someone who has followers.
Some people are
thinkers. Some are prophets. Both roles are important and badly
needed. But without followers,
there can be no leaders.
2. An effective leader is not someone who is loved or admired.
He or she is someone
whose followers do the right things. Popularity is not
leadership. Results are.
3. Leaders are highly visible. They therefore set examples.
4. Leadership is not rank, privileges, titles, or money. It is
responsibility.
What leaders do
Regardless of their almost limitless diversity with respect to
personality, style, abilities, and
interests, the effective leaders I have met, worked with, and
observed also behaved much the
same way:
1. They did not start out with the question, "What do I want?"
They started out asking,
"What needs to be done?"
2. Then they asked, "What can and should I do to make a
difference?" This has to be
something that both needs to be done and fits the leader's
strengths and the way she or he is most
effective.
3. They constantly asked, "What are the organization's mission
and goals? What
constitutes performance and results in this organization?"
4. They were extremely tolerant of diversity in people and did
not look for carbon copies
of themselves. It rarely even occurred to them to ask, "Do I like
or dislike this person?" But they
were totally-fiendishly-intolerant when it came to a person's
performance, standards, and values.
5. They were not afraid of strength in their associates. They
gloried in it. Whether they
had heard of it or not, their motto was what Andrew Carnegie
wanted to have put on his
tombstone: "Here lies a man who attracted better people into his
service than he was himself."
6. One way or another, they submitted themselves to the "mirror
test"-that is, they made
sure that the person they saw in the mirror in the morning was
the kind of person they wanted to
be, respect, and believe in. This way they fortified themselves
against the leader's greatest
temptations-to do things that are popular rather than right and to
do petty, mean, sleazy things.
Finally, these effective leaders were not preachers; they were
doers. In the mid 1920s,
when I was in my final high school years, a whole spate of
books on World War I and its
campaigns suddenly appeared in English, French, and German.
For our term project, our
excellent history teacher-himself a badly wounded war veteran-
told each of us to pick several of
these books, read them carefully, and write a major essay on our
selections. When we then
discussed these essays in class, one of my fellow students said,
"Every one of these books says
that the Great War was a war of total military incompetence.
Why was it?" Our teacher did not
hesitate a second but shot right back, "Because not enough
generals were killed; they stayed way
behind the lines and let others do the fighting and dying."
Effective leaders delegate a good many things; they have to or
they drown in trivia. But
they do not delegate the one thing that only they can do with
excellence, the one thing that will
make a difference, the one thing that will set standards, the one
thing they want to be
remembered for. They do it.
Peter F. Drucker is an author, professor, consultant, and founder
of the Peter F. Drucker Foundation for Nonprofit Management.
Reprinted with permission from The Leader of the Future, The
Drucker Foundation, F. Hesselbein, M. Goldsmith, and R.
Beckhard, eds.
Copyright © 1996 The Peter F. Drucker Foundation for
Nonprofit Management. All rights reserved. For ordering
information, please contact
Jossey-Bass, Inc., 350 Sansome St., San Francisco, CA 94104;
800-956-7739.
Copyright © 1996 by Christianity Today
International/LEADERSHIP, journal.
Fall 1996, Vol. XVII, No. 4, Page 54
Last Updated: October 8, 1996
13
H E S S E L B E I N & C O M P A N Y
What Is Moral Intelligence?
Moral intelligence differs from our
cognitive,technical,and emotional in-
telligences. Moral intelligence is our
mental capacity to determine how
universal human principles (such as
integrity, responsibility,
compassion, and for-
giveness—univer sal
human principles that
cut across the globe and
are not gender, ethnic,
culture, or religion spe-
cific) should be applied
to our personal values,
goals, and actions.
Recent neuroscientific
advances in mapping
the brain provide strong
evidence that we are
indeed born to be moral. We ap-
pear to have been provided with
“moral hardwiring” at birth. In
other words, we were born to be
moral just like we were born to
be lingual.We are not born knowing
how to talk and we are not born
When we began our researchon moral intelligence in the
middle 1990s, we did not expect
that we were about to enter an era
when the cost of not having moral
values at work would be so obvi-
ous.We are still unable to accurately
calculate a “return on
investment” for the
presence of moral val-
ues in the workplace,
but it is clear that the
cost of the absence of
moral values and the
resulting moral incom-
petence is indeed high.
In the first few years of
this millennium, mar-
ket capitalization of do-
mestically traded stocks
was hammered to the
tune of more than $1
trillion—and a good portion of this
can be attributed to the loss of con-
fidence and trust in the honesty and
integrity of our free market system.
Moral Intelligence for
Successful Leadership
Doug Lennick and Fred Kiel
moral, but we are born to speak and
to develop a moral compass. Learn-
ing a language requires both the
nature to learn language and the
nurture of those speaking around us.
Our moral intelligence is nurtured
in the early years by our family or
caregivers, and later in life the work-
place itself serves as an arena where
our moral intelligence comes into
play.
Our research for our book, Moral In-
telligence: Enhancing Business Perfor-
mance and Leadership Success, strongly
indicates that sustainable personal
and organizational success requires
moral competence, which is the ac-
tive application of our moral intelli-
gence. Moral competence is an
outgrowth of “living in alignment,”
the interconnection of an individ-
ual’s moral compass (basic moral
principles, values, and beliefs) and
goals, along with behaviors, includ-
ing thoughts, emotions, and exter-
nal actions. Living in alignment
means that someone’s behavior is
consistent with their goals and that
their goals are consistent with their
moral compass. Living in alignment
is not accidental. It requires under-
standing and building on each com-
ponent while maintaining alignment
among all components.
Our moral competence can indeed
be enhanced throughout life. Com-
petence shows up in behavior. And
when it comes to moral behavior in
For bulk reprints of this article, please call 201-748-8771.
Spring 2006
Leader to Leader
the workplace, organizations can and
must create environments within
which integrity, responsibility, com-
passion, and forgiveness—the prin-
ciples of moral intelligence—come
to life.
Is There Such a Thing as a
Morally Intelligent Organization?
A morally intelligent organization is
one whose culture is infused with
worthwhile values and whose mem-
bers consistently act in ways aligned
with those values. A morally intelli-
gent organization’s major charac-
teristic is that it is populated with
morally intelligent people.
Organizational culture is a function
of selection and leadership. As Jim
Collins suggests in Good to Great,
who is on the bus does matter! And,
not surprisingly, how leaders lead
matters as well.
What Collins discovered in his re-
search is consistent with what we
discovered in ours. He found what
leaders believe (that is, what’s em-
bedded in their moral compasses)
has a real impact on business re-
sults. He also found that leaders
who go from good to great were
similar in important ways. In a re-
cent speech at a major American
Bankers Association Convention,
Collins noted that great leaders are
both humble and ambitious. How-
ever, their ambition is for the cause,
for the purpose, for the mission,
not for themselves. He calls these
people “Level 5 leaders” and notes
they are driven to produce results
but in a morally intelligent way.
Collins says this in his book: “Our
research exposed Level 5 as a key
component inside the black box of
what it takes to shift a company from
good to great.Yet inside that black
box is yet another black box—
namely, the inner development of
a person to Level 5. We could spec-
ulate on what might be inside that
black box, but it would mostly be
just that—speculation. So, in short,
Level 5 is a very satisfying idea, a
powerful idea, and, to produce the
best transitions from good to great,
perhaps an essential idea.”
We do believe it is an essential
idea. We also believe organizations
can, should, and must do something
about it. We have some ideas of
our own which might help you
get inside your black box.
How to Develop and Nurture
Moral Intelligence in Yourself
and the Workplace
Our suggestions for developing
moral intelligence begin with the fol-
lowing understanding of leadership:
• Effective leadership of others
begins with effective manage-
ment of oneself.
• Effective management of oneself
begins with self-awareness and
ends with living in alignment.
• Living in alignment is all about
aligning personal reality (thought,
emotion, action) with organiza-
tional and individual goals and
with the ideals represented in our
moral compass (principles, values,
beliefs).
In other words, effective leadership
starts with self-awareness. Who are
you ideally? Who are you really?
What are your goals? What are your
strengths? What are your gaps? What
do you need to learn and what be-
haviors do you need to change?
Who are you ideally? If you haven’t
done so, we suggest you complete a
personal values exercise (if you don’t
have one readily available to you,
visit www.moralcompass.com to use
ours at no cost). Also, if you don’t
now do so, we suggest you discuss
personal values in the hiring process.
�
We are born to speak
and we are born to be moral.
�
14
Spring 2006
When you’re deciding who you
want on your bus you should be very
interested in the personal values of
the proposed riders.
Reflecting on your personal values
can help build a trusting and trust-
worthy culture through a three-
step process:
• Self-awareness. (What are your
values?)
• Self-disclosure. (Share your values
with your direct reports.)
• Discovery of others. (Discover
the values of those who report
to you.)
Within your ideals you will see your
moral intelligence.Within the ideals
of others, you will see their moral
intelligence. As you reflect on your
top five or six values, you will no-
tice your values will be like a fabric
with different kinds of fibers em-
bedded within it. Some of the fibers
will be moral, some social, some
professional, and so on. Incidentally,
if you examine your company val-
ues, you will discover a fabric made
of similar kinds of fibers.
Who are you really? Personal reality
is the moment-to-moment experi-
ence of thought, emotion, and action
(both voluntary and involuntary action)
that is constantly changing. For the
most part, our personal reality can
be managed through exercising the
power of personal choice. Although
we cannot choose our emotions
and our involuntary biological pro-
cesses, we can choose what to think,
what to think about, and how to
think about it. We can also choose
what we do and what we say.
To enhance your awareness of your
personal reality, which will lead di-
rectly to enhanced self-management
and in turn to more effective lead-
ership and relationships with others,
we recommend you play the freeze
game several times every day for the
rest of your life.
What is the freeze game and how
does one play it?
• At any given moment hit the
pause button and check in on
your personal reality. At that mo-
ment, what were you thinking?
What were you feeling? What
were your actions? Awareness
of actions includes awareness of
facial expression, body language,
and tone of voice.
• Ask yourself,“Is my reality of
experience aligned?” This is
a two-part question: Are my
thoughts, emotions, and actions
aligned with one another, and
is that reality of experience
aligned with my goals and my
moral compass?
If your reality is aligned, you are in
the moment! You are in the zone!
You are appropriately focused! If
your reality is misaligned, you can
change it.You can change what you
think. You can change the tone in
your voice and the look on your
face.You can change what you do.
Remarkably, when you change
what you think and do, you will in-
fluence the emotions you feel and
your involuntary biological and
physical processes.
Whether you are in alignment or
not, it is important to recognize you
are always influencing those around
you, and influencing others is what
leadership is all about.
Connecting Personal Reality
and Ideality with the
Moral Principles of Integrity,
Responsibility, Compassion,
and Forgiveness
Because, as our friend the author
Larry Wilson points out, we are all
FHBs (fallible human beings), per-
fection will escape us. We might
very well embrace the principles,
which will mean we are indeed
morally intelligent, but from time
�
Great leaders are both
humble and ambitious.
�
15
Leader to Leader
who we are ideally and who we are
really we can ask ourselves the fol-
lowing questions:
• Are my personal values in
harmony or in conflict with the
moral principles? If so, I have a
functional moral compass. If not,
I must reexamine my values and
fix my compass.
• Are my goals in alignment with
my moral compass? If not, I must
adjust them until they are.
• Are my behaviors in alignment
with my goals and my moral
compass? If not, I must change
my behaviors. That will require
that I change my thoughts.
It is imperative to recognize we
cannot choose the moral princi-
ples. They exist independent of our
acceptance of them. Also, we can-
not choose our emotions.What we
can choose are our values, our be-
liefs, our goals, our thoughts, and
our actions. If necessary, we can
choose to change all or any of those
to better align with the principles.
Conclusion
Moral intelligence, although not
moral perfection, is alive and well in
vast numbers of large and small
companies. It is critical for sustained
personal and organizational success,
and the application of moral intel-
ligence can and must be nurtured in
your life and in your organization.
Doug Lennick is manag-
ing partner of the Lennick
Aberman Group. Previously
he led the retail distribu-
tion business of American
Express Financial Advisors,
and he continues to work di-
rectly with American Express
Company’s CEO, focusing
on workforce culture and per-
formance. His books include
“The Simple Genius (You)”
and “How to Get What You
Want and Remain True to
Yourself.” His latest book,
with Fred Kiel,“Moral
Intelligence: Enhancing
Business Performance and
Leadership Success,” has
just been released.
�
Fred Kiel is co-founder of
KRW International, Inc., and
brings more than 30 years of
experience to his work with
Fortune 500 CEOs and
senior executives. His focus is
building organizational effec-
tiveness through leadership
excellence and aligning orga-
nizations with their vision
and mission. Before founding
KRW, Kiel worked with
senior executives in private
practice and served on the
adjunct staff of the Center
for Creative Leadership.
16
to time we will not live up to them.
In those moments we will be mor-
ally intelligent and morally incom-
petent simultaneously.
Fortunately, however, we can en-
hance our ability to honor the
principles by focusing on enhanc-
ing competencies related to the
principles. We have identified ten
competencies which support the
principles. The principles and their
competencies are:
Integrity Acting consistently
with principles,
values, and belief
Telling the truth
Standing up for
what is right
Keeping promises
Responsibility Taking responsibility
for personal choices
Admitting mistakes
and failures
Embracing respon-
sibility for serving
others
Compassion Actively caring
about others
Forgiveness Letting go of one’s
own mistakes
Letting go of
others’ mistakes
Improving our moral competencies
results in better use of our moral in-
telligence. By becoming aware of
Theme: The Leader Needs Personal Skills to Become a Good
21st Century Leader
Read:
Personality and Emotional IQ Creating Self Awareness
· How Personality Plays into Leadership
How Personality Plays Into Leadership
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Comments
You’ve heard it said of people (maybe even of you), "What a
great personality!" Other times, personality is cast in a negative
light, as in "That meeting was nothing but a personality
contest." So how important is personality to leadership
effectiveness?
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The dictionary definition of personality is the collection of
emotional and behavioral traits that characterize a person. That
is, your personality is how you present yourself to the world. It
is how others see you. Is that important for leadership
effectiveness? I think so. Your public persona is the catalyst for
enrolling followers.
Some say you need to be an extrovert to be an effective leader.
Introverts, on the other hand, are commonly characterized as
more comfortable with ideas than with people. In my
experience, either style can be successful, as each has its
merits, and different situations may call on the strengths of
either approach. Just be mindful of the need to emphasize the
positives of your natural style and mitigate the drawbacks.
Extro! Extro!
You are sociable and unreserved, you like people, you seek out
opportunities to convey your message. Everyone says you have
a great personality. So your road to leadership effectiveness is
unblocked, right? Not so fast. You too have challenges.
Some years ago, when I was working in the oil industry, my
team was negotiating with a customer while exiting a line of
business. The customer vice president was charming and
gregarious with a strong personality. His 10-person team was in
the room as we negotiated the terms that would allow us to end
support for his installation. The team members were aware of
several factors that would have been favorable to their
negotiating position?but none of the staffers mentioned them to
the vice president.
Not only did we gain agreement to end support, we also
received liability waivers for all the existing installations. And
he took us to lunch after the session! In a postmortem, my group
determined that the vice president’s staff was intimidated by his
presence. The environment was so centered on their boss that
intervention seemed too risky. They would rather suffer more
onerous terms in the settlement.
