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Dr. ANSHU
Writing Skills
Writing skills are the skills you use to write effectively and succinctly. A good writer is someone who can communicate their point to
their audience without using too much fluff and in a way that the other person can understand.
Writing skills don’t just include the physical act of writing. Skills like research, planning and outlining, editing, revising, spelling and
grammar, and organization are critical components of the writing process.
In the workplace, writing skills examples include:
 Documenting a process for someone else to learn it
 Summarizing a meeting in an email for all attendees
 Sharing a team update in Slack
 Crafting a mass email to send to prospective customers
 Communicating with a client via email to get action on next steps
 Creating a presentation to share your findings with your team
 Drafting a list of questions to a client to learn more about their needs
Steps of the Writing Process
1: Prewriting
 Make sure you understand your assignment. See Research Papers or Essays
 Decide on a topic to write about. See Prewriting Strategies and Narrow your Topic
 Consider who will read your work. See Audience and Voice
 Brainstorm ideas about the subject and how those ideas can be organized. Make an outline. See Outlines
2: Research
 List places where you can find information.
 Do your research. See the many KU Libraries resources and helpful guides
 Evaluate your sources. See Evaluating Sources and Primary vs. Secondary Sources
 Make an outline to help organize your research. See Outlines
3: Drafting
 Write sentences and paragraphs even if they are not perfect.
 Create a thesis statement with your main idea. See Thesis Statements
 Put the information you researched into your essay accurately without plagiarizing. Remember to include both in-text citations
and a bibliographic page. See Incorporating References and Paraphrase and Summary
 Read what you have written and judge if it says what you mean. Write some more.
 Read it again.
 Write some more.
 Read it again.
 Write until you have said everything you want to say about the topic.
4: Revising
 Read what you have written again. See Revising Content and Revising Organization
 Rearrange words, sentences, or paragraphs into a clear and logical order.
 Take out or add parts.
 Do more research if you think you should.
 Replace overused or unclear words.
 Read your writing aloud to be sure it flows smoothly. Add transitions.
Dr. ANSHU
5: Editing and Proofreading
 Be sure all sentences are complete. See Editing and Proofreading
 Correct spelling, capitalization, and punctuation.
 Change words that are not used correctly or are unclear.
 Make sure you are using the appropriate style formatting.
o APA Formatting
o Chicago Style Formatting
o MLA Formatting
 Have someone else check your work.
Paragraphs & Topic Sentences
A paragraph is a series of sentences that are organized and coherent, and are all related to a single topic. Almost every
piece of writing you do that is longer than a few sentences should be organized into paragraphs. This is because
paragraphs show a reader where the subdivisions of an essay begin and end, and thus help the reader see the
organization of the essay and grasp its main points.
Paragraphs can contain many different kinds of information. A paragraph could contain a series of brief examples or a
single long illustration of a general point. It might describe a place, character, or process; narrate a series of events;
compare or contrast two or more things; classify items into categories; or describe causes and effects. Regardless of the
kind of information they contain, all paragraphs share certain characteristics. One of the most important of these is a topic
sentence.
TOPIC SENTENCES
A well-organized paragraph supports or develops a single controlling idea, which is expressed in a sentence called the
topic sentence. A topic sentence has several important functions: it substantiates or supports an essay’s thesis statement;
it unifies the content of a paragraph and directs the order of the sentences; and it advises the reader of the subject to be
discussed and how the paragraph will discuss it. Readers generally look to the first few sentences in a paragraph to
determine the subject and perspective of the paragraph. That’s why it’s often best to put the topic sentence at the very
beginning of the paragraph. In some cases, however, it’s more effective to place another sentence before the topic
sentence—for example, a sentence linking the current paragraph to the previous one, or one providing background
information.
PARAGRAPH STRUCTURE
Most paragraphs in an essay have a three-part structure—introduction, body, and conclusion. You can see this structure in
paragraphs whether they are narrating, describing, comparing, contrasting, or analyzing information. Each part of the
paragraph plays an important role in communicating your meaning to your reader.
Introduction: the first section of a paragraph; should include the topic sentence and any other sentences at the beginning of
the paragraph that give background information or provide a transition.
Body: follows the introduction; discusses the controlling idea, using facts, arguments, analysis, examples, and other
information.
Conclusion: the final section; summarizes the connections between the information discussed in the body of the paragraph
and the paragraph’s controlling idea.
COHERENCE
In a coherent paragraph, each sentence relates clearly to the topic sentence or controlling idea, but there is more to
coherence than this. If a paragraph is coherent, each sentence flows smoothly into the next without obvious shifts or jumps.
