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Ambiguity
wicked
NASA/JPL	
  [Public	
  domain],	
  via	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  
Colman
NASA/JPL	
  [Public	
  domain],	
  via	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  
Jonathon
@jcolman
NASA/JPL	
  [Public	
  domain],	
  via	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  
Bit.ly/raycats
video + slides + text
NASA/JPL	
  [Public	
  domain],	
  via	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  
NASA/JPL	
  [Public	
  domain],	
  via	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  
Wicked Ambiguity and User Experience
Wicked Ambiguity and User Experience
Sebas<an	
  Mary	
  (giovannijl-­‐s_photohut)	
  [CC-­‐BY-­‐SA-­‐2.0	
  (hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐sa/2.0/)],	
  via	
  Flickr	
  -­‐	
  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/giovannijl-­‐s_photohut/421051338	
  
Big problem
What’s the
in user experience?
They think we’re just
creatives
Oh, But I’m really a
._______!
Oh, But I’m really a
Designer
._______!
Oh, But I’m really a
Developer
._______!
Oh, But I’m really a
Researcher
._______!
Oh, But I’m really a
Information Architect
._______!
Oh, But I’m really a
._______!Content Strategist
Oh, But I’m really a
._______!Creative
creative
Designer
Content Strategist
Information Architect
Researcher
Developer
Our differences
Don’t matter
We’re united against
Ambiguity
Wicked Ambiguity and User Experience
Problems
Wicked
Problems
Wicked
Horst Rittel &
Melvin Webber
René	
  Spitz	
  (renespitz)	
  [CC-­‐BY-­‐ND-­‐2.0	
  (hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐nd/2.0/)],	
  via	
  Flickr	
  -­‐	
  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/renespitz/3383405574/	
  
John	
  Snow/C.F.	
  Cheffins	
  (Rewardiv	
  at	
  en.wikipedia)	
  [Public	
  domain],	
  from	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  -­‐	
  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Snow-­‐cholera-­‐map-­‐1.jpg	
  
John	
  Snow/C.F.	
  Cheffins	
  (Rewardiv	
  at	
  en.wikipedia)	
  [Public	
  domain],	
  from	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  -­‐	
  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Snow-­‐cholera-­‐map-­‐1.jpg	
  
John	
  Snow/C.F.	
  Cheffins	
  (Rewardiv	
  at	
  en.wikipedia)	
  [Public	
  domain],	
  from	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  -­‐	
  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Snow-­‐cholera-­‐map-­‐1.jpg	
  
Naw, That’s a
tame problem
René	
  Spitz	
  (renespitz)	
  [CC-­‐BY-­‐ND-­‐2.0	
  (hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐nd/2.0/)],	
  via	
  Flickr	
  -­‐	
  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/renespitz/3383405574/	
  
US	
  Federal	
  Agency	
  Centers	
  for	
  Disease	
  Control	
  and	
  Preven<on	
  (CDC),	
  from	
  Flickr	
  -­‐	
  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/cdcglobal/14723720857	
  (crea<ve	
  commons	
  license:	
  hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/	
  )	
  
US	
  Federal	
  Agency	
  Centers	
  for	
  Disease	
  Control	
  and	
  Preven<on	
  (CDC),	
  from	
  Flickr	
  -­‐	
  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/cdcglobal/14723720857	
  (crea<ve	
  commons	
  license:	
  hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/	
  )	
  
OMG WHADDA
wicked pissaH
René	
  Spitz	
  (renespitz)	
  [CC-­‐BY-­‐ND-­‐2.0	
  (hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐nd/2.0/)],	
  via	
  Flickr	
  -­‐	
  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/renespitz/3383405574/	
  
Steffi	
  Reichert,	
  from	
  Flickr	
  -­‐	
  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/steffireichert/4107432940	
  (crea<ve	
  commons	
  license:	
  hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐nc-­‐nd/2.0/	
  )	
  
By	
  Ventus	
  (Own	
  work)	
  [CC	
  BY-­‐SA	
  3.0	
  (hNp://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐sa/3.0)],	
  via	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  
By	
  West	
  Midlands	
  Police	
  from	
  West	
  Midlands,	
  United	
  Kingdom	
  [CC	
  BY-­‐SA	
  2.0	
  (hNp://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐sa/2.0)],	
  via	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  
US	
  Federal	
  Agency	
  Drug	
  Enforcement	
  Agency	
  (DEA)	
  [Public	
  domain],	
  via	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  -­‐	
  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Drugpackscorpion.png	
  