A few lessons can be learned from that example.
Don’t be deafened by applause. The challenge for the naturally
extroverted is to learn to hold back when a situation calls for it.
Basking in the glow of your own charm can cause you to
overlook important facts.
More like this
· Leadership from Below
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Done
· A Day in the Life of Celanese's Big ERP Rollup
Try to underwhelm. Your exuberance can overwhelm and
intimidate. Look for clues that others have something to
contribute, and be careful not to shut them out.
Let the last be first. You might need to develop the discipline to
let others speak first on an issue. Listen, then decide. Talking
excessively can give the appearance of arrogance.
Avoid a popularity contest. Be wary of agreeing too quickly just
to be liked. Seemingly casual assurances have a way of coming
back to haunt you.
For extroverts, leadership success is usually a matter of toning
down the intensity. It takes only a little practice to strike the
right balance and enhance your strong personality.
Inside Out
The requirements of leadership sometimes pose a bigger
challenge for the introvert. The primary shortcomings for shy,
reserved people are generally around communication and
accessibility. A thoughtful, introspective approach can be
mistaken for aloofness and might discourage people from asking
questions. That’s not trivial; if you can’t effectively
communicate your mission and objectives, your organization
will drift directionless.
It isn’t necessary to undergo a personality transformation to be
effective. You just need to find a way to bring out what’s on the
inside. Identify the areas for improvement and develop
strategies to strengthen your outward image.
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This was my personal experience early in my career. I was very
shy and usually waited for someone else to make my point. But,
driven to succeed, I decided to work on my communication
skills. I began speaking in public away from my office until I
developed a comfortable style and confidence. My "graduation"
was a dinner speech to 300 people. My nerves didn’t let me eat
a bite, but I was recognized by the organization as the most
inspirational speaker of the year! Today, I may still take a deep
breath before stepping on stage, but I enjoy public speaking a
lot.
Here are a few suggestions on improving your communication
and public speaking skills from the introvert herself.
Get out of the office. The tendency to hibernate is strong, but
you need to get out and mingle with your staff and with
executives. Be seen; be heard.
Script it. Come up with a few talking points on subjects in
which you have an interest. When those deadly silences in the
middle of conversations or meetings give you a panic attack,
these can be useful to fill the space and calm you down.
Reduce the risk. When you’re comfortable with communicating
and ready to practice public speaking, look for low-risk
opportunities. Speak at colleges, volunteer groups and
professional organizations. Going beyond your company gives
you a built-in safety valve. Judgment from outsiders is rarely as
harsh as from those who know you.
Start small. If, like most people, you live in mortal fear of
speaking to large groups, start small. Use breakfast meetings,
small group sessions and even one-on-one sessions to get
comfortable with communicating.
Smile. Your predisposition may affect your demeanor. Various
speculative interpretations can be assigned to a frown or overly
sober expression. Remember to smile. It reflects your inner
confidence that you know where you are going and you want
people to follow.
Remember that in some situations, your natural tendencies will
be just the right prescription. The winds of change can wreak
havoc on the corporate environment. Your calm style can be a
soothing, reassuring influence during periods of chaos. Take
care to maintain those natural strengths even while enhancing
other skills.
Personality Plus
Before you celebrate your new insights, recognize that neither
an extroverted nor introverted style will ensure a positive
outcome, even when flawlessly executed. Many other factors
contribute to success in an organization: the quality of your
decisions, your vision, the timeliness of your execution, the
productivity of your staff. Your personality is the lens that will
reflect these attributes for all to see.
· What is emotional intelligence?
What Is Emotional Intelligence?
Definitions, History and Measures of Emotional Intelligence
By Kendra Cherry
Psychology Expert
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Emotional intelligence involves our ability to understand,
express, and control our emotions. Image: Cultura/Liam Norris
/ Getty Images
Updated December 17, 2015.
"All learning has an emotional base."
-- Plato
The ability to express and control our emotions is essential, but
so is our ability to understand, interpret, and respond to the
emotions of others. Imagine a world where you could not
understand when a friend was feeling sad or when a co-worker
was angry. Psychologists refer to this ability as emotional
intelligence, and some experts even suggest that it can be more
important than IQ.
Learn more about exactly what emotional intelligence is, how it
works, and how it is measured.
What is Emotional Intelligence?
Emotional intelligence (EI) refers to the ability to perceive,
control and evaluate emotions. Some researchers suggest that
emotional intelligence can be learned and strengthened, while
others claim it is an inborn characteristic.
continue reading below our video
Overview of Emotional Intelligence
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Since 1990, Peter Salovey and John D. Mayer have been the
leading researchers on emotional intelligence. In their
influential article "Emotional Intelligence," they defined
emotional intelligence as, "the subset of social intelligence that
involves the ability to monitor one's own and others' feelings
and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this
information to guide one's thinking and actions" (1990).
The Four Branches of Emotional Intelligence
Salovey and Mayer proposed a model that identified four
different factors of emotional intelligence: the perception of
emotion, the ability reason using emotions, the ability to
understand emotion and the ability to manage emotions.
1. Perceiving Emotions: The first step in understanding
emotions is to perceive them accurately. In many cases, this
might involve understanding nonverbal signals such as body
language and facial expressions.
1. Reasoning With Emotions: The next step involves using
emotions to promote thinking and cognitive activity. Emotions
help prioritize what we pay attention and react to; we respond
emotionally to things that garner our attention.
2. Understanding Emotions: The emotions that we perceive can
carry a wide variety of meanings. If someone is expressing
angry emotions, the observer must interpret the cause of their
anger and what it might mean. For example, if your boss is
acting angry, it might mean that he is dissatisfied with your
work; or it could be because he got a speeding ticket on his way
to work that morning or that he's been fighting with his wife.
1. Managing Emotions: The ability to manage emotions
effectively is a crucial part of emotional intelligence.
Regulating emotions, responding appropriately and responding
to the emotions of others are all important aspect of emotional
management.
According to Salovey and Mayer, the four branches of their
model are, "arranged from more basic psychological processes
to higher, more psychologically integrated processes. For
example, the lowest level branch concerns the (relatively)
simple abilities of perceiving and expressing emotion. In
contrast, the highest level branch concerns the conscious,
reflective regulation of emotion" (1997).
A Brief History of Emotional Intelligence
· 1930s – Edward Thorndike describes the concept of "social
intelligence" as the ability to get along with other people.
· 1940s – David Wechsler suggests that affective components of
intelligence may be essential to success in life.
· 1950s – Humanistic psychologists such as Abraham Maslow
describe how people can build emotional strength.
· 1975 - Howard Gardner publishes The Shattered Mind, which
introduces the concept of multiple intelligences.
· 1985 - Wayne Payne introduces the term emotional
intelligence in his doctoral dissertation entitled "A study of
emotion: developing emotional intelligence; self-integration;
relating to fear, pain and desire (theory, structure of reality,
problem-solving, contraction/expansion, tuning in/coming
out/letting go)."
· 1987 – In an article published in Mensa Magazine, Keith
Beasley uses the term "emotional quotient." Some suggest that
this is the first published use of the phrase, although Reuven
Bar-On claims to have used the term in an unpublished version
of his graduate thesis.
· 1990 – Psychologists Peter Salovey and John Mayer publish
their landmark article, "Emotional Intelligence," in the journal
Imagination, Cognition, and Personality.
· 1995 - The concept of emotional intelligence is popularized
after publication of psychologist and New York Times science
writer Daniel Goleman’s book Emotional Intelligence: Why It
Can Matter More Than IQ.
Measuring Emotional Intelligence
"In regard to measuring emotional intelligence – I am a great
believer that criterion-report (that is, ability testing) is the only
adequate method to employ. Intelligence is an ability, and is
directly measured only by having people answer questions and
evaluating the correctness of those answers." --John D. Mayer
· Reuven Bar-On's EQ-i
A self-report test designed to measure competencies including
awareness, stress tolerance, problem-solving, and happiness.
According to Bar-On, “Emotional intelligence is an array of
noncognitive capabilities, competencies, and skills that
influence one’s ability to succeed in coping with environmental
demands and pressures.”
· Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MEIS)
An ability-based test in which test-takers perform tasks
designed to assess their ability to perceive, identify, understand,
and utilize emotions.
· Seligman Attributional Style Questionnaire (SASQ)
Originally designed as a screening test for the life insurance
company Metropolitan Life, the SASQ measures optimism and
pessimism.
· Emotional Competence Inventory (ECI)
Based on an older instrument known as the Self-Assessment
Questionnaire, the ECI involves having people who know the
individual offer ratings of that person’s abilities in several
different emotional competencies.
Want to discover how emotionally intelligent you are? Start by
taking our quick and fun emotional intelligence quiz.
Learn more:
· Is IQ More Important Than EQ?
· What Are Emotions?
· The Purpose of Emotions
Stay up to date on the latest news and learn more about
psychology. Sign up for our free Psychology newsletter today!
References
Beasley, K. (1987) "The Emotional Quotient." Mensa Magazine
- United Kingdom Edition
Gardner, H. (1975) The Shattered Mind, New York: Knopf.
Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York:
Bantam.
Hein, S. "Emotional Intelligence." Found online at
http://eqi.org/.
Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2000). Models of
emotional intelligence. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.). Handbook of
Intelligence (pp. 396-420). Cambridge, England: Cambridge
University Press.
Payne, W.L. (1985). A study of emotion: developing emotional
intelligence; self-integration; relating to fear, pain and desire
(theory, structure of reality, problem-solving,
contraction/expansion, tuning in/comingout/letting go). A
Doctoral Dissertation. Cincinnati, OH: The Union For
Experimenting Colleges And Universities
Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. (1990). Emotional intelligence.
Imagination, cognition, and personality, 9(3), 185-211.
Thorndike, R. L., & Stein, S. (1937). An evaluation of the
attempts to measure social intelligence. Psychological Bulletin,
34, 275-284.
Wechsler, D. (1940). Nonintellective factors in general
intelligence. Psychological Bulletin, 37, 444-445.
· 8 traits of successful entrepreneurs--Do you have what it
takes?
· 8 traits of successful entrepreneurs--Do you have what it
takes?
· Blogged By:
· Jason Bowser, Featured Startup Business Expert
· Starting a business is a lot of work. Anyone who tells you it's
not is either lying or has never actually started one themselves.
The hours are long, sacrifices are great and you are assulted
with new problems and challenges every day with seemingly no
end. If you don't have the constitution to weather these things,
your business could implode on you faster than it started.
· Clearly, entrepreneurship is not for everyone. But how do you
know whether it’s for you? You should start by asking yourself
what it takes to be a leader because, for the most part, you'll be
doing a lot of the work up front by yourself. If you can't lead
yourself through startup, chances are you won't likely be able to
lead your business and future employees through growth and on
to success.
· If you enjoy only a few actual hours of real work per day, the
rest of the time spent either looking busy or hanging out at the
water cooler to catch up on TV talk, a modest but steady
paycheck and benefits and are okay with routine day-in and day-
out, stop reading here and go back to your cushy desk job.
· If you seek a challenge wrought with risk but with tremendous
potential reward both financially and morally, read on friend,
for you have something of what it takes to be a successful
entrepreneur.
· Successful entrepreneurs, from Henry Ford to Steve Jobs,
share similar qualities with one another. To see how you rank
against these distinguished entrepreneurs, do you share at least
half of these qualities?
· 1. Strong leadership qualities
Leaders are born, not made. Do you find yourself being the go-
to person most of the time? Do you find people asking your
opinion or to help guide or make decisions for them? Have you
been in management roles throughout your career? A leader is
someone who values the goal over any unpleasantness the work
it takes to get there may bring. But a leader is more than just
tenacious. A leader has strong communication skills and the
ability to amass a team of people toward a common goal in a
way that the entire team is motivated and works effectively to
get there as a team. A leader earns the trust and respect of his
team by demonstrating postive work qualities and confidence,
then fostering an environment that proliferates these values
throught the team. A leader who nobody will follow is not a
leader of anything at all.
· 2. Highly self-motivated
You probably know from knowing even a little bit about some
of the most famous business entrepreneurs in history that
leaders are typically pretty intense personalities. Nobody makes
progress by sitting back and waiting for it to find them.
Successful people go out into the world and invoke change
throught their actions. Typically, leaders enjoy challenges and
will work tirelessly to solve problems that confront them. They
adapt well to changing situations without unraveling and are
typically expert of helping their teams change with them by
motivating them toward new goals and opportunities. Often you
will learn that successful entrepreneurs are driven by a more
complete vision or goal than simply the task at hand and able to
think on a more universal level in that regard. They are also
often very passionate about their ideas that drive toward these
ultimate goals and are notoriously difficult to steer off the
course.
· 3. Strong sense of basic ethics and integrity
Business is sustainable because there is a common, understood
code of ethics universally that underpins the very fabric upon
which commerce is conducted. While cheaters and thieves may
win in the short term, they invariably lose out in the long run.
You will find that successful, sustainable business people
maintain the highest standards of integrity becauase, at the end
of the day, if you cannot prove yourself a credible business
person and nobody will do business with you, you are out of
business. With importance in working with clients or leading a
team, effective leaders admit to any error made and offer
solutions to correct rather than lie about, blame others for, or
dwell on the problem itself.
· 4. Willingness to fail
Successful entrepreneurs are risk takers who have all gotten
over one very significant hurdle: they are not afraid of failure.
That's not to say that they rush in with reckless abandon. In
fact, entrepreneurs are often successful because they are
calculating and able to make the best decisions in even the
worst of cases. However, they also accept that, even if they
make the best decision possible, things don't always go
according to plan and may fail anyhow. If you've heard the old
adage, "nothing ventured, nothing gained," that's exactly what
it's saying: do not be afraid to fail, put it out there and give it
your best shot. Again, there's not one successful entrepreneur
out there sitting on his couch asking, "what if?"
· 5. Serial innovators
Entrepreneurs are almost defined by their drive to constantly
develop new ideas and improve on existing processes. In fact,
that's how most of them got into business in the first place.
Successful people welcome change and often depend on it to
improve their effectiveness as leaders and ultimately the
success of their businesses as many business concepts rely on
improving products, services and processes in order to win
business.
· 6. Know what you don't know
While successful entrepreneurs are typically strong
personalities overall, the best have learned that there's always a
lesson to be learned. They are rarely afraid to ask questions
when it means the answers will provide them insight they can
then leverage to effect. Successful entrepreneurs are confident,
but not egotistical to the point that their bull-headedness is a
weakness that continually prohibits them from seeing a bigger
picture and ultimately making the best decisions for the
business.
· 7. Competitive spirit
Entrepreneurs enjoy a challenge and they like to win. They
would have to since starting a business is pretty much one of
the biggest challenges a person can take on in their lifetime. In
business it's a constant war with competition to win business
and grow market share. It's also a personal challenge to use all
of this to focus inward and grow a business from nothing into a
powerhouse that either makes a lot of money or is so effective
that it is sold or acquired for a profit as well.
· 8. Understand the value of a strong peer network
In almost every case, entrepreneurs never get to success alone.
The best understand it takes a network of contacts, business
partners, financial partners, peers and resources to succeed.
Effective people nurture these relationships and surround
themselves with people who can help make them more effective.