A coherent paragraph also highlights the ties between old information and new information to make the structure of ideas
or arguments clear to the reader.
Rules of Precis Writing
To avoid making any errors in writing a precis, follow a set of rules as mentioned below:
1. Read the comprehension carefully
2. Note down the important points
3. Make a rough draft of the precis
Dr. ANSHU
4. Make use of simple and precise language, as much as possible
5. Draft the final precis once all the points have been included
Important Features of a Good Precis
There are various components that make a good precis. For candidates who have just started their preparation for the upcoming
Government exams, knowing the features of a good precis is extremely vital.
Discussed below are a few of the features which shall help you write a good precis:
 Length of the Precis: Do not write a lengthy precis. In most cases, the number of words must be almost one-third of the word count of the passage
or comprehension.
 It should be convenient to read: Make sure that the precis you write does not have too complex a vocabulary or is too complicated to understand.
 Cover all the essential points: While reading the passage, make a note of the important points and ensure that no point is skipped.
 Must be coherent: The important terms with respect to the passage must be included in the precis as well.
 Use an appropriate Title: The precis needs to have a title. So, the candidates must ensure that the title is in sync with the comprehension.
 Details in precis must match the details in the passage: No other information apart from the one given in the passage must be included in the
precis and all the important information mentioned in the passage must certainly be included.
Report Writing
A report is a written account of something that one has observed, heard, done, or investigated. It is a systematic and well organised presentation of
facts and findings of an event that has already taken place somewhere. Reports are used as a form of written assessment to find out what you have
learned from your reading, research or experience and to give you experience of an important skill that is widely used in the work place.
A well written report must possess the following traits:
 adherence to the specifications of report brief;
 analysis of relevant information;
 structuring material in a logical and coherent order;
 presentation in a consistent manner according to the instructions of the report brief;
 making appropriate conclusions that are supported by the evidence and analysis of the report;
FORMAT OF A REPORT
1. Heading– A descriptive title which is expressive of the contents of the report.
2. By line– Name of the person writing the report. It is generally given in the question. Remember, you are not supposed to mention your personal
details in your answer.
3. Opening paragraph (introduction) – It may include the ‘5 Ws’ namely, WHAT, WHY, WHEN and WHERE along with WHO was invited as the chief
guest.
4. Account of the event in detail– The proper sequence of events that occurred along with their description. It is the main paragraph and can be split
into two short paragraphs if required.
 Conclusion- This will include the description of how the event ended.

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Writing skills precis writing, Report writing and _240124_111102.pdf

  • 1. Dr. ANSHU Writing Skills Writing skills are the skills you use to write effectively and succinctly. A good writer is someone who can communicate their point to their audience without using too much fluff and in a way that the other person can understand. Writing skills don’t just include the physical act of writing. Skills like research, planning and outlining, editing, revising, spelling and grammar, and organization are critical components of the writing process. In the workplace, writing skills examples include:  Documenting a process for someone else to learn it  Summarizing a meeting in an email for all attendees  Sharing a team update in Slack  Crafting a mass email to send to prospective customers  Communicating with a client via email to get action on next steps  Creating a presentation to share your findings with your team  Drafting a list of questions to a client to learn more about their needs Steps of the Writing Process 1: Prewriting  Make sure you understand your assignment. See Research Papers or Essays  Decide on a topic to write about. See Prewriting Strategies and Narrow your Topic  Consider who will read your work. See Audience and Voice  Brainstorm ideas about the subject and how those ideas can be organized. Make an outline. See Outlines 2: Research  List places where you can find information.  Do your research. See the many KU Libraries resources and helpful guides  Evaluate your sources. See Evaluating Sources and Primary vs. Secondary Sources  Make an outline to help organize your research. See Outlines 3: Drafting  Write sentences and paragraphs even if they are not perfect.  Create a thesis statement with your main idea. See Thesis Statements  Put the information you researched into your essay accurately without plagiarizing. Remember to include both in-text citations and a bibliographic page. See Incorporating References and Paraphrase and Summary  Read what you have written and judge if it says what you mean. Write some more.  Read it again.  Write some more.  Read it again.  Write until you have said everything you want to say about the topic. 4: Revising  Read what you have written again. See Revising Content and Revising Organization  Rearrange words, sentences, or paragraphs into a clear and logical order.  Take out or add parts.  Do more research if you think you should.  Replace overused or unclear words.  Read your writing aloud to be sure it flows smoothly. Add transitions.