John	
  Warwick	
  Brooke	
  [Public	
  domain],	
  via	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  -­‐	
  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bri<sh_ar<llery_in_ac<on,_World_War_I.JPEG	
  
By	
  Elizabeth	
  ArroN	
  /	
  VOA	
  [Public	
  domain],	
  via	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  -­‐	
  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:VOA-­‐Crimea-­‐Simferopol-­‐airport.jpg	
  
Tim	
  J.	
  Keegan	
  (suburbanbloke)	
  [CC-­‐BY-­‐SA-­‐2.0	
  (hNp://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐sa/2.0/)],	
  via	
  Flickr	
  -­‐	
  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/49333819@N00/381634787	
  
Adam	
  Fowler	
  (adamfowler)	
  [CC	
  BY-­‐NC-­‐ND	
  2.0	
  (hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐nc-­‐nd/2.0/)],	
  via	
  Flickr	
  -­‐	
  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/adamfowler/4841559945	
  
Wicked Ambiguity and User Experience
UX
wicked problems in
Designing for
Alien beings
ScoNer20	
  via	
  NASA	
  [Public	
  domain],	
  via	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  -­‐	
  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Terrestrial_Planets_Size_Comp_True_Color.png	
  
By	
  NASA	
  (Cropped	
  from	
  Image:Africa	
  satellite	
  plane.jpg.)	
  [Public	
  domain],	
  via	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  -­‐	
  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sahara_satellite_hires.jpg	
  
By	
  NASA	
  (Cropped	
  from	
  Image:Africa	
  satellite	
  plane.jpg.)	
  [Public	
  domain],	
  via	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  -­‐	
  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sahara_satellite_hires.jpg	
  
HELLO
By	
  NASA	
  (Cropped	
  from	
  Image:Africa	
  satellite	
  plane.jpg.)	
  [Public	
  domain],	
  via	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  -­‐	
  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sahara_satellite_hires.jpg	
  
2 + 2 = 4
By	
  NASA	
  (Cropped	
  from	
  Image:Africa	
  satellite	
  plane.jpg.)	
  [Public	
  domain],	
  via	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  -­‐	
  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sahara_satellite_hires.jpg	
  
EAT AT JOE’S
signalmirror	
  [CC-­‐BY-­‐SA-­‐2.0	
  (hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/)],	
  via	
  Flickr	
  -­‐	
  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/signalmirror/8329443696/	
  
NASA/JPL	
  [Public	
  domain],	
  from	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  -­‐	
  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mars_atmosphere.jpg	
  
NASA/JPL	
  [Public	
  domain],	
  from	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  -­‐	
  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mars_atmosphere.jpg	
  
EAT AT JOE’S
Via	
  Wikipedia	
  -­‐	
  hNp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drake_equa<on	
  
𝑁=​ 𝑅↓∗ ∙​ 𝑓↓𝑝 ∙​ 𝑛↓𝑒 ∙​ 𝑓↓𝑙 ∙​ 𝑓↓𝑖 ∙​ 𝑓↓𝑐 ∙ 𝐿
The Drake Equation
Via	
  Wikipedia	
  -­‐	
  hNp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drake_equa<on	
  
𝑁=​ 𝑅↓∗ ∙​ 𝑓↓𝑝 ∙​ 𝑛↓𝑒 ∙​ 𝑓↓𝑙 ∙​ 𝑓↓𝑖 ∙​ 𝑓↓𝑐 ∙ 𝐿
The Drake Equation
Lower bound:
8 x 10-20
Via	
  Wikipedia	
  -­‐	
  hNp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drake_equa<on	
  
Lower bound:
8 x 10-20
Upper bound:
36.4 M
𝑁=​ 𝑅↓∗ ∙​ 𝑓↓𝑝 ∙​ 𝑛↓𝑒 ∙​ 𝑓↓𝑙 ∙​ 𝑓↓𝑖 ∙​ 𝑓↓𝑐 ∙ 𝐿
The Drake Equation
Oona	
  Räisänen;	
  designed	
  by	
  Carl	
  Sagan	
  &	
  Frank	
  Drake;	
  artwork	
  by	
  Linda	
  Salzman	
  Sagan	
  [Public	
  domain],	
  via	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  -­‐	
  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pioneer_plaque.svg	
  