Any good leader is only as good as those who support him.
· Primal Leadership
· 7 Famous Leaders Who Prove Introverts Can Be Wildly
Successful
7 Famous Leaders Who Prove Introverts Can Be Wildly
Successful
Who says introverts are shrinking violets who lack social skills?
These seven leaders in politics, business, and tech are among
some of the most influential people of our time, proving that
you don't have to be the loudest voice in the room to be heard.
Barack Obama
Being commander-in-chief seems like an introvert’s worst
nightmare. But even though President Obama has caught
criticism for his aloof personality, he's leveraged introvert's
natural capacity for thoughtful communication.
Even though it's a different style than many on Capitol Hill,
introspection and introversion has its advantages that
extroversion can't compete with. As columnist David Brooks
puts it, "Being led by Barack Obama is like being trumpeted
into battle by Miles Davis. He makes you want to sit down and
discern."
"I don't think he doesn't like people. I know he doesn't like
people. He's not an extrovert; he's an introvert," said political
journalist John Heilemann. "I've known the guy since 1988.
He's not someone who has a wide circle of friends. He's not a
backslapper and he's not an arm-twister. He's a more or less
solitary figure who has extraordinary communicative
capacities."
Marissa Mayer
The Yahoo CEO has seen a lot of media attention lately, but she
insists that the spotlight is not her style. "Mayer often 'talks
about how she is naturally shy and introverted,' and yet modern
media ignores it and paints her as an extrovert instead,"
according to Elle magazine, in their own list of introverted
female leaders.
While her introverted personality may make her want to run and
hide at parties, she's successful in part because she forces
herself to stay in situations that may make her uncomfortable at
first. In her interview with Vogue, she reveals how making it
look easy is hard work:
She suffers from shyness, she says, and has had to discipline
herself to deal with it. For the first 15 minutes she wants to
leave any party, including one in her own home. "I will literally
look at my watch and say, 'You can’t leave until time X,'" she
says. "'And if you’re still having a terrible time at time X, you
can leave.'" She has learned that if she makes herself stay for a
fixed period, she often gets over her social awkwardness and
ends up having fun.
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Warren Buffett
If there’s question of whether introverts can be world-class
successes, the business magnate is "a classic example of an
introvert taking careful, well-calibrated risks," says Susan Cain,
author of Quiet: The Power of Introverts. The noise of a trading
floor is a thrill for extroverts, but introverts take more
calculated risks.
Buffett said in a 2004 Berkshire Hathaway letter to investors:
"Investors should remember that excitement and expenses are
their enemies. And if they insist on trying to time their
participation in equities, they should try to be fearful when
others are greedy and greedy only when others are fearful."
Hillary Clinton
Stepping in recent years out of the shadow of her presidential,
boisterous husband, she's has met criticism for being an overly
guarded public figure.
"People assume that everything she does has some core meaning
that has implications for her potential presidency or her
character," writes Michael Melcher. "But sometimes Hillary is
just being an introvert, and that's that."
Like President Obama, Clinton's private nature helps her deal
with media and political storms carefully, instead of
impulsively. From the New York Times:
Invoking a mantra attributed to Eleanor Roosevelt, Mrs. Clinton
likes to say that women in politics "need to develop skin as
tough as a rhinoceros hide... I joke that I have the scars to show
from my experiences," she said in an interview. "But you know,
our scars are part of us, and they are a reminder of the
experiences we’ve gone through, and our history. I am
constantly making sure that the rhinoceros skin still breathes.
And that’s a challenge that all of us face. But again, not all of
us have to live it out in public."
Mark Zuckerberg
You might not expect the founder of the social network to be
reserved, but Zuckerberg is a classic introvert. "He is shy and
introverted and he often does not seem very warm to people
who don’t know him, but he is warm," Facebook COO Sheryl
Sandberg told the New York Times. She has offered social and
political guidance to balance to Zuck’s less-charismatic
personality. "He really cares about the people who work here."
It’s collaborative, genuine connections that make him a
persuasive CEO, rather than keeping a wide swath of people
under his thumb, are examples of how introverts are valuable
employees—and great leaders. From Fast Company’s
July/August cover story:
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The fact that Zuckerberg can more often than not persuade
startup founders to join the company and work with him is a
vote for the glass-half-full perspective. "What I found
compelling was Mark's commitment to spending a lot of time
with us," says Oculus CEO Brendan Iribe.
Guy Kawasaki
The "Godfather of Silicon Valley" and chief evangelist of
Canva, Kawasaki looks the picture of extroversion—even giving
talks on enchantment—but he’s a self-proclaimed introvert.
Like others on this list, the spotlight role he’s in is just part of
the job. Kawasaki told Cain: "I look upon many of my activities
as a role thrust upon me—not ‘me’ per se. It’s like being an
actor—you don’t have to be an axe murderer to play an axe
murderer. And when the role is over, it’s over."
Bill Gates
The world’s richest man, Microsoft founder, and philanthropist
is a little bit of both—he can be at turns "quiet and bookish," or
fiercely un-shy, says Cain, who pegs him as an introvert. But
he’s outspoken and unphased when it comes down to business—
typical of introverts, to hold to their passions tenaciously.
"Bill brings to the company the idea that conflict can be a good
thing," says Steve Ballmer, former Microsoft CEO in the Time
biography . "Bill knows it's important to avoid that gentle
civility that keeps you from getting to the heart of an issue
quickly. He likes it when anyone, even a junior employee,
challenges him, and you know he respects you when he starts
shouting back."
The value of solitude and deep focus isn’t lost on him. Gates
said in a speaking engagement last year:
I think introverts can do quite well. If you’re clever you can
learn to get the benefits of being an introvert, which might be,
say, being willing to go off for a few days and think about a
tough problem, read everything you can, push yourself very
hard to think out on the edge of that area.
Slideshow Credits: 02 / Flickr user Nick Knupffer; 03 / Flickr
user TechCrunch; 04 / Flickr user Medill DC; 05 / Flickr user
Chatham House; 06 / Flickr user TechCrunch; 07 / Flickr user
OFFICIAL LEWEB PHOTOS; 08 / Flickr user International
Development;
· Interview of Daniel Goleman, Emotional Intelligence Social
Intelligence and Leadership
Youtube Video
· Personality and Leadership 9.5min
Youtube Video
· How Implicit Personality Affects Leadership
· Youtube Video
· Key to Leadership Success
· Youtube Video
· Emotional Intelligence and Leadership
· Youtube Video
Moral Compass
· Moral Intelligence for Successful Leadership
ATTACHMENT
· Why Leaders Lose Their Way
Why Leaders Lose Their Way
· Comments
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Dominique Strauss-Kahn is just the latest in a string of high-
profile leaders making the perp walk. What went wrong, and
how can we learn from it? Professor Bill George discusses how
powerful people lose their moral bearings. To stay grounded
executives must prepare themselves to confront enormous
complexities and pressures.
by Bill George
In recent months several high-level leaders have mysteriously
lost their way. Dominique Strauss-Kahn, former head of the
International Monetary Fund and a leading French politician,
was arraigned on charges of sexual assault. Before that David
Sokol, rumored to be Warren Buffett's successor, was forced to
resign for trading in Lubrizol stock prior to recommending that
Berkshire Hathaway purchase the company. Examples abound of
other recent failures:
· Hewlett-Packard CEO Mark Hurd resigned for submitting false
expense reports concerning his relationship with a contractor.
· US Senator John Ensign (R-NV) resigned after covering up an
extramarital affair with monetary payoffs.
· Lee B. Farkas, former chairman of giant mortgage lender
Taylor, Bean & Whitaker, in April was found guilty for his role
in one of the largest bank fraud schemes in American history.
These talented leaders were highly successful in their respective
fields and at the peak of their careers. This makes their behavior
especially perplexing, raising questions about what caused them
to lose their way:
· Why do leaders known for integrity and leadership engage in
unethical activities?
· Why do they risk great careers and unblemished reputations
for such ephemeral gains?
· Do they think they won't get caught or believe their elevated
status puts them above the law?
· Was this the first time they did something inappropriate, or
have they been on the slippery slope for years?
In these ongoing revelations, the media, politicians, and the
general public frequently characterize these leaders as bad
people, even calling them evil. Simplistic notions of good and
bad only cloud our understanding of why good leaders lose their
way, and how this could happen to any of us.
Leaders who lose their way are not necessarily bad people;
rather, they lose their moral bearings, often yielding to
seductions in their paths. Very few people go into leadership
roles to cheat or do evil, yet we all have the capacity for actions
we deeply regret unless we stay grounded.
Self-reflection: A Path To Leadership Development
Before anyone takes on a leadership role, they should ask
themselves, "Why do I want to lead?" and "What's the purpose
of my leadership?" These questions are simple to ask, but
finding the real answers may take decades. If the honest
answers are power, prestige, and money, leaders are at risk of
relying on external gratification for fulfillment. There is
nothing wrong with desiring these outward symbols as long as
they are combined with a deeper desire to serve something
greater than oneself.
Leaders whose goal is the quest for power over others,
unlimited wealth, or the fame that comes with success tend to
look to others to gain satisfaction, and often appear self-
centered and egotistical. They start to believe their own press.
As leaders of institutions, they eventually believe the institution
cannot succeed without them.
The Leadership Trap
While most people value fair compensation for their
accomplishments, few leaders start out seeking only money,
power, and prestige. Along the way, the rewards—bonus checks,
newspaper articles, perks, and stock appreciation—fuel
increasing desires for more.
This creates a deep desire to keep it going, often driven by
desires to overcome narcissistic wounds from childhood. Many
times, this desire is so strong that leaders breach the ethical
standards that previously governed their conduct, which can be
bizarre and even illegal.
Very few people go into leadership to cheat or do evil.
As Novartis chairman Daniel Vasella (HBS PMD 57) told
Fortune magazine, "for many of us the idea of being a
successful manager—leading the company from peak to peak,
delivering the goods quarter by quarter—is an intoxicating one.
It is a pattern of celebration leading to belief, leading to
distortion. When you achieve good results… you are typically
celebrated, and you begin to believe that the figure at the center
of all that champagne-toasting is yourself."
When leaders focus on external gratification instead of inner
satisfaction, they lose their grounding. Often they reject the
honest critic who speaks truth to power. Instead, they surround
themselves with sycophants who tell them what they want to
hear. Over time, they are unable to engage in honest dialogue;
others learn not to confront them with reality.
The Dark Side Of Leadership
Many leaders get to the top by imposing their will on others,
even destroying people standing in their way. When they reach
the top, they may be paranoid that others are trying to knock
them off their pedestal. Sometimes they develop an impostor
complex, caused by deep insecurities that they aren't good
enough and may be unmasked.
To prove they aren't impostors, they drive so hard for perfection
that they are incapable of acknowledging their failures. When
confronted by them, they convince themselves and others that
these problems are neither their fault nor their responsibility. Or
they look for scapegoats to blame for their problems. Using
their power, charisma, and communications skills, they force
people to accept these distortions, causing entire organizations
to lose touch with reality.
At this stage leaders are vulnerable to making big mistakes,
such as violating the law or putting their organizations'
existence at risk. Their distortions convince them they are doing
nothing wrong, or they rationalize that their deviations are
acceptable to achieve a greater good.
During the financial crisis, Lehman CEO Richard Fuld refused
to recognize that Lehman was undercapitalized. His denial
turned balance sheet misjudgments into catastrophe for the
entire financial system. Fuld persistently rejected advice to seek
added capital, deluding himself into thinking the federal
government would bail him out. When the crisis hit, he had run
out of options other than bankruptcy.
It's lonely at the top, because leaders know they are ultimately
responsible for the lives and fortunes of people. If they fail,
many get deeply hurt. They often deny the burdens and
loneliness, becoming incapable of facing reality. They shut
down their inner voice, because it is too painful to confront or
even acknowledge; it may, however, appear in their dreams as
they try to resolve conflicts rustling around inside their heads.
Meanwhile, their work lives and personal lives get out of
balance. They lose touch with those closest to them
̬ their
spouses, children, and best friends—or co-opt them with their
points of view. Eventually, they lose their capacity to think
logically about important issues.
Values-centered Leadership
Leading is high stress work. There is no way to avoid the
constant challenges of being responsible for people,
organizations, outcomes, and uncertainties in the environment.
Leaders who move up have greater freedom to control their
destinies, but also experience increased pressure and seduction.
Leaders can avoid these pitfalls by devoting themselves to
personal development that cultivates their inner compass, or
True North. This requires reframing their leadership from being
heroes to beingservants of the people they lead. This process
requires thought and introspection because many people get into
leadership roles in response to their ego needs. It enables them
to transition from seeking external gratification to finding
internal satisfaction by making meaningful contributions
through their leadership.
Maintaining their equilibrium amid this stress requires
discipline. Some people practice meditation or yoga to relieve
stress, while others find solace in prayer or taking long runs or
walks. Still others find relief through laughter, music,
television, sporting events, and reading. Their choices don't
matter, as long as they relieve stress and enable them to think
clearly about work and personal issues.
A System To Support Values-centered Leadership
The reality is that people cannot stay grounded by themselves.
Leaders depend on people closest to them to stay centered. They
should seek out people who influence them in profound ways
and stay connected to them. Often their spouse or partner knows
them best. They aren't impressed by titles, prestige, or wealth
accumulation; instead, they worry that these outward symbols
may be causing the loss of authenticity.
Spouses and partners can't carry this entire burden though. We
need mentors to advise us when facing difficult decisions.
Reliable mentors are entirely honest and straight with us,
defining reality and developing action plans.
In addition, intimate support groups like the True North Groups,
with whom people can share their life experiences, hopes, fears,
and challenges, are invaluable. Members of our True North
Group aren't impressed by external success, but care enough
about us as human beings and as leaders to confront us when we
aren't being honest with ourselves.
As Senator Ensign told his fellow senators in a farewell speech
in May, "When one takes a position of leadership, there is a
very real danger of getting caught up in the hype surrounding
that status … Surround yourselves with people who will be
honest with you about how you really are and what you are
becoming, and then make them promise to not hold back… from
telling you the truth."
· Your Leadership is Unique
ATTACHMENT
How Personality
http://www.cio.c
Check out this article I found on
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Theme: The four major qualities necessary to be a successful
21st century leader. Adaptability (change leader), knowledge
management, sustainability, cultural diversity, gender, and
generational diversity
Learning Activity 1
Joan has a necklet business and has developed her jewelry
designs to a point that she has been running a million dollars
yearly gross sales. However, a group has made similar designs
and sold them to QVC and HSN about six months ago. She was
working with them up till now. In the last six months her sales
dropped twenty percent. In fact she can see a real dip coming in
the next month. However she has picked up three new national
chain stores which should pick things up considerably. The
sales won’t make the profit columns until next year. If she can
convince her staff to take a significant pay cut she will be able
to reinstate their full salaries in the 9 to 12 months.
Create the first few paragraphs of the speech that she will give
in the hopes of keeping her employees. You may add facts to
the scenario or add to your speech anything you think is
reasonable for after the 9-12 months. However, adaptability and
change are the paramount ideas that Joan must address in her
leadership actions.
Learning Activity 2
Augustina Artos, a 25 year old female graduate of Harvard
Business School, has just been appointed to the job of Director
of Finance in a medium size business. Her immediate junior in
the business, Jacob Jones is a 53 year old long term employee of
the business. He was passed over for her job.