  • 2. Dr. ANSHU 5: Editing and Proofreading  Be sure all sentences are complete. See Editing and Proofreading  Correct spelling, capitalization, and punctuation.  Change words that are not used correctly or are unclear.  Make sure you are using the appropriate style formatting. o APA Formatting o Chicago Style Formatting o MLA Formatting  Have someone else check your work. Paragraphs & Topic Sentences A paragraph is a series of sentences that are organized and coherent, and are all related to a single topic. Almost every piece of writing you do that is longer than a few sentences should be organized into paragraphs. This is because paragraphs show a reader where the subdivisions of an essay begin and end, and thus help the reader see the organization of the essay and grasp its main points. Paragraphs can contain many different kinds of information. A paragraph could contain a series of brief examples or a single long illustration of a general point. It might describe a place, character, or process; narrate a series of events; compare or contrast two or more things; classify items into categories; or describe causes and effects. Regardless of the kind of information they contain, all paragraphs share certain characteristics. One of the most important of these is a topic sentence. TOPIC SENTENCES A well-organized paragraph supports or develops a single controlling idea, which is expressed in a sentence called the topic sentence. A topic sentence has several important functions: it substantiates or supports an essay’s thesis statement; it unifies the content of a paragraph and directs the order of the sentences; and it advises the reader of the subject to be discussed and how the paragraph will discuss it. Readers generally look to the first few sentences in a paragraph to determine the subject and perspective of the paragraph. That’s why it’s often best to put the topic sentence at the very beginning of the paragraph. In some cases, however, it’s more effective to place another sentence before the topic sentence—for example, a sentence linking the current paragraph to the previous one, or one providing background information. PARAGRAPH STRUCTURE Most paragraphs in an essay have a three-part structure—introduction, body, and conclusion. You can see this structure in paragraphs whether they are narrating, describing, comparing, contrasting, or analyzing information. Each part of the paragraph plays an important role in communicating your meaning to your reader. Introduction: the first section of a paragraph; should include the topic sentence and any other sentences at the beginning of the paragraph that give background information or provide a transition. Body: follows the introduction; discusses the controlling idea, using facts, arguments, analysis, examples, and other information. Conclusion: the final section; summarizes the connections between the information discussed in the body of the paragraph and the paragraph’s controlling idea. COHERENCE In a coherent paragraph, each sentence relates clearly to the topic sentence or controlling idea, but there is more to coherence than this. If a paragraph is coherent, each sentence flows smoothly into the next without obvious shifts or jumps. A coherent paragraph also highlights the ties between old information and new information to make the structure of ideas or arguments clear to the reader. Rules of Precis Writing To avoid making any errors in writing a precis, follow a set of rules as mentioned below: 1. Read the comprehension carefully 2. Note down the important points 3. Make a rough draft of the precis
  • 3. Dr. ANSHU 4. Make use of simple and precise language, as much as possible 5. Draft the final precis once all the points have been included Important Features of a Good Precis There are various components that make a good precis. For candidates who have just started their preparation for the upcoming Government exams, knowing the features of a good precis is extremely vital. Discussed below are a few of the features which shall help you write a good precis:  Length of the Precis: Do not write a lengthy precis. In most cases, the number of words must be almost one-third of the word count of the passage or comprehension.  It should be convenient to read: Make sure that the precis you write does not have too complex a vocabulary or is too complicated to understand.  Cover all the essential points: While reading the passage, make a note of the important points and ensure that no point is skipped.  Must be coherent: The important terms with respect to the passage must be included in the precis as well.  Use an appropriate Title: The precis needs to have a title. So, the candidates must ensure that the title is in sync with the comprehension.  Details in precis must match the details in the passage: No other information apart from the one given in the passage must be included in the precis and all the important information mentioned in the passage must certainly be included. Report Writing A report is a written account of something that one has observed, heard, done, or investigated. It is a systematic and well organised presentation of facts and findings of an event that has already taken place somewhere. Reports are used as a form of written assessment to find out what you have learned from your reading, research or experience and to give you experience of an important skill that is widely used in the work place. A well written report must possess the following traits:  adherence to the specifications of report brief;  analysis of relevant information;  structuring material in a logical and coherent order;  presentation in a consistent manner according to the instructions of the report brief;  making appropriate conclusions that are supported by the evidence and analysis of the report; FORMAT OF A REPORT 1. Heading– A descriptive title which is expressive of the contents of the report. 2. By line– Name of the person writing the report. It is generally given in the question. Remember, you are not supposed to mention your personal details in your answer. 3. Opening paragraph (introduction) – It may include the ‘5 Ws’ namely, WHAT, WHY, WHEN and WHERE along with WHO was invited as the chief guest. 4. Account of the event in detail– The proper sequence of events that occurred along with their description. It is the main paragraph and can be split into two short paragraphs if required.  Conclusion- This will include the description of how the event ended.