Alex	
  Alonso	
  [CC-­‐BY-­‐NC-­‐SA-­‐2.0	
  (hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐nc-­‐sa/2.0/)],	
  via	
  Flickr	
  -­‐	
  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/aleiex/2123333438	
  
Carl Sagan
NASA/JPL	
  [Public	
  domain],	
  via	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  -­‐	
  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Arecibo_message.svg	
  
By	
  Arne	
  Nordmann	
  [GFDL	
  (hNp://www.gnu.org/copyleo/fdl.html),	
  CC-­‐BY-­‐SA-­‐3.0	
  (hNp://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐sa/3.0/)],	
  via	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  -­‐	
  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Arecibo_message.svg	
  
By	
  Arne	
  Nordmann	
  [GFDL	
  (hNp://www.gnu.org/copyleo/fdl.html),	
  CC-­‐BY-­‐SA-­‐3.0	
  (hNp://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐sa/3.0/)],	
  via	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  -­‐	
  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Arecibo_message.svg	
  
By	
  Arne	
  Nordmann	
  [GFDL	
  (hNp://www.gnu.org/copyleo/fdl.html),	
  CC-­‐BY-­‐SA-­‐3.0	
  (hNp://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐sa/3.0/)],	
  via	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  -­‐	
  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Arecibo_message.svg	
  
By	
  Arne	
  Nordmann	
  [GFDL	
  (hNp://www.gnu.org/copyleo/fdl.html),	
  CC-­‐BY-­‐SA-­‐3.0	
  (hNp://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐sa/3.0/)],	
  via	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  -­‐	
  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Arecibo_message.svg	
  
By	
  Arne	
  Nordmann	
  [GFDL	
  (hNp://www.gnu.org/copyleo/fdl.html),	
  CC-­‐BY-­‐SA-­‐3.0	
  (hNp://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐sa/3.0/)],	
  via	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  -­‐	
  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Arecibo_message.svg	
  
By	
  Arne	
  Nordmann	
  [GFDL	
  (hNp://www.gnu.org/copyleo/fdl.html),	
  CC-­‐BY-­‐SA-­‐3.0	
  (hNp://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐sa/3.0/)],	
  via	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  -­‐	
  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Arecibo_message.svg	
  
NASA/JPL	
  [Public	
  domain],	
  via	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  -­‐	
  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Sounds_of_Earth_-­‐_GPN-­‐2000-­‐001976.jpg	
  
NASA/JPL	
  [Public	
  domain],	
  via	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  -­‐	
  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Sounds_of_Earth_Record_Cover_-­‐_GPN-­‐2000-­‐001978.jpg	
  
NASA/JPL	
  [Public	
  domain],	
  via	
  NASA	
  -­‐	
  hNp://science.nasa.gov/media/medialibrary/2011/04/28/annsbrainwaves.jpg	
  via	
  hNp://science.nasa.gov/science-­‐news/science-­‐at-­‐nasa/2011/28apr_voyager2/	
  
NASA/JPL	
  [Public	
  domain],	
  via	
  NASA	
  -­‐	
  hNp://science.nasa.gov/media/medialibrary/2011/04/28/annsbrainwaves.jpg	
  via	
  hNp://science.nasa.gov/science-­‐news/science-­‐at-­‐nasa/2011/28apr_voyager2/	
  
NASA/JPL	
  [Public	
  domain],	
  via	
  NASA	
  -­‐	
  hNp://science.nasa.gov/media/medialibrary/2011/04/28/annsbrainwaves.jpg	
  via	
  hNp://science.nasa.gov/science-­‐news/science-­‐at-­‐nasa/2011/28apr_voyager2/	
  
Wicked Ambiguity and User Experience
UX
wicked problems in
Designing a warning for
Nuclear Waste
JJanos	
  Korom	
  Dr.	
  from	
  Wien,	
  Austria	
  (Bécs	
  219	
  	