Referencing this week’s material create the opening interview
between Artos and Jones on her first day. Identify all the issues
that might be suggested by this fact pattern. In your
conversation with Jones be sure to have Artos deal with all the
identified issues using her “leadership relationship building
skills”.
Learning Activity 3
Top executives and board members of a large international bank
in New York are meeting to consider three finalists for a new
position. The winning candidate will be in a high- profile job,
taking charge of a group of top loan officers who have recently
gotten the bank into some risky financial arrangements in the
Middle East. The bank had taken a financial bath when the
dollar dove in the past few years especially in their Yemen
office because of their risky loans. The board voted to hire
someone to directly oversee this group of loan officers and to
make sure the necessary due diligence is done on major loans
before further commitments are made. Although the bank likes
for its decisions to be made as close to the action level as
possible, they believe the loan officers have gotten out of hand
and need to be reined in. The average age of the all-male group
is 39. The effectiveness of the person in this new position is
considered to be of utmost importance for the bank’s future.
They are also aware that certain cultural differences have made
the problem even harder to solve. They need a candidate who
will know how to work with the Yemen employees and has some
knowledge of the customs and language of the country. After
carefully reviewing résumés, the board selected six candidates
for the first round of interviews, after which the list of finalists
was narrowed to two. Both candidates seem to have the intellect
and experience to handle the job. Before the second-round
interview, the board has decided to ask you to devise a set of
questions that will help to elicit the information as to how
familiar the candidates are with handling the cultural diversity
issues the job will present. For your information one candidate
is female the other male. The male candidate is 34 while the
female is 36. Both candidates are attractive and single. In
addition to the reading for the week you may want to research
on the internet some of the cultural bias issues unique to the
Yemen culture. (Hint consider women in the Arab workplace
Case Study for Assignment #1 Dunn's Ski Emporium
Joseph Dunn is the owner and general manager of Dunn’s Ski
Emporium. In business for twenty-five years, Dunn’s Ski
Emporium is known for its state-of-the-art ski equipment and
repairs offered under one roof. It offers moderate prices to
skiers in the bustling town of Vail, Colorado. Dunn’s Ski
Emporium has a cozy ambiance, with a Western décor and a
two-story fireplace with large windows that overlook the Rocky
Mountains. Catering to skiers, the sporting goods store helps
many skiers with their broken or challenged ski equipment.
They specialize in hourly turn-around times on repairs and one
day pick up adjustments on new equipment. This fast service
has set Dunn’s sporting goods store way above their competitors
in the area for return business both from locals and visitors.
Skiers can ski right to their door and leave from their back door
to get back on the slopes. The staff is friendly, knowledgeable,
and local. Most of them work year round.
Dunn has decided to expand his business. For some time, Dunn
noticed that the Deli next door picks up a lot of his business
from the waiting repair customers and he has seen the Deli
customers step in to purchase gloves, goggles, and other
merchandise after eating at the deli. The Deli would make an
interesting addition to his future business plans. The Deli, like
Dunn’s Ski Emporium, has always done a brisk business
especially in season. Designed in a similar western motif, Dunn
thought he would be able to expand easily to include the Deli
into his Emporium. The cross traffic might even increase
business. However, Dunn knows nothing about the Deli
business. The deli’s owner, George Atkins, knows and loves his
business a great deal.
Dunn has known George for years and he is aware that George
is thinking of retiring in the next few years. If he buys the Deli
now and can get George to stay on at the Deli, George could
train and mentor a new managerial staff comprised of some of
Dunn’s staff and return employees who work the seasonal rush.
The trick to the merger’s success would be to get everyone on
board including George. Dunn wondered how he could ensure
George’s best efforts to make the transition stable while Dunn’s
Ski Emporium grows, and more specifically, Dunn is concerned
that if George is no longer the owner of the Deli (because the
Deli would now be a department within Dunn’s Ski Emporium),
George will begin to resent Dunn and this might impair the
merger of the two businesses into one. The future is bright for
both businesses and Dunn wants to keep it that way.
Dunn has decided that his best-selling point to George is to
design an organizational structure based on George’s vision and
mission. Dunn realizes that the design must reflect George’s
relative importance within this acquisition and merger yet must
empower the staff of both the new Deli Department and the
current employees of Dunn’s Ski Emporium to grow the
business.
Helpful Hints to Use for Study and Writing Projects
PART ONE:
How to Analyze a Case Study
Knowing how to analyze a case will help you attack virtually
any business problem.
A case study helps students learn by immersing them in a real-
world business scenario where they can act as problem-solvers
and decision-makers. The case presents facts about a particular
organization or decision. Students are asked to analyze the case
by focusing on the most important facts and using this
information to determine the opportunities and problems facing
that organization, the people within the organization or
decision. Students are then asked to identify alternative courses
of action to deal with the problems or decision they identify.
A case study analysis must not merely summarize the case. It
should identify key issues and problems, outline and assess
alternative courses of action, and draw appropriate conclusions.
The case study analysis can be broken down into the following
steps (FICER):
1. Facts- select the most important facts surrounding the case.
2. Issues-identify the most important issues in the case
3. Courses of action-Specify alternative courses of action.
4. Evaluate- each course of action.
5. Recommend- the best course of action.
Let's look at what each step involves.
1. Identify the most important facts surrounding the case.
Read the case several times to become familiar with the
information it contains. Pay attention to the information in any
accompanying exhibits, tables, or figures. Many case scenarios,
as in real life, present a great deal of detailed information.
Some of these facts are more relevant than others for problem
identification. One can assume the facts and figures in the case
are true, but statements, judgments, or decisions made by
individuals should be questioned. Underline and then list the
most important facts and figures that would help you define the
central problem or issue. If key facts and numbers are not
available, you can make assumptions, but these assumptions
should be reasonable given the situation. The "correctness" of
your conclusions may depend on the assumptions you make.
2. Identify the key issue or issues.
Use the facts provided by the case to identify the key issue or
issues (or decision) facing the person(s) or organization. Many
cases present multiple issues or problems. Identify the most
important and separate them from more trivial issues. State the
major problem or challenge facing the company or person(s).
You should be able to describe the problem or challenge in one
or two sentences. You should be able to explain how this
problem affects the strategy or performance of the organization
or person(s). You will need to explain why the problem
occurred.
3. Specify alternative courses of action.
List the courses of action the company or person(s) can take to
solve its problem or meet the challenge it faces. For instance,
for information system-related problems, do these alternatives
require a new information system or the modification of an
existing system? Are new technologies, business processes,
organizational structures, or management behavior required?
What changes to organizational processes would be required by
each alternative? What management policy would be required to
implement each alternative?
Remember, there is a difference between what an organization
"should do" and what that organization actually "can do". Some
solutions are too expensive or operationally difficult to
implement, and you should avoid solutions that are beyond the
organization's resources. Identify the constraints that will limit
the solutions available. Is each alternative executable given
these constraints? Be practical in your approach to selecting
courses of action.
Creating courses of action requires thinking outside the box. To
do this think about all the people (company as well) involved in
the action, what stake they may have in the action, and how best
to meet their objectives. Sometimes “walking around in
everyone’s shoes” will give you a new insight to the situation or
issue and thus lead to a new course of action.
4. Evaluate each course of action.
Evaluate each alternative using the facts and issues you
identified earlier, given the conditions and information
available. Identify the costs and benefits of each alternative.
Ask yourself "what would be the likely outcome of this course
of action? State the risks as well as the rewards associated with
each course of action. Is your recommendation feasible from a
technical, operational, and financial standpoint? Be sure to state
any assumptions on which you have based your decision.
5. Recommend the best course of action.
State your choice for the best course of action and provide a
detailed explanation of why you made this selection. You may
also want to provide an explanation of why other alternatives
were not selected. Your final recommendation should flow
logically from the rest of your case analysis and should clearly
specify what assumptions were used to shape your conclusion.
There is often no single "right" answer, and each option is
likely to have risks as well as rewards.
Quick Summary
How to Analyze a Case Study
FICER
1. Facts- select the most important facts surrounding the case.
2. Issues-identify the most important issues in the case
3. Courses of action-Specify alternative courses of action.
4. Evaluate- each course of action.
5. Recommend- the best course of action.
Adapted From: Pearson How to analyze a case study
wps.prenhall.com/bp_laudon_essmis_6/21/5555/1422312.../inde
x.html
PART TWO:
Writing in the third person is a must for all of your projects. In
case you have a hard time understanding the difference here is a
short article that will help explain the differences. The article
contains good examples of the way to use each voice of speech.
The Three Persons of Speech
Instructions
Assignment 1: (Week 4) The Role of the Leader
Purpose:
In the past weeks, students have learned about leaders and their
role in the organization. They have been exposed to the idea
that a leader is the social architect of the organization.
Definitively, leaders are those members of the organization who
create the flow of decision making and environment from which
organizational goals and values are set forth. Social architects
create vision, strategic direction, shape culture and values, and
lead change. Leaders align the people’s behavior with the goals
and direction of the organization.
This assessment is designed for students to demonstrate
knowledge of the material covered in weeks 1 – 4. Students are
asked to not only show an understanding of the role of the
leader within an organization but to apply leadership concepts
and ideas to a real-world situation. Students will delve into the
details of the case study and the course readings but must also
look at the situation from a strategic point of view since Dunn
wants a sustainable business.
Outcomes Met:
· use leadership theories, assessment tools, and an
understanding of the role of ethics, values, and attitudes to
evaluate and enhance personal leadership skills
· evaluate the culture and policies of an organization to
recommend and implement improvements that support its
vision, success, and sustainability
Perspective:
In this assessment, students will act as Joseph Dunn, the leader
of Dunn’s Ski Emporium. Dunn want to purchase The Deli, so
there is a lot of work to do before entering into the possible
addition of a business that little is known about. Write from a
leader’s perspective. So, you ask, “What it means to write from
a leader’s perspective?”
Writing from the leader’s perspective means approach Dunn’s
vision through a people centric viewpoint. Focus on how the
two businesses will meet the vision through the decision making
flow and grouping of people within the organizations. How
does a leader best use the people to meet the vision? Even
though it is tempting to write in the first person, a plan is
written in the third person for which a story will unfold. Dunn
is essentially telling a story of how he is going to purchase the
Deli and bring George and the business in as part of the Dunn
Ski Emporium. Dunn will need to figure out how he is going to
combine these two businesses and use his leadership skills to do
so. Remember, write from the leader’s perspective but do not
attempt to solve problems but create and develop an
environment in which problems will be resolved by those who
make the business run.
Dunn plans on designing an organizational structure that fulfills
his vision, one that he believes George has for The Deli, and
one that will fulfill its mission. The organization must be open
to change and possess a culture that empowers its employees to
follow the vision created. Like all good social architects, the
building must start with a design that suites the purpose of the
business and seeks to make it the best building for the job.
Students are expected to be creative but realistic in completing
the assignment. For example, feel free to assign names and
roles to the people in the business. In being creative, students
may not change the facts in the plan. Dunn will present his
ideas to George Atkins once Dunn sits down with him to begin
negotiations, so be sure that the final product is polished. Also
to make sure questions can easily be addressed, write in the
active voice and support the reasoning behind the ideas using
the material from the course. Dunn wants to demonstrate a
thorough knowledge of the leadership material, so a wide range
of the readings will be used.
Instructions:
This assignment is the first of three assignments. In completing
this assignment, students will analyze a case study scenario and
apply the concepts learned in weeks 1-4 using the format
described below. In completing the assignment, students will
answer the questions in narrative form and will follow the steps
provided below:
Step 1: Review “How to Analyze a Case Study” under Week 4
Content.
Step 2: Create a Word or Rich Text Format (RTF) document
that is double-spaced, 12-point font. The final product will be
between 3-5 pages in length excluding the title page and
reference page.
Step 3: Review the assignment grading rubric.
Step 4: Follow this format:
· Title page with title, your name, the course, the instructor’s
name;
· Introduction paragraph
· Body, in paragraph form using section headings
· Summary paragraph
Step 5: In writing a case study, the writing is in the third
person. What this means is that there are no words such as “I,
me, my, we, or us” (first person writing), nor is there use of
“you or your” (second person writing). If uncertain how to
write in the third person, view this
link: http://www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar/firs
t-second-and-third-person
Step 6: In writing this assignment, students are asked to
support the reasoning using in-text citations and a reference list.
A reference within a reference list cannot exist without an
associated in-text citation and vice versa. View the sample
APA paper under Week 1 content
Step 7: In writing this assignment, students are expected to
paraphrase and not use direct quotes. Learn to paraphrase by
reviewing this
link: https://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/QPA_paraphrase2.html
Step 8: Read critically and analyze the scenario provided under
Week 4 Content.
Step 9: Jot down or highlight key facts from the scenario.
Consider making an outline to capture key points in the paper.
Step 10: In your paper, respond to the following elements of
leadership and plan design:
· Evaluate the business status, purpose and goals as well as its
requirements to be successful in the new venture. For example,
what do the businesses do to make money? What is required in
terms of the type of people who need to run the day-to-day
operations? Discuss the critical elements that must be in place
for Dunn to be successful in this new venture
· Joseph Dunn as a social architect. Discuss the elements Dunn
must evaluate to successfully accomplish the alignment of
people and business.
· Dunn selects and designs a business structure that will align
people with business purpose, vision, and mission. Explain the
reasons behind the choices made. Chart the structure and
address the role of George Aitkin.
· Dunn selects and designs a culture for the new venture.
Discuss reasons for selection and how it can aligned with
structure after applying the OCAI.
· Joseph Dunn is change agent for the business environment.
What steps should Dunn take for short-term change? For long-
term change? How does the culture and structure provide for
change?
Step 11: Create the introductory paragraph. The introductory
paragraph is the first paragraph of the paper but is typically
written after writing the body of the paper (Questions students
responded to above). View this website to learn how to write an
introductory
paragraph: http://www.writing.ucsb.edu/faculty/donelan/intro.h
tml
Step 12: Write a summary paragraph. A summary paragraph
restates the main idea(s) of the paper. Make sure to leave a
reader with a sense that the paper is complete. The summary
paragraph is the last paragraph of a paper.
Step 13: Using the grading rubric as a comparison, read
through the paper to ensure all required elements are presented.
Step 14: Proofread the paper for spelling and grammatical
issues, and third person writing.
· Use the spell and grammar check in Word as a first
measure;
· Have someone who has excellent English skills to proof
the paper;
· Consider submitting the paper to the Effective Writing
Center (EWC). The EWC will provide 4-6 areas that may need
improvement.
Step 15: Submit the paper in the Assignment Folder.

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Your Leadership Is Unique Good news There is no one le.docx

  • 1. Your Leadership Is Unique Good news: There is no one "leadership personality." by Peter F. Drucker I have been working with organizations of all kinds for fifty years or more-as a teacher and administrator in the university, as a consultant to corporations, as a board member, as a volunteer. Over the years, I have discussed with scores-perhaps even hundreds-of leaders their roles, their goals, and their performance. I have worked with manufacturing giants and tiny firms, with organizations that span the world and others that work with severely handicapped children in one small town. I have worked with some exceedingly bright executives and a few dummies, with people who talk a good deal about leadership and others who apparently never even think of themselves as leaders and who rarely, if ever, talk about leadership.
  • 2. The lessons are unambiguous. The first is that there may be "born leaders," but there surely are far too few to depend on them. Leadership must be learned and can be learned … The second major lesson is that "leadership personality," "leadership style," and "leadership traits" do not exist. Among the most effective leaders I have encountered and worked with in a half century, some locked themselves into their office and others were ultragregarious. Some (though not many) were "nice guys" and others were stern disciplinarians. Some were quick and impulsive; others studied and studied again and then took forever to come to a decision. Some were warm and instantly "simpatico"; others remained aloof even after years of working closely with others, not only with outsiders like me but with the people within their own organization. Some immediately spoke of their family; others never mentioned anything apart from the task in hand. Some leaders were excruciatingly vain-and it did not affect their performance (as his
  • 3. spectacular vanity did not affect General Douglas MacArthur's performance until the very end of his career). Some were self-effacing to a fault-and again it did not affect their performance as leaders (as it did not affect the performance of General George Marshall or Harry Truman). Some were as austere in their private lives as a hermit in the desert; others were ostentatious and pleasure-loving and whooped it up at every opportunity. Some were good listeners, but among the most effective leaders I have worked with were also a few loners who listened only to their own inner voice. The one and only personality trait the effective ones I have encountered did have in common was something they did not have: they had little or no "charisma" and little use either for the term or for what it signifies. What leaders know All the effective leaders I have encountered-both those I worked with and those I merely watched-knew four simple things: 1. The only definition of a leader is someone who has followers. Some people are
  • 4. thinkers. Some are prophets. Both roles are important and badly needed. But without followers, there can be no leaders. 2. An effective leader is not someone who is loved or admired. He or she is someone whose followers do the right things. Popularity is not leadership. Results are. 3. Leaders are highly visible. They therefore set examples. 4. Leadership is not rank, privileges, titles, or money. It is responsibility. What leaders do Regardless of their almost limitless diversity with respect to personality, style, abilities, and interests, the effective leaders I have met, worked with, and observed also behaved much the same way: 1. They did not start out with the question, "What do I want?" They started out asking, "What needs to be done?" 2. Then they asked, "What can and should I do to make a difference?" This has to be
  • 5. something that both needs to be done and fits the leader's strengths and the way she or he is most effective. 3. They constantly asked, "What are the organization's mission and goals? What constitutes performance and results in this organization?" 4. They were extremely tolerant of diversity in people and did not look for carbon copies of themselves. It rarely even occurred to them to ask, "Do I like or dislike this person?" But they were totally-fiendishly-intolerant when it came to a person's performance, standards, and values. 5. They were not afraid of strength in their associates. They gloried in it. Whether they had heard of it or not, their motto was what Andrew Carnegie wanted to have put on his tombstone: "Here lies a man who attracted better people into his service than he was himself." 6. One way or another, they submitted themselves to the "mirror test"-that is, they made sure that the person they saw in the mirror in the morning was the kind of person they wanted to be, respect, and believe in. This way they fortified themselves against the leader's greatest
  • 6. temptations-to do things that are popular rather than right and to do petty, mean, sleazy things. Finally, these effective leaders were not preachers; they were doers. In the mid 1920s, when I was in my final high school years, a whole spate of books on World War I and its campaigns suddenly appeared in English, French, and German. For our term project, our excellent history teacher-himself a badly wounded war veteran- told each of us to pick several of these books, read them carefully, and write a major essay on our selections. When we then discussed these essays in class, one of my fellow students said, "Every one of these books says that the Great War was a war of total military incompetence. Why was it?" Our teacher did not hesitate a second but shot right back, "Because not enough generals were killed; they stayed way behind the lines and let others do the fighting and dying." Effective leaders delegate a good many things; they have to or they drown in trivia. But they do not delegate the one thing that only they can do with excellence, the one thing that will
  • 7. make a difference, the one thing that will set standards, the one thing they want to be remembered for. They do it. Peter F. Drucker is an author, professor, consultant, and founder of the Peter F. Drucker Foundation for Nonprofit Management. Reprinted with permission from The Leader of the Future, The Drucker Foundation, F. Hesselbein, M. Goldsmith, and R. Beckhard, eds. Copyright © 1996 The Peter F. Drucker Foundation for Nonprofit Management. All rights reserved. For ordering information, please contact Jossey-Bass, Inc., 350 Sansome St., San Francisco, CA 94104; 800-956-7739. Copyright © 1996 by Christianity Today International/LEADERSHIP, journal. Fall 1996, Vol. XVII, No. 4, Page 54 Last Updated: October 8, 1996 13 H E S S E L B E I N & C O M P A N Y
  • 8. What Is Moral Intelligence? Moral intelligence differs from our cognitive,technical,and emotional in- telligences. Moral intelligence is our mental capacity to determine how universal human principles (such as integrity, responsibility, compassion, and for- giveness—univer sal human principles that cut across the globe and are not gender, ethnic, culture, or religion spe- cific) should be applied to our personal values, goals, and actions. Recent neuroscientific advances in mapping the brain provide strong evidence that we are indeed born to be moral. We ap- pear to have been provided with “moral hardwiring” at birth. In other words, we were born to be moral just like we were born to be lingual.We are not born knowing how to talk and we are not born When we began our researchon moral intelligence in the middle 1990s, we did not expect that we were about to enter an era when the cost of not having moral
  • 9. values at work would be so obvi- ous.We are still unable to accurately calculate a “return on investment” for the presence of moral val- ues in the workplace, but it is clear that the cost of the absence of moral values and the resulting moral incom- petence is indeed high. In the first few years of this millennium, mar- ket capitalization of do- mestically traded stocks was hammered to the tune of more than $1 trillion—and a good portion of this can be attributed to the loss of con- fidence and trust in the honesty and integrity of our free market system. Moral Intelligence for Successful Leadership Doug Lennick and Fred Kiel moral, but we are born to speak and to develop a moral compass. Learn- ing a language requires both the nature to learn language and the nurture of those speaking around us. Our moral intelligence is nurtured in the early years by our family or caregivers, and later in life the work- place itself serves as an arena where
  • 10. our moral intelligence comes into play. Our research for our book, Moral In- telligence: Enhancing Business Perfor- mance and Leadership Success, strongly indicates that sustainable personal and organizational success requires moral competence, which is the ac- tive application of our moral intelli- gence. Moral competence is an outgrowth of “living in alignment,” the interconnection of an individ- ual’s moral compass (basic moral principles, values, and beliefs) and goals, along with behaviors, includ- ing thoughts, emotions, and exter- nal actions. Living in alignment means that someone’s behavior is consistent with their goals and that their goals are consistent with their moral compass. Living in alignment is not accidental. It requires under- standing and building on each com- ponent while maintaining alignment among all components. Our moral competence can indeed be enhanced throughout life. Com- petence shows up in behavior. And when it comes to moral behavior in For bulk reprints of this article, please call 201-748-8771. Spring 2006
  • 11. Leader to Leader the workplace, organizations can and must create environments within which integrity, responsibility, com- passion, and forgiveness—the prin- ciples of moral intelligence—come to life. Is There Such a Thing as a Morally Intelligent Organization? A morally intelligent organization is one whose culture is infused with worthwhile values and whose mem- bers consistently act in ways aligned with those values. A morally intelli- gent organization’s major charac- teristic is that it is populated with morally intelligent people. Organizational culture is a function of selection and leadership. As Jim Collins suggests in Good to Great, who is on the bus does matter! And, not surprisingly, how leaders lead matters as well. What Collins discovered in his re- search is consistent with what we discovered in ours. He found what leaders believe (that is, what’s em- bedded in their moral compasses)
  • 12. has a real impact on business re- sults. He also found that leaders who go from good to great were similar in important ways. In a re- cent speech at a major American Bankers Association Convention, Collins noted that great leaders are both humble and ambitious. How- ever, their ambition is for the cause, for the purpose, for the mission, not for themselves. He calls these people “Level 5 leaders” and notes they are driven to produce results but in a morally intelligent way. Collins says this in his book: “Our research exposed Level 5 as a key component inside the black box of what it takes to shift a company from good to great.Yet inside that black box is yet another black box— namely, the inner development of a person to Level 5. We could spec- ulate on what might be inside that black box, but it would mostly be just that—speculation. So, in short, Level 5 is a very satisfying idea, a powerful idea, and, to produce the best transitions from good to great, perhaps an essential idea.” We do believe it is an essential idea. We also believe organizations can, should, and must do something
  • 13. about it. We have some ideas of our own which might help you get inside your black box. How to Develop and Nurture Moral Intelligence in Yourself and the Workplace Our suggestions for developing moral intelligence begin with the fol- lowing understanding of leadership: • Effective leadership of others begins with effective manage- ment of oneself. • Effective management of oneself begins with self-awareness and ends with living in alignment. • Living in alignment is all about aligning personal reality (thought, emotion, action) with organiza- tional and individual goals and with the ideals represented in our moral compass (principles, values, beliefs). In other words, effective leadership starts with self-awareness. Who are you ideally? Who are you really? What are your goals? What are your strengths? What are your gaps? What do you need to learn and what be- haviors do you need to change?
  • 14. Who are you ideally? If you haven’t done so, we suggest you complete a personal values exercise (if you don’t have one readily available to you, visit www.moralcompass.com to use ours at no cost). Also, if you don’t now do so, we suggest you discuss personal values in the hiring process. � We are born to speak and we are born to be moral. � 14 Spring 2006 When you’re deciding who you want on your bus you should be very interested in the personal values of the proposed riders. Reflecting on your personal values can help build a trusting and trust- worthy culture through a three- step process: • Self-awareness. (What are your values?) • Self-disclosure. (Share your values
  • 15. with your direct reports.) • Discovery of others. (Discover the values of those who report to you.) Within your ideals you will see your moral intelligence.Within the ideals of others, you will see their moral intelligence. As you reflect on your top five or six values, you will no- tice your values will be like a fabric with different kinds of fibers em- bedded within it. Some of the fibers will be moral, some social, some professional, and so on. Incidentally, if you examine your company val- ues, you will discover a fabric made of similar kinds of fibers. Who are you really? Personal reality is the moment-to-moment experi- ence of thought, emotion, and action (both voluntary and involuntary action) that is constantly changing. For the most part, our personal reality can be managed through exercising the power of personal choice. Although we cannot choose our emotions and our involuntary biological pro- cesses, we can choose what to think, what to think about, and how to think about it. We can also choose what we do and what we say.
  • 16. To enhance your awareness of your personal reality, which will lead di- rectly to enhanced self-management and in turn to more effective lead- ership and relationships with others, we recommend you play the freeze game several times every day for the rest of your life. What is the freeze game and how does one play it? • At any given moment hit the pause button and check in on your personal reality. At that mo- ment, what were you thinking? What were you feeling? What were your actions? Awareness of actions includes awareness of facial expression, body language, and tone of voice. • Ask yourself,“Is my reality of experience aligned?” This is a two-part question: Are my thoughts, emotions, and actions aligned with one another, and is that reality of experience aligned with my goals and my moral compass? If your reality is aligned, you are in the moment! You are in the zone! You are appropriately focused! If your reality is misaligned, you can change it.You can change what you
  • 17. think. You can change the tone in your voice and the look on your face.You can change what you do. Remarkably, when you change what you think and do, you will in- fluence the emotions you feel and your involuntary biological and physical processes. Whether you are in alignment or not, it is important to recognize you are always influencing those around you, and influencing others is what leadership is all about. Connecting Personal Reality and Ideality with the Moral Principles of Integrity, Responsibility, Compassion, and Forgiveness Because, as our friend the author Larry Wilson points out, we are all FHBs (fallible human beings), per- fection will escape us. We might very well embrace the principles, which will mean we are indeed morally intelligent, but from time � Great leaders are both humble and ambitious. �
  • 18. 15 Leader to Leader who we are ideally and who we are really we can ask ourselves the fol- lowing questions: • Are my personal values in harmony or in conflict with the moral principles? If so, I have a functional moral compass. If not, I must reexamine my values and fix my compass. • Are my goals in alignment with my moral compass? If not, I must adjust them until they are. • Are my behaviors in alignment with my goals and my moral compass? If not, I must change my behaviors. That will require that I change my thoughts. It is imperative to recognize we cannot choose the moral princi- ples. They exist independent of our acceptance of them. Also, we can- not choose our emotions.What we can choose are our values, our be- liefs, our goals, our thoughts, and our actions. If necessary, we can
  • 19. choose to change all or any of those to better align with the principles. Conclusion Moral intelligence, although not moral perfection, is alive and well in vast numbers of large and small companies. It is critical for sustained personal and organizational success, and the application of moral intel- ligence can and must be nurtured in your life and in your organization. Doug Lennick is manag- ing partner of the Lennick Aberman Group. Previously he led the retail distribu- tion business of American Express Financial Advisors, and he continues to work di- rectly with American Express Company’s CEO, focusing on workforce culture and per- formance. His books include “The Simple Genius (You)” and “How to Get What You Want and Remain True to Yourself.” His latest book, with Fred Kiel,“Moral Intelligence: Enhancing Business Performance and
  • 20. Leadership Success,” has just been released. � Fred Kiel is co-founder of KRW International, Inc., and brings more than 30 years of experience to his work with Fortune 500 CEOs and senior executives. His focus is building organizational effec- tiveness through leadership excellence and aligning orga- nizations with their vision and mission. Before founding KRW, Kiel worked with senior executives in private practice and served on the adjunct staff of the Center for Creative Leadership. 16 to time we will not live up to them. In those moments we will be mor- ally intelligent and morally incom- petent simultaneously. Fortunately, however, we can en- hance our ability to honor the principles by focusing on enhanc-
  • 21. ing competencies related to the principles. We have identified ten competencies which support the principles. The principles and their competencies are: Integrity Acting consistently with principles, values, and belief Telling the truth Standing up for what is right Keeping promises Responsibility Taking responsibility for personal choices Admitting mistakes and failures Embracing respon- sibility for serving others Compassion Actively caring about others Forgiveness Letting go of one’s own mistakes Letting go of others’ mistakes
  • 22. Improving our moral competencies results in better use of our moral in- telligence. By becoming aware of Theme: The Leader Needs Personal Skills to Become a Good 21st Century Leader Read: Personality and Emotional IQ Creating Self Awareness · How Personality Plays into Leadership How Personality Plays Into Leadership More like this · Leadership from Below · Book Excerpt--Execution: The Discipline of Getting Things Done · A Day in the Life of Celanese's Big ERP Rollup · · · · · · · · · · Top of Form Email a friend To Use commas to separate multiple email addresses From
  • 23. By Patricia Wallington CIO | Jan 15, 2003 7:00 AM PT RELATED TOPICS · Careers/Staffing Comments You’ve heard it said of people (maybe even of you), "What a great personality!" Other times, personality is cast in a negative light, as in "That meeting was nothing but a personality contest." So how important is personality to leadership effectiveness? 10 hottest tech skills for 2016 Gunning for a banner year in IT? Make sure you have these skills in your toolbox. Read Now The dictionary definition of personality is the collection of emotional and behavioral traits that characterize a person. That is, your personality is how you present yourself to the world. It is how others see you. Is that important for leadership effectiveness? I think so. Your public persona is the catalyst for enrolling followers. Some say you need to be an extrovert to be an effective leader. Introverts, on the other hand, are commonly characterized as more comfortable with ideas than with people. In my experience, either style can be successful, as each has its merits, and different situations may call on the strengths of either approach. Just be mindful of the need to emphasize the positives of your natural style and mitigate the drawbacks. Extro! Extro! You are sociable and unreserved, you like people, you seek out opportunities to convey your message. Everyone says you have a great personality. So your road to leadership effectiveness is unblocked, right? Not so fast. You too have challenges.