  Uploaded	
  by	
  darkweasel94)	
  [CC-­‐BY-­‐SA-­‐2.0	
  (hNp://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐sa/2.0)],	
  via	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  -­‐	
  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:B%C3%A9cs_219_(8135332496).jpg	
  
JJanos	
  Korom	
  Dr.	
  from	
  Wien,	
  Austria	
  (Bécs	
  219	
  	
  Uploaded	
  by	
  darkweasel94)	
  [CC-­‐BY-­‐SA-­‐2.0	
  (hNp://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐sa/2.0)],	
  via	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  -­‐	
  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:B%C3%A9cs_219_(8135332496).jpg	
  
JJanos	
  Korom	
  Dr.	
  from	
  Wien,	
  Austria	
  (Bécs	
  219	
  	
  Uploaded	
  by	
  darkweasel94)	
  [CC-­‐BY-­‐SA-­‐2.0	
  (hNp://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐sa/2.0)],	
  via	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  -­‐	
  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:B%C3%A9cs_219_(8135332496).jpg	
  
User:Fasqission	
  [Public	
  domain]	
  via	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  -­‐	
  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Yucca_Mountain_crest_south.jpg	
  
Half-life:
24,100
years
239	
  
PU
Via	
  hNp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plutonium-­‐239	
  .	
  Photo	
  by	
  Los	
  Alamos	
  Na<onal	
  Laboratory	
  [Public	
  domain],	
  via	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  -­‐	
  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Plutonium_ring.jpg	
  
Half-life:
24,100
years
Via	
  hNp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uranium-­‐235	
  	
  and	
  hNp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plutonium-­‐239	
  
239	
  
PU
235	
  
U
Half-life:
24,100
years
Half-life:
703,800,000
years
Via	
  hNp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uranium-­‐235	
  	
  and	
  hNp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plutonium-­‐239	
  
239	
  
PU
235	
  
U
By	
  Ed	
  Siasoco	
  (Flickr:	
  Trinity	
  007)	
  [CC-­‐BY-­‐2.0	
  (hNp://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)],	
  via	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  -­‐	
  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Trinity_007.jpg	
  
Goal
Stop people from
accessing nuclear waste
Strategy
Create a message that
lasts for 10,000+ years
Objective 1
Must communicate
“this is a message”
Objective 2
Must communicate
“this area is dangerous”
Objective 3
Must communicate
WHY
Publishers	
  of	
  the	
  1890	
  Holman	
  Bible	
  [Public	
  domain],	
  via	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  -­‐	
  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Holman_Priest_High_Priest_Levite.jpg	
  
NASA	
  [Public	
  domain],	
  via	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  -­‐	
  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:GPS_Satellite_NASA_art-­‐iif.jpg	
  
By	
  Jon	
  Sullivan	
  (PdPhoto)	
  [Public	
  domain],	
  via	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  -­‐	
  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Leaf_1_web.jpg	
  
Russell	
  Bernice	
  (russellbernice)	
  [CC-­‐BY-­‐2.0	
  (hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/)],	
  via	
  Flickr	
  -­‐	
  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/russellbernice/2558386173/	
  
Alle	
  (pinkiwinki<nki)	
  [CC-­‐BY—SA-­‐2.0	
  (hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐sa/2.0/)],	
  via	
  Flickr	
  -­‐	
  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/55638925@N00/377299306/	
  
Ⓒ	
  Jonathon	
  Colman	
  	
  
Nicolas	
  Raymond	
  (82955120@N05)	
  [CC-­‐BY-­‐2.0	
  (hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/)],	
  via	
  Flickr	
  -­‐	
  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/82955120@N05/13094530583	
  
Sandia	
  Na<onal	
  Laboratories,	
  “Expert	
  Judgment	
  on	
  Markers	
  to	
  Deter	
  Inadvertent	
  Human	
  Intrusion	
  into	
  the	
  Waste	
  Isola<on	
  Pilot	
  Plant”	
  (1993)	
  -­‐	
  hNp://prod.sandia.gov/techlib/access-­‐control.cgi/1992/921382.pdf	
  
Sandia	
  Na<onal	
  Laboratories,	
  “Expert	
  Judgment	
  on	
  Markers	
  to	
  Deter	
  Inadvertent	
  Human	
  Intrusion	
  into	
  the	
  Waste	
  Isola<on	
  Pilot	
  Plant”	
  (1993)	
  -­‐	
  hNp://prod.sandia.gov/techlib/access-­‐control.cgi/1992/921382.pdf	
  