  • 24. Some years ago, when I was working in the oil industry, my team was negotiating with a customer while exiting a line of business. The customer vice president was charming and gregarious with a strong personality. His 10-person team was in the room as we negotiated the terms that would allow us to end support for his installation. The team members were aware of several factors that would have been favorable to their negotiating position?but none of the staffers mentioned them to the vice president. Not only did we gain agreement to end support, we also received liability waivers for all the existing installations. And he took us to lunch after the session! In a postmortem, my group determined that the vice president’s staff was intimidated by his presence. The environment was so centered on their boss that intervention seemed too risky. They would rather suffer more onerous terms in the settlement. A few lessons can be learned from that example. Don’t be deafened by applause. The challenge for the naturally extroverted is to learn to hold back when a situation calls for it. Basking in the glow of your own charm can cause you to overlook important facts. More like this · Leadership from Below · Book Excerpt--Execution: The Discipline of Getting Things Done · A Day in the Life of Celanese's Big ERP Rollup Try to underwhelm. Your exuberance can overwhelm and intimidate. Look for clues that others have something to contribute, and be careful not to shut them out. Let the last be first. You might need to develop the discipline to let others speak first on an issue. Listen, then decide. Talking excessively can give the appearance of arrogance. Avoid a popularity contest. Be wary of agreeing too quickly just to be liked. Seemingly casual assurances have a way of coming back to haunt you. For extroverts, leadership success is usually a matter of toning
  • 25. down the intensity. It takes only a little practice to strike the right balance and enhance your strong personality. Inside Out The requirements of leadership sometimes pose a bigger challenge for the introvert. The primary shortcomings for shy, reserved people are generally around communication and accessibility. A thoughtful, introspective approach can be mistaken for aloofness and might discourage people from asking questions. That’s not trivial; if you can’t effectively communicate your mission and objectives, your organization will drift directionless. It isn’t necessary to undergo a personality transformation to be effective. You just need to find a way to bring out what’s on the inside. Identify the areas for improvement and develop strategies to strengthen your outward image. Resources · White Paper Winning the Talent Wars · Executive Viewpoint: Cloud Security and the Role of the CISO See All Top of Form Go Bottom of Form This was my personal experience early in my career. I was very shy and usually waited for someone else to make my point. But, driven to succeed, I decided to work on my communication skills. I began speaking in public away from my office until I developed a comfortable style and confidence. My "graduation" was a dinner speech to 300 people. My nerves didn’t let me eat a bite, but I was recognized by the organization as the most inspirational speaker of the year! Today, I may still take a deep breath before stepping on stage, but I enjoy public speaking a lot. Here are a few suggestions on improving your communication
  • 26. and public speaking skills from the introvert herself. Get out of the office. The tendency to hibernate is strong, but you need to get out and mingle with your staff and with executives. Be seen; be heard. Script it. Come up with a few talking points on subjects in which you have an interest. When those deadly silences in the middle of conversations or meetings give you a panic attack, these can be useful to fill the space and calm you down. Reduce the risk. When you’re comfortable with communicating and ready to practice public speaking, look for low-risk opportunities. Speak at colleges, volunteer groups and professional organizations. Going beyond your company gives you a built-in safety valve. Judgment from outsiders is rarely as harsh as from those who know you. Start small. If, like most people, you live in mortal fear of speaking to large groups, start small. Use breakfast meetings, small group sessions and even one-on-one sessions to get comfortable with communicating. Smile. Your predisposition may affect your demeanor. Various speculative interpretations can be assigned to a frown or overly sober expression. Remember to smile. It reflects your inner confidence that you know where you are going and you want people to follow. Remember that in some situations, your natural tendencies will be just the right prescription. The winds of change can wreak havoc on the corporate environment. Your calm style can be a soothing, reassuring influence during periods of chaos. Take care to maintain those natural strengths even while enhancing other skills. Personality Plus Before you celebrate your new insights, recognize that neither an extroverted nor introverted style will ensure a positive outcome, even when flawlessly executed. Many other factors contribute to success in an organization: the quality of your decisions, your vision, the timeliness of your execution, the productivity of your staff. Your personality is the lens that will
  • 27. reflect these attributes for all to see. · What is emotional intelligence? What Is Emotional Intelligence? Definitions, History and Measures of Emotional Intelligence By Kendra Cherry Psychology Expert Share Pin Tweet Submit Stumble Post Share Sign Up for Our Free Newsletters Thanks, You're in! Top of Form About Today Living Healthy Psychology You might also enjoy: Health Tip of the Day Recipe of the Day Sign up There was an error. Please try again. Please select a newsletter. Please enter a valid email address.
  • 28. Did you mean ? Thank you, , for signing up! Bottom of Form Psychology Categories · Psychology Dictionary: Terms from A to Z · Branches of Psychology · Psychology 101: The Basics · Careers in Psychology · Psychology Quizzes · Behavioral Psychology · Personality Psychology · Developmental Psychology · Cognitive Psychology · Social Psychology · History of Psychology · Psychology Research Methods · Psychotherapy · Academic Resources for Psychology Students · Psychology Basics · Psychology Theories · Psychology Experiments and Research Methods · Updated Articles and Resources · Expert Videos Emotional intelligence involves our ability to understand, express, and control our emotions. Image: Cultura/Liam Norris / Getty Images Updated December 17, 2015. "All learning has an emotional base." -- Plato The ability to express and control our emotions is essential, but so is our ability to understand, interpret, and respond to the emotions of others. Imagine a world where you could not understand when a friend was feeling sad or when a co-worker
  • 29. was angry. Psychologists refer to this ability as emotional intelligence, and some experts even suggest that it can be more important than IQ. Learn more about exactly what emotional intelligence is, how it works, and how it is measured. What is Emotional Intelligence? Emotional intelligence (EI) refers to the ability to perceive, control and evaluate emotions. Some researchers suggest that emotional intelligence can be learned and strengthened, while others claim it is an inborn characteristic. continue reading below our video Overview of Emotional Intelligence Play Video --> Play Mute Current Time 0:01 / Duration Time 3:04 Loaded: 0% Progress: 0% Stream TypeLIVE Remaining Time -3:02 Playback Rate 1 · Chapters Chapters · subtitles off, selected Subtitles · captions settings, opens captions settings dialog · captions off, selected Captions Fullscreen This is a modal window. Play
  • 30. Mute Current Time 0:00 / Duration Time 0:00 Loaded: 0% Progress: 0% Stream TypeLIVE Remaining Time -0:00 Playback Rate 1 · Chapters Chapters · subtitles off, selected Subtitles · captions settings, opens captions settings dialog · captions off, selected Captions Fullscreen Foreground Background Window Font Size Text Edge Style Font Family Defaults Done Since 1990, Peter Salovey and John D. Mayer have been the leading researchers on emotional intelligence. In their influential article "Emotional Intelligence," they defined emotional intelligence as, "the subset of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one's own and others' feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one's thinking and actions" (1990). The Four Branches of Emotional Intelligence Salovey and Mayer proposed a model that identified four different factors of emotional intelligence: the perception of
  • 31. emotion, the ability reason using emotions, the ability to understand emotion and the ability to manage emotions. 1. Perceiving Emotions: The first step in understanding emotions is to perceive them accurately. In many cases, this might involve understanding nonverbal signals such as body language and facial expressions. 1. Reasoning With Emotions: The next step involves using emotions to promote thinking and cognitive activity. Emotions help prioritize what we pay attention and react to; we respond emotionally to things that garner our attention. 2. Understanding Emotions: The emotions that we perceive can carry a wide variety of meanings. If someone is expressing angry emotions, the observer must interpret the cause of their anger and what it might mean. For example, if your boss is acting angry, it might mean that he is dissatisfied with your work; or it could be because he got a speeding ticket on his way to work that morning or that he's been fighting with his wife. 1. Managing Emotions: The ability to manage emotions effectively is a crucial part of emotional intelligence. Regulating emotions, responding appropriately and responding to the emotions of others are all important aspect of emotional management. According to Salovey and Mayer, the four branches of their model are, "arranged from more basic psychological processes to higher, more psychologically integrated processes. For example, the lowest level branch concerns the (relatively) simple abilities of perceiving and expressing emotion. In contrast, the highest level branch concerns the conscious, reflective regulation of emotion" (1997). A Brief History of Emotional Intelligence · 1930s – Edward Thorndike describes the concept of "social intelligence" as the ability to get along with other people. · 1940s – David Wechsler suggests that affective components of intelligence may be essential to success in life. · 1950s – Humanistic psychologists such as Abraham Maslow describe how people can build emotional strength.
  • 32. · 1975 - Howard Gardner publishes The Shattered Mind, which introduces the concept of multiple intelligences. · 1985 - Wayne Payne introduces the term emotional intelligence in his doctoral dissertation entitled "A study of emotion: developing emotional intelligence; self-integration; relating to fear, pain and desire (theory, structure of reality, problem-solving, contraction/expansion, tuning in/coming out/letting go)." · 1987 – In an article published in Mensa Magazine, Keith Beasley uses the term "emotional quotient." Some suggest that this is the first published use of the phrase, although Reuven Bar-On claims to have used the term in an unpublished version of his graduate thesis. · 1990 – Psychologists Peter Salovey and John Mayer publish their landmark article, "Emotional Intelligence," in the journal Imagination, Cognition, and Personality. · 1995 - The concept of emotional intelligence is popularized after publication of psychologist and New York Times science writer Daniel Goleman’s book Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ. Measuring Emotional Intelligence "In regard to measuring emotional intelligence – I am a great believer that criterion-report (that is, ability testing) is the only adequate method to employ. Intelligence is an ability, and is directly measured only by having people answer questions and evaluating the correctness of those answers." --John D. Mayer · Reuven Bar-On's EQ-i A self-report test designed to measure competencies including awareness, stress tolerance, problem-solving, and happiness. According to Bar-On, “Emotional intelligence is an array of noncognitive capabilities, competencies, and skills that influence one’s ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressures.” · Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MEIS) An ability-based test in which test-takers perform tasks designed to assess their ability to perceive, identify, understand,
  • 33. and utilize emotions. · Seligman Attributional Style Questionnaire (SASQ) Originally designed as a screening test for the life insurance company Metropolitan Life, the SASQ measures optimism and pessimism. · Emotional Competence Inventory (ECI) Based on an older instrument known as the Self-Assessment Questionnaire, the ECI involves having people who know the individual offer ratings of that person’s abilities in several different emotional competencies. Want to discover how emotionally intelligent you are? Start by taking our quick and fun emotional intelligence quiz. Learn more: · Is IQ More Important Than EQ? · What Are Emotions? · The Purpose of Emotions Stay up to date on the latest news and learn more about psychology. Sign up for our free Psychology newsletter today! References Beasley, K. (1987) "The Emotional Quotient." Mensa Magazine - United Kingdom Edition Gardner, H. (1975) The Shattered Mind, New York: Knopf. Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam. Hein, S. "Emotional Intelligence." Found online at http://eqi.org/. Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2000). Models of emotional intelligence. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.). Handbook of Intelligence (pp. 396-420). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Payne, W.L. (1985). A study of emotion: developing emotional intelligence; self-integration; relating to fear, pain and desire (theory, structure of reality, problem-solving, contraction/expansion, tuning in/comingout/letting go). A Doctoral Dissertation. Cincinnati, OH: The Union For Experimenting Colleges And Universities
  • 34. Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, cognition, and personality, 9(3), 185-211. Thorndike, R. L., & Stein, S. (1937). An evaluation of the attempts to measure social intelligence. Psychological Bulletin, 34, 275-284. Wechsler, D. (1940). Nonintellective factors in general intelligence. Psychological Bulletin, 37, 444-445. · 8 traits of successful entrepreneurs--Do you have what it takes? · 8 traits of successful entrepreneurs--Do you have what it takes? · Blogged By: · Jason Bowser, Featured Startup Business Expert · Starting a business is a lot of work. Anyone who tells you it's not is either lying or has never actually started one themselves. The hours are long, sacrifices are great and you are assulted with new problems and challenges every day with seemingly no end. If you don't have the constitution to weather these things, your business could implode on you faster than it started. · Clearly, entrepreneurship is not for everyone. But how do you know whether it’s for you? You should start by asking yourself what it takes to be a leader because, for the most part, you'll be doing a lot of the work up front by yourself. If you can't lead yourself through startup, chances are you won't likely be able to lead your business and future employees through growth and on to success. · If you enjoy only a few actual hours of real work per day, the rest of the time spent either looking busy or hanging out at the water cooler to catch up on TV talk, a modest but steady paycheck and benefits and are okay with routine day-in and day- out, stop reading here and go back to your cushy desk job. · If you seek a challenge wrought with risk but with tremendous potential reward both financially and morally, read on friend, for you have something of what it takes to be a successful entrepreneur.
  • 35. · Successful entrepreneurs, from Henry Ford to Steve Jobs, share similar qualities with one another. To see how you rank against these distinguished entrepreneurs, do you share at least half of these qualities? · 1. Strong leadership qualities Leaders are born, not made. Do you find yourself being the go- to person most of the time? Do you find people asking your opinion or to help guide or make decisions for them? Have you been in management roles throughout your career? A leader is someone who values the goal over any unpleasantness the work it takes to get there may bring. But a leader is more than just tenacious. A leader has strong communication skills and the ability to amass a team of people toward a common goal in a way that the entire team is motivated and works effectively to get there as a team. A leader earns the trust and respect of his team by demonstrating postive work qualities and confidence, then fostering an environment that proliferates these values throught the team. A leader who nobody will follow is not a leader of anything at all. · 2. Highly self-motivated You probably know from knowing even a little bit about some of the most famous business entrepreneurs in history that leaders are typically pretty intense personalities. Nobody makes progress by sitting back and waiting for it to find them. Successful people go out into the world and invoke change throught their actions. Typically, leaders enjoy challenges and will work tirelessly to solve problems that confront them. They adapt well to changing situations without unraveling and are typically expert of helping their teams change with them by motivating them toward new goals and opportunities. Often you will learn that successful entrepreneurs are driven by a more complete vision or goal than simply the task at hand and able to think on a more universal level in that regard. They are also often very passionate about their ideas that drive toward these ultimate goals and are notoriously difficult to steer off the course.