Sandia	
  Na<onal	
  Laboratories,	
  “Expert	
  Judgment	
  on	
  Markers	
  to	
  Deter	
  Inadvertent	
  Human	
  Intrusion	
  into	
  the	
  Waste	
  Isola<on	
  Pilot	
  Plant”	
  (1993)	
  -­‐	
  hNp://prod.sandia.gov/techlib/access-­‐control.cgi/1992/921382.pdf	
  
Sandia	
  Na<onal	
  Laboratories,	
  “Expert	
  Judgment	
  on	
  Markers	
  to	
  Deter	
  Inadvertent	
  Human	
  Intrusion	
  into	
  the	
  Waste	
  Isola<on	
  Pilot	
  Plant”	
  (1993)	
  -­‐	
  hNp://prod.sandia.gov/techlib/access-­‐control.cgi/1992/921382.pdf	
  
Sandia	
  Na<onal	
  Laboratories,	
  “Expert	
  Judgment	
  on	
  Markers	
  to	
  Deter	
  Inadvertent	
  Human	
  Intrusion	
  into	
  the	
  Waste	
  Isola<on	
  Pilot	
  Plant”	
  (1993)	
  -­‐	
  hNp://prod.sandia.gov/techlib/access-­‐control.cgi/1992/921382.pdf	
  
Sandia	
  Na<onal	
  Laboratories,	
  “Expert	
  Judgment	
  on	
  Markers	
  to	
  Deter	
  Inadvertent	
  Human	
  Intrusion	
  into	
  the	
  Waste	
  Isola<on	
  Pilot	
  Plant”	
  (1993)	
  -­‐	
  hNp://prod.sandia.gov/techlib/access-­‐control.cgi/1992/921382.pdf	
  
Wicked Ambiguity and User Experience
ambiguity
the Nature of
ambiguity
the Nature of
NASA/JPL,	
  Voyager	
  1	
  (hNp://visibleearth.nasa.gov/view_rec.php?id=601)	
  [Public	
  domain],	
  via	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  -­‐	
  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pale_Blue_Dot.png	
  
NASA/JPL,	
  Voyager	
  1	
  (hNp://visibleearth.nasa.gov/view_rec.php?id=601)	
  [Public	
  domain],	
  via	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  -­‐	
  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pale_Blue_Dot.png	
  
YOU ARE
HERE	
  
NASA/JPL,	
  Voyager	
  1	
  (hNp://visibleearth.nasa.gov/view_rec.php?id=601)	
  [Public	
  domain],	
  via	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  -­‐	
  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pale_Blue_Dot.png	
  
EAT AT JOE’S
Our problems aren’t
meaningful because
they last forever
Our problems are
meaningful because
They don’t
They don’t
Wey don’t
creative
Designer
Content Strategist
Information Architect
Researcher
Developer
Wicked Ambiguity and User Experience
Wicked Ambiguity and User Experience
Wicked Ambiguity and User Experience
Wicked Ambiguity and User Experience
AMBIGUITY
Wikipedia:	
  “Uncertainty	
  Principle”	
  -­‐	
  hNp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uncertainty_principle	
  
∆ 𝑥∙∆​ 𝑝↓𝑥 ≥​ℏ/2 
Wikipedia:	
  “Uncertainty	
  Principle”	
  -­‐	
  hNp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uncertainty_principle	
  
∆ 𝑥∙∆​ 𝑝↓𝑥 ≥​ℏ/2 
we live in an
uncertain universe
Adam	
  Fowler	
  (adamfowler)	
  [CC	
  BY-­‐NC-­‐ND	
  2.0	
  (hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐nc-­‐nd/2.0/)],	
  via	
  Flickr	
  -­‐	
  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/adamfowler/4841559945	
  
Wicked problems are
catalysts
Wicked problems are
Creativity
Wicked problems ignite our
Forward
Wicked problems pull us
Innovate
Wicked problems help us
Sebas<an	
  Mary	
  (giovannijl-­‐s_photohut)	
  [CC-­‐BY-­‐SA-­‐2.0	
  (hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐sa/2.0/)],	
  via	
  Flickr	
  -­‐	
  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/giovannijl-­‐s_photohut/421051338	
  