  • 36. · 3. Strong sense of basic ethics and integrity Business is sustainable because there is a common, understood code of ethics universally that underpins the very fabric upon which commerce is conducted. While cheaters and thieves may win in the short term, they invariably lose out in the long run. You will find that successful, sustainable business people maintain the highest standards of integrity becauase, at the end of the day, if you cannot prove yourself a credible business person and nobody will do business with you, you are out of business. With importance in working with clients or leading a team, effective leaders admit to any error made and offer solutions to correct rather than lie about, blame others for, or dwell on the problem itself. · 4. Willingness to fail Successful entrepreneurs are risk takers who have all gotten over one very significant hurdle: they are not afraid of failure. That's not to say that they rush in with reckless abandon. In fact, entrepreneurs are often successful because they are calculating and able to make the best decisions in even the worst of cases. However, they also accept that, even if they make the best decision possible, things don't always go according to plan and may fail anyhow. If you've heard the old adage, "nothing ventured, nothing gained," that's exactly what it's saying: do not be afraid to fail, put it out there and give it your best shot. Again, there's not one successful entrepreneur out there sitting on his couch asking, "what if?" · 5. Serial innovators Entrepreneurs are almost defined by their drive to constantly develop new ideas and improve on existing processes. In fact, that's how most of them got into business in the first place. Successful people welcome change and often depend on it to improve their effectiveness as leaders and ultimately the success of their businesses as many business concepts rely on improving products, services and processes in order to win business. · 6. Know what you don't know
  • 37. While successful entrepreneurs are typically strong personalities overall, the best have learned that there's always a lesson to be learned. They are rarely afraid to ask questions when it means the answers will provide them insight they can then leverage to effect. Successful entrepreneurs are confident, but not egotistical to the point that their bull-headedness is a weakness that continually prohibits them from seeing a bigger picture and ultimately making the best decisions for the business. · 7. Competitive spirit Entrepreneurs enjoy a challenge and they like to win. They would have to since starting a business is pretty much one of the biggest challenges a person can take on in their lifetime. In business it's a constant war with competition to win business and grow market share. It's also a personal challenge to use all of this to focus inward and grow a business from nothing into a powerhouse that either makes a lot of money or is so effective that it is sold or acquired for a profit as well. · 8. Understand the value of a strong peer network In almost every case, entrepreneurs never get to success alone. The best understand it takes a network of contacts, business partners, financial partners, peers and resources to succeed. Effective people nurture these relationships and surround themselves with people who can help make them more effective. Any good leader is only as good as those who support him. · Primal Leadership · 7 Famous Leaders Who Prove Introverts Can Be Wildly Successful 7 Famous Leaders Who Prove Introverts Can Be Wildly Successful Who says introverts are shrinking violets who lack social skills? These seven leaders in politics, business, and tech are among some of the most influential people of our time, proving that you don't have to be the loudest voice in the room to be heard.
  • 38. Barack Obama Being commander-in-chief seems like an introvert’s worst nightmare. But even though President Obama has caught criticism for his aloof personality, he's leveraged introvert's natural capacity for thoughtful communication. Even though it's a different style than many on Capitol Hill, introspection and introversion has its advantages that extroversion can't compete with. As columnist David Brooks puts it, "Being led by Barack Obama is like being trumpeted into battle by Miles Davis. He makes you want to sit down and discern." "I don't think he doesn't like people. I know he doesn't like people. He's not an extrovert; he's an introvert," said political journalist John Heilemann. "I've known the guy since 1988. He's not someone who has a wide circle of friends. He's not a backslapper and he's not an arm-twister. He's a more or less solitary figure who has extraordinary communicative capacities." Marissa Mayer The Yahoo CEO has seen a lot of media attention lately, but she insists that the spotlight is not her style. "Mayer often 'talks about how she is naturally shy and introverted,' and yet modern media ignores it and paints her as an extrovert instead," according to Elle magazine, in their own list of introverted female leaders. While her introverted personality may make her want to run and hide at parties, she's successful in part because she forces herself to stay in situations that may make her uncomfortable at first. In her interview with Vogue, she reveals how making it look easy is hard work: She suffers from shyness, she says, and has had to discipline herself to deal with it. For the first 15 minutes she wants to leave any party, including one in her own home. "I will literally look at my watch and say, 'You can’t leave until time X,'" she says. "'And if you’re still having a terrible time at time X, you can leave.'" She has learned that if she makes herself stay for a
  • 39. fixed period, she often gets over her social awkwardness and ends up having fun. Advertisement Advertisement Warren Buffett If there’s question of whether introverts can be world-class successes, the business magnate is "a classic example of an introvert taking careful, well-calibrated risks," says Susan Cain, author of Quiet: The Power of Introverts. The noise of a trading floor is a thrill for extroverts, but introverts take more calculated risks. Buffett said in a 2004 Berkshire Hathaway letter to investors: "Investors should remember that excitement and expenses are their enemies. And if they insist on trying to time their participation in equities, they should try to be fearful when others are greedy and greedy only when others are fearful." Hillary Clinton Stepping in recent years out of the shadow of her presidential, boisterous husband, she's has met criticism for being an overly guarded public figure. "People assume that everything she does has some core meaning that has implications for her potential presidency or her character," writes Michael Melcher. "But sometimes Hillary is just being an introvert, and that's that." Like President Obama, Clinton's private nature helps her deal with media and political storms carefully, instead of impulsively. From the New York Times: Invoking a mantra attributed to Eleanor Roosevelt, Mrs. Clinton likes to say that women in politics "need to develop skin as tough as a rhinoceros hide... I joke that I have the scars to show from my experiences," she said in an interview. "But you know, our scars are part of us, and they are a reminder of the experiences we’ve gone through, and our history. I am constantly making sure that the rhinoceros skin still breathes. And that’s a challenge that all of us face. But again, not all of
  • 40. us have to live it out in public." Mark Zuckerberg You might not expect the founder of the social network to be reserved, but Zuckerberg is a classic introvert. "He is shy and introverted and he often does not seem very warm to people who don’t know him, but he is warm," Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg told the New York Times. She has offered social and political guidance to balance to Zuck’s less-charismatic personality. "He really cares about the people who work here." It’s collaborative, genuine connections that make him a persuasive CEO, rather than keeping a wide swath of people under his thumb, are examples of how introverts are valuable employees—and great leaders. From Fast Company’s July/August cover story: Advertisement Advertisement The fact that Zuckerberg can more often than not persuade startup founders to join the company and work with him is a vote for the glass-half-full perspective. "What I found compelling was Mark's commitment to spending a lot of time with us," says Oculus CEO Brendan Iribe. Guy Kawasaki The "Godfather of Silicon Valley" and chief evangelist of Canva, Kawasaki looks the picture of extroversion—even giving talks on enchantment—but he’s a self-proclaimed introvert. Like others on this list, the spotlight role he’s in is just part of the job. Kawasaki told Cain: "I look upon many of my activities as a role thrust upon me—not ‘me’ per se. It’s like being an actor—you don’t have to be an axe murderer to play an axe murderer. And when the role is over, it’s over." Bill Gates The world’s richest man, Microsoft founder, and philanthropist is a little bit of both—he can be at turns "quiet and bookish," or fiercely un-shy, says Cain, who pegs him as an introvert. But he’s outspoken and unphased when it comes down to business—
  • 41. typical of introverts, to hold to their passions tenaciously. "Bill brings to the company the idea that conflict can be a good thing," says Steve Ballmer, former Microsoft CEO in the Time biography . "Bill knows it's important to avoid that gentle civility that keeps you from getting to the heart of an issue quickly. He likes it when anyone, even a junior employee, challenges him, and you know he respects you when he starts shouting back." The value of solitude and deep focus isn’t lost on him. Gates said in a speaking engagement last year: I think introverts can do quite well. If you’re clever you can learn to get the benefits of being an introvert, which might be, say, being willing to go off for a few days and think about a tough problem, read everything you can, push yourself very hard to think out on the edge of that area. Slideshow Credits: 02 / Flickr user Nick Knupffer; 03 / Flickr user TechCrunch; 04 / Flickr user Medill DC; 05 / Flickr user Chatham House; 06 / Flickr user TechCrunch; 07 / Flickr user OFFICIAL LEWEB PHOTOS; 08 / Flickr user International Development; · Interview of Daniel Goleman, Emotional Intelligence Social Intelligence and Leadership Youtube Video · Personality and Leadership 9.5min Youtube Video · How Implicit Personality Affects Leadership · Youtube Video · Key to Leadership Success · Youtube Video · Emotional Intelligence and Leadership · Youtube Video
  • 42. Moral Compass · Moral Intelligence for Successful Leadership ATTACHMENT · Why Leaders Lose Their Way Why Leaders Lose Their Way · Comments · 77 · Email · Print · Share · Facebook · LinkedIn · Twitter · Email Dominique Strauss-Kahn is just the latest in a string of high- profile leaders making the perp walk. What went wrong, and how can we learn from it? Professor Bill George discusses how powerful people lose their moral bearings. To stay grounded executives must prepare themselves to confront enormous complexities and pressures. by Bill George In recent months several high-level leaders have mysteriously lost their way. Dominique Strauss-Kahn, former head of the International Monetary Fund and a leading French politician, was arraigned on charges of sexual assault. Before that David Sokol, rumored to be Warren Buffett's successor, was forced to resign for trading in Lubrizol stock prior to recommending that Berkshire Hathaway purchase the company. Examples abound of other recent failures: · Hewlett-Packard CEO Mark Hurd resigned for submitting false expense reports concerning his relationship with a contractor.
  • 43. · US Senator John Ensign (R-NV) resigned after covering up an extramarital affair with monetary payoffs. · Lee B. Farkas, former chairman of giant mortgage lender Taylor, Bean & Whitaker, in April was found guilty for his role in one of the largest bank fraud schemes in American history. These talented leaders were highly successful in their respective fields and at the peak of their careers. This makes their behavior especially perplexing, raising questions about what caused them to lose their way: · Why do leaders known for integrity and leadership engage in unethical activities? · Why do they risk great careers and unblemished reputations for such ephemeral gains? · Do they think they won't get caught or believe their elevated status puts them above the law? · Was this the first time they did something inappropriate, or have they been on the slippery slope for years? In these ongoing revelations, the media, politicians, and the general public frequently characterize these leaders as bad people, even calling them evil. Simplistic notions of good and bad only cloud our understanding of why good leaders lose their way, and how this could happen to any of us. Leaders who lose their way are not necessarily bad people; rather, they lose their moral bearings, often yielding to seductions in their paths. Very few people go into leadership roles to cheat or do evil, yet we all have the capacity for actions we deeply regret unless we stay grounded. Self-reflection: A Path To Leadership Development Before anyone takes on a leadership role, they should ask themselves, "Why do I want to lead?" and "What's the purpose of my leadership?" These questions are simple to ask, but finding the real answers may take decades. If the honest answers are power, prestige, and money, leaders are at risk of relying on external gratification for fulfillment. There is nothing wrong with desiring these outward symbols as long as they are combined with a deeper desire to serve something
  • 44. greater than oneself. Leaders whose goal is the quest for power over others, unlimited wealth, or the fame that comes with success tend to look to others to gain satisfaction, and often appear self- centered and egotistical. They start to believe their own press. As leaders of institutions, they eventually believe the institution cannot succeed without them. The Leadership Trap While most people value fair compensation for their accomplishments, few leaders start out seeking only money, power, and prestige. Along the way, the rewards—bonus checks, newspaper articles, perks, and stock appreciation—fuel increasing desires for more. This creates a deep desire to keep it going, often driven by desires to overcome narcissistic wounds from childhood. Many times, this desire is so strong that leaders breach the ethical standards that previously governed their conduct, which can be bizarre and even illegal. Very few people go into leadership to cheat or do evil. As Novartis chairman Daniel Vasella (HBS PMD 57) told Fortune magazine, "for many of us the idea of being a successful manager—leading the company from peak to peak, delivering the goods quarter by quarter—is an intoxicating one. It is a pattern of celebration leading to belief, leading to distortion. When you achieve good results… you are typically celebrated, and you begin to believe that the figure at the center of all that champagne-toasting is yourself." When leaders focus on external gratification instead of inner satisfaction, they lose their grounding. Often they reject the honest critic who speaks truth to power. Instead, they surround themselves with sycophants who tell them what they want to hear. Over time, they are unable to engage in honest dialogue; others learn not to confront them with reality. The Dark Side Of Leadership Many leaders get to the top by imposing their will on others, even destroying people standing in their way. When they reach
  • 45. the top, they may be paranoid that others are trying to knock them off their pedestal. Sometimes they develop an impostor complex, caused by deep insecurities that they aren't good enough and may be unmasked. To prove they aren't impostors, they drive so hard for perfection that they are incapable of acknowledging their failures. When confronted by them, they convince themselves and others that these problems are neither their fault nor their responsibility. Or they look for scapegoats to blame for their problems. Using their power, charisma, and communications skills, they force people to accept these distortions, causing entire organizations to lose touch with reality. At this stage leaders are vulnerable to making big mistakes, such as violating the law or putting their organizations' existence at risk. Their distortions convince them they are doing nothing wrong, or they rationalize that their deviations are acceptable to achieve a greater good. During the financial crisis, Lehman CEO Richard Fuld refused to recognize that Lehman was undercapitalized. His denial turned balance sheet misjudgments into catastrophe for the entire financial system. Fuld persistently rejected advice to seek added capital, deluding himself into thinking the federal government would bail him out. When the crisis hit, he had run out of options other than bankruptcy. It's lonely at the top, because leaders know they are ultimately responsible for the lives and fortunes of people. If they fail, many get deeply hurt. They often deny the burdens and loneliness, becoming incapable of facing reality. They shut down their inner voice, because it is too painful to confront or even acknowledge; it may, however, appear in their dreams as they try to resolve conflicts rustling around inside their heads. Meanwhile, their work lives and personal lives get out of balance. They lose touch with those closest to them ̬ their spouses, children, and best friends—or co-opt them with their points of view. Eventually, they lose their capacity to think logically about important issues.
  • 46. Values-centered Leadership Leading is high stress work. There is no way to avoid the constant challenges of being responsible for people, organizations, outcomes, and uncertainties in the environment. Leaders who move up have greater freedom to control their destinies, but also experience increased pressure and seduction. Leaders can avoid these pitfalls by devoting themselves to personal development that cultivates their inner compass, or True North. This requires reframing their leadership from being heroes to beingservants of the people they lead. This process requires thought and introspection because many people get into leadership roles in response to their ego needs. It enables them to transition from seeking external gratification to finding internal satisfaction by making meaningful contributions through their leadership. Maintaining their equilibrium amid this stress requires discipline. Some people practice meditation or yoga to relieve stress, while others find solace in prayer or taking long runs or walks. Still others find relief through laughter, music, television, sporting events, and reading. Their choices don't matter, as long as they relieve stress and enable them to think clearly about work and personal issues. A System To Support Values-centered Leadership The reality is that people cannot stay grounded by themselves. Leaders depend on people closest to them to stay centered. They should seek out people who influence them in profound ways and stay connected to them. Often their spouse or partner knows them best. They aren't impressed by titles, prestige, or wealth accumulation; instead, they worry that these outward symbols may be causing the loss of authenticity. Spouses and partners can't carry this entire burden though. We need mentors to advise us when facing difficult decisions. Reliable mentors are entirely honest and straight with us, defining reality and developing action plans. In addition, intimate support groups like the True North Groups, with whom people can share their life experiences, hopes, fears,
  • 47. and challenges, are invaluable. Members of our True North Group aren't impressed by external success, but care enough about us as human beings and as leaders to confront us when we aren't being honest with ourselves. As Senator Ensign told his fellow senators in a farewell speech in May, "When one takes a position of leadership, there is a very real danger of getting caught up in the hype surrounding that status … Surround yourselves with people who will be honest with you about how you really are and what you are becoming, and then make them promise to not hold back… from telling you the truth." · Your Leadership is Unique ATTACHMENT How Personality http://www.cio.c Check out this article I found on 2 true --- --- --- --- ---
  • 48. --- 100% None Default Theme: The four major qualities necessary to be a successful 21st century leader. Adaptability (change leader), knowledge management, sustainability, cultural diversity, gender, and generational diversity Learning Activity 1 Joan has a necklet business and has developed her jewelry designs to a point that she has been running a million dollars yearly gross sales. However, a group has made similar designs and sold them to QVC and HSN about six months ago. She was working with them up till now. In the last six months her sales dropped twenty percent. In fact she can see a real dip coming in the next month. However she has picked up three new national chain stores which should pick things up considerably. The sales won’t make the profit columns until next year. If she can convince her staff to take a significant pay cut she will be able to reinstate their full salaries in the 9 to 12 months. Create the first few paragraphs of the speech that she will give in the hopes of keeping her employees. You may add facts to the scenario or add to your speech anything you think is reasonable for after the 9-12 months. However, adaptability and change are the paramount ideas that Joan must address in her leadership actions. Learning Activity 2 Augustina Artos, a 25 year old female graduate of Harvard Business School, has just been appointed to the job of Director of Finance in a medium size business. Her immediate junior in the business, Jacob Jones is a 53 year old long term employee of
  • 49. the business. He was passed over for her job. Referencing this week’s material create the opening interview between Artos and Jones on her first day. Identify all the issues that might be suggested by this fact pattern. In your conversation with Jones be sure to have Artos deal with all the identified issues using her “leadership relationship building skills”. Learning Activity 3 Top executives and board members of a large international bank in New York are meeting to consider three finalists for a new position. The winning candidate will be in a high- profile job, taking charge of a group of top loan officers who have recently gotten the bank into some risky financial arrangements in the Middle East. The bank had taken a financial bath when the dollar dove in the past few years especially in their Yemen office because of their risky loans. The board voted to hire someone to directly oversee this group of loan officers and to make sure the necessary due diligence is done on major loans before further commitments are made. Although the bank likes for its decisions to be made as close to the action level as possible, they believe the loan officers have gotten out of hand and need to be reined in. The average age of the all-male group is 39. The effectiveness of the person in this new position is considered to be of utmost importance for the bank’s future. They are also aware that certain cultural differences have made the problem even harder to solve. They need a candidate who will know how to work with the Yemen employees and has some knowledge of the customs and language of the country. After carefully reviewing résumés, the board selected six candidates for the first round of interviews, after which the list of finalists was narrowed to two. Both candidates seem to have the intellect and experience to handle the job. Before the second-round interview, the board has decided to ask you to devise a set of questions that will help to elicit the information as to how familiar the candidates are with handling the cultural diversity issues the job will present. For your information one candidate
  • 50. is female the other male. The male candidate is 34 while the female is 36. Both candidates are attractive and single. In addition to the reading for the week you may want to research on the internet some of the cultural bias issues unique to the Yemen culture. (Hint consider women in the Arab workplace Case Study for Assignment #1 Dunn's Ski Emporium Joseph Dunn is the owner and general manager of Dunn’s Ski Emporium. In business for twenty-five years, Dunn’s Ski Emporium is known for its state-of-the-art ski equipment and repairs offered under one roof. It offers moderate prices to skiers in the bustling town of Vail, Colorado. Dunn’s Ski Emporium has a cozy ambiance, with a Western décor and a two-story fireplace with large windows that overlook the Rocky Mountains. Catering to skiers, the sporting goods store helps many skiers with their broken or challenged ski equipment. They specialize in hourly turn-around times on repairs and one day pick up adjustments on new equipment. This fast service has set Dunn’s sporting goods store way above their competitors in the area for return business both from locals and visitors. Skiers can ski right to their door and leave from their back door to get back on the slopes. The staff is friendly, knowledgeable, and local. Most of them work year round. Dunn has decided to expand his business. For some time, Dunn noticed that the Deli next door picks up a lot of his business from the waiting repair customers and he has seen the Deli customers step in to purchase gloves, goggles, and other merchandise after eating at the deli. The Deli would make an interesting addition to his future business plans. The Deli, like Dunn’s Ski Emporium, has always done a brisk business especially in season. Designed in a similar western motif, Dunn thought he would be able to expand easily to include the Deli into his Emporium. The cross traffic might even increase business. However, Dunn knows nothing about the Deli
  • 51. business. The deli’s owner, George Atkins, knows and loves his business a great deal. Dunn has known George for years and he is aware that George is thinking of retiring in the next few years. If he buys the Deli now and can get George to stay on at the Deli, George could train and mentor a new managerial staff comprised of some of Dunn’s staff and return employees who work the seasonal rush. The trick to the merger’s success would be to get everyone on board including George. Dunn wondered how he could ensure George’s best efforts to make the transition stable while Dunn’s Ski Emporium grows, and more specifically, Dunn is concerned that if George is no longer the owner of the Deli (because the Deli would now be a department within Dunn’s Ski Emporium), George will begin to resent Dunn and this might impair the merger of the two businesses into one. The future is bright for both businesses and Dunn wants to keep it that way. Dunn has decided that his best-selling point to George is to design an organizational structure based on George’s vision and mission. Dunn realizes that the design must reflect George’s relative importance within this acquisition and merger yet must empower the staff of both the new Deli Department and the current employees of Dunn’s Ski Emporium to grow the business. Helpful Hints to Use for Study and Writing Projects PART ONE: How to Analyze a Case Study Knowing how to analyze a case will help you attack virtually any business problem. A case study helps students learn by immersing them in a real- world business scenario where they can act as problem-solvers and decision-makers. The case presents facts about a particular organization or decision. Students are asked to analyze the case
  • 52. by focusing on the most important facts and using this information to determine the opportunities and problems facing that organization, the people within the organization or decision. Students are then asked to identify alternative courses of action to deal with the problems or decision they identify. A case study analysis must not merely summarize the case. It should identify key issues and problems, outline and assess alternative courses of action, and draw appropriate conclusions. The case study analysis can be broken down into the following steps (FICER): 1. Facts- select the most important facts surrounding the case. 2. Issues-identify the most important issues in the case 3. Courses of action-Specify alternative courses of action. 4. Evaluate- each course of action. 5. Recommend- the best course of action. Let's look at what each step involves. 1. Identify the most important facts surrounding the case. Read the case several times to become familiar with the information it contains. Pay attention to the information in any accompanying exhibits, tables, or figures. Many case scenarios, as in real life, present a great deal of detailed information. Some of these facts are more relevant than others for problem identification. One can assume the facts and figures in the case are true, but statements, judgments, or decisions made by individuals should be questioned. Underline and then list the most important facts and figures that would help you define the central problem or issue. If key facts and numbers are not available, you can make assumptions, but these assumptions should be reasonable given the situation. The "correctness" of your conclusions may depend on the assumptions you make. 2. Identify the key issue or issues. Use the facts provided by the case to identify the key issue or issues (or decision) facing the person(s) or organization. Many cases present multiple issues or problems. Identify the most important and separate them from more trivial issues. State the
  • 53. major problem or challenge facing the company or person(s). You should be able to describe the problem or challenge in one or two sentences. You should be able to explain how this problem affects the strategy or performance of the organization or person(s). You will need to explain why the problem occurred. 3. Specify alternative courses of action. List the courses of action the company or person(s) can take to solve its problem or meet the challenge it faces. For instance, for information system-related problems, do these alternatives require a new information system or the modification of an existing system? Are new technologies, business processes, organizational structures, or management behavior required? What changes to organizational processes would be required by each alternative? What management policy would be required to implement each alternative? Remember, there is a difference between what an organization "should do" and what that organization actually "can do". Some solutions are too expensive or operationally difficult to implement, and you should avoid solutions that are beyond the organization's resources. Identify the constraints that will limit the solutions available. Is each alternative executable given these constraints? Be practical in your approach to selecting courses of action. Creating courses of action requires thinking outside the box. To do this think about all the people (company as well) involved in the action, what stake they may have in the action, and how best to meet their objectives. Sometimes “walking around in everyone’s shoes” will give you a new insight to the situation or issue and thus lead to a new course of action. 4. Evaluate each course of action. Evaluate each alternative using the facts and issues you identified earlier, given the conditions and information available. Identify the costs and benefits of each alternative.
  • 54. Ask yourself "what would be the likely outcome of this course of action? State the risks as well as the rewards associated with each course of action. Is your recommendation feasible from a technical, operational, and financial standpoint? Be sure to state any assumptions on which you have based your decision. 5. Recommend the best course of action. State your choice for the best course of action and provide a detailed explanation of why you made this selection. You may also want to provide an explanation of why other alternatives were not selected. Your final recommendation should flow logically from the rest of your case analysis and should clearly specify what assumptions were used to shape your conclusion. There is often no single "right" answer, and each option is likely to have risks as well as rewards. Quick Summary How to Analyze a Case Study FICER 1. Facts- select the most important facts surrounding the case. 2. Issues-identify the most important issues in the case 3. Courses of action-Specify alternative courses of action. 4. Evaluate- each course of action. 5. Recommend- the best course of action. Adapted From: Pearson How to analyze a case study wps.prenhall.com/bp_laudon_essmis_6/21/5555/1422312.../inde x.html PART TWO: Writing in the third person is a must for all of your projects. In case you have a hard time understanding the difference here is a short article that will help explain the differences. The article contains good examples of the way to use each voice of speech. The Three Persons of Speech
  • 55. Instructions Assignment 1: (Week 4) The Role of the Leader Purpose: In the past weeks, students have learned about leaders and their role in the organization. They have been exposed to the idea that a leader is the social architect of the organization. Definitively, leaders are those members of the organization who create the flow of decision making and environment from which organizational goals and values are set forth. Social architects create vision, strategic direction, shape culture and values, and lead change. Leaders align the people’s behavior with the goals and direction of the organization. This assessment is designed for students to demonstrate knowledge of the material covered in weeks 1 – 4. Students are asked to not only show an understanding of the role of the leader within an organization but to apply leadership concepts and ideas to a real-world situation. Students will delve into the details of the case study and the course readings but must also look at the situation from a strategic point of view since Dunn wants a sustainable business. Outcomes Met: · use leadership theories, assessment tools, and an understanding of the role of ethics, values, and attitudes to evaluate and enhance personal leadership skills · evaluate the culture and policies of an organization to recommend and implement improvements that support its vision, success, and sustainability Perspective: In this assessment, students will act as Joseph Dunn, the leader of Dunn’s Ski Emporium. Dunn want to purchase The Deli, so
  • 56. there is a lot of work to do before entering into the possible addition of a business that little is known about. Write from a leader’s perspective. So, you ask, “What it means to write from a leader’s perspective?” Writing from the leader’s perspective means approach Dunn’s vision through a people centric viewpoint. Focus on how the two businesses will meet the vision through the decision making flow and grouping of people within the organizations. How does a leader best use the people to meet the vision? Even though it is tempting to write in the first person, a plan is written in the third person for which a story will unfold. Dunn is essentially telling a story of how he is going to purchase the Deli and bring George and the business in as part of the Dunn Ski Emporium. Dunn will need to figure out how he is going to combine these two businesses and use his leadership skills to do so. Remember, write from the leader’s perspective but do not attempt to solve problems but create and develop an environment in which problems will be resolved by those who make the business run. Dunn plans on designing an organizational structure that fulfills his vision, one that he believes George has for The Deli, and one that will fulfill its mission. The organization must be open to change and possess a culture that empowers its employees to follow the vision created. Like all good social architects, the building must start with a design that suites the purpose of the business and seeks to make it the best building for the job. Students are expected to be creative but realistic in completing the assignment. For example, feel free to assign names and roles to the people in the business. In being creative, students may not change the facts in the plan. Dunn will present his ideas to George Atkins once Dunn sits down with him to begin negotiations, so be sure that the final product is polished. Also to make sure questions can easily be addressed, write in the active voice and support the reasoning behind the ideas using the material from the course. Dunn wants to demonstrate a thorough knowledge of the leadership material, so a wide range
  • 57. of the readings will be used. Instructions: This assignment is the first of three assignments. In completing this assignment, students will analyze a case study scenario and apply the concepts learned in weeks 1-4 using the format described below. In completing the assignment, students will answer the questions in narrative form and will follow the steps provided below: Step 1: Review “How to Analyze a Case Study” under Week 4 Content. Step 2: Create a Word or Rich Text Format (RTF) document that is double-spaced, 12-point font. The final product will be between 3-5 pages in length excluding the title page and reference page. Step 3: Review the assignment grading rubric. Step 4: Follow this format: · Title page with title, your name, the course, the instructor’s name; · Introduction paragraph · Body, in paragraph form using section headings · Summary paragraph Step 5: In writing a case study, the writing is in the third person. What this means is that there are no words such as “I, me, my, we, or us” (first person writing), nor is there use of “you or your” (second person writing). If uncertain how to write in the third person, view this link: http://www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar/firs t-second-and-third-person Step 6: In writing this assignment, students are asked to support the reasoning using in-text citations and a reference list. A reference within a reference list cannot exist without an associated in-text citation and vice versa. View the sample APA paper under Week 1 content Step 7: In writing this assignment, students are expected to paraphrase and not use direct quotes. Learn to paraphrase by
  • 58. reviewing this link: https://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/QPA_paraphrase2.html Step 8: Read critically and analyze the scenario provided under Week 4 Content. Step 9: Jot down or highlight key facts from the scenario. Consider making an outline to capture key points in the paper. Step 10: In your paper, respond to the following elements of leadership and plan design: · Evaluate the business status, purpose and goals as well as its requirements to be successful in the new venture. For example, what do the businesses do to make money? What is required in terms of the type of people who need to run the day-to-day operations? Discuss the critical elements that must be in place for Dunn to be successful in this new venture · Joseph Dunn as a social architect. Discuss the elements Dunn must evaluate to successfully accomplish the alignment of people and business. · Dunn selects and designs a business structure that will align people with business purpose, vision, and mission. Explain the reasons behind the choices made. Chart the structure and address the role of George Aitkin. · Dunn selects and designs a culture for the new venture. Discuss reasons for selection and how it can aligned with structure after applying the OCAI. · Joseph Dunn is change agent for the business environment. What steps should Dunn take for short-term change? For long- term change? How does the culture and structure provide for change? Step 11: Create the introductory paragraph. The introductory paragraph is the first paragraph of the paper but is typically written after writing the body of the paper (Questions students responded to above). View this website to learn how to write an introductory paragraph: http://www.writing.ucsb.edu/faculty/donelan/intro.h tml
  • 59. Step 12: Write a summary paragraph. A summary paragraph restates the main idea(s) of the paper. Make sure to leave a reader with a sense that the paper is complete. The summary paragraph is the last paragraph of a paper. Step 13: Using the grading rubric as a comparison, read through the paper to ensure all required elements are presented. Step 14: Proofread the paper for spelling and grammatical issues, and third person writing. · Use the spell and grammar check in Word as a first measure; · Have someone who has excellent English skills to proof the paper; · Consider submitting the paper to the Effective Writing Center (EWC). The EWC will provide 4-6 areas that may need improvement. Step 15: Submit the paper in the Assignment Folder.