Wicked
Problems
We can’t solve
Wicked
Problems
We can’t solve
But we can
Acknowledge them
Tim	
  J.	
  Keegan	
  (suburbanbloke)	
  [CC-­‐BY-­‐SA-­‐2.0	
  (hNp://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐sa/2.0/)],	
  via	
  Flickr	
  -­‐	
  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/49333819@N00/381634787	
  
Acknowledge them
But we can
Take risks
Wicked
Problems
We can’t solve
Mike	
  Bash	
  [CC-­‐BY-­‐NC-­‐ND-­‐2.0	
  (hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐nc-­‐nd/2.0/)],	
  via	
  Flickr	
  -­‐	
  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/jbash/4223183281	
  
Take risks
But we can
Stop being perfect
Wicked
Problems
We can’t solve
©	
  Jonathon	
  Colman	
  
Stop being perfect
But we can
Reward learning
Wicked
Problems
We can’t solve
Laura	
  Ferreira	
  [CC-­‐BY-­‐NC-­‐ND-­‐2.0	
  (hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐nc-­‐nd/2.0/)],	
  via	
  Flickr	
  -­‐	
  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/prayerfriends/4343362783	
  
Reward learning
But we can Try
Wicked
Problems
We can’t solve
But we can Dare
Coda
Coda
Our differences
Don’t Matter
Our problems
Do
We stand
United
And	
  so	
  when	
  we’re	
  faced	
  with	
  ambiguity,	
  
we’re	
  not	
  afraid.	
  We	
  don’t	
  run	
  away	
  from	
  it.	
  
	
  
Run away
We Don’t
From ambiguity
Sebas<an	
  Mary	
  (giovannijl-­‐s_photohut)	
  [CC-­‐BY-­‐SA-­‐2.0	
  (hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐sa/2.0/)],	
  via	
  Flickr	
  -­‐	
  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/giovannijl-­‐s_photohut/421051338	
  
We Run toward it
Ambiguity
NASA/JPL	
  [Public	
  domain],	
  via	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  
wicked
NASA/JPL	
  [Public	
  domain],	
  via	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  
Bit.ly/raycats
video + slides + text
NASA/JPL	
  [Public	
  domain],	
  via	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  
NASA/JPL	
  [Public	
  domain],	
  via	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  
NASA,	
  ESA,	
  Hubble	
  Space	
  Telescope	
  [Public	
  domain],	
  via	
  NASA	
  Astronomy	
  Picture	
  of	
  the	
  Day,	
  hNp://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap101009.html	
  
EAT AT JOE’S

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Wicked Ambiguity and User Experience

Editor's Notes

  1. Welcome to Wicked Ambiguity. I’m dedicating this talk to Leonard Nimoy. While he’s best known for “Star Trek,” you may not know that Leonard was also the host of TV’s “In Search Of…,” in which he looked for answers to long-standing mysteries of the unknown. And you know what? You do that, too. We’re all just nerds looking for answers. Leonard helped make it safe for us to be geeks, introverts, scientists, and artists. And to be fascinated by the universe that surrounds us. “We’re all stories in the end,” after all, so I won’t say rest in peace, but rather, “Live long and prosper.”
  2. Welcome to Wicked Ambiguity. I’m dedicating this talk to Leonard Nimoy. While he’s best known for “Star Trek,” you may not know that Leonard was also the host of TV’s “In Search Of…,” in which he looked for answers to long-standing mysteries of the unknown. And you know what? You do that, too. We’re all just nerds looking for answers. Leonard helped make it safe for us to be geeks, introverts, scientists, and artists. And to be fascinated by the universe that surrounds us. “We’re all stories in the end,” after all, so I won’t say rest in peace, but rather, “Live long and prosper.”
  3. I’m your host for the next hour while we boldly go through the vast reaches of time and space. I’ll make sure none of us gets lost and everyone makes it back. But fair warning: the people who return won’t be the same as the ones who leave.
  4. But if you do need to leave early, then no worries—you can find these slides and a full transcript at bit.ly/raycats Yes, RAYCATS—don’t worry, I promise that’ll make so much more sense by the end. Note, you need to use all lower-case letters or the link won’t work.
  5. Let’s start with a memory; most things in the past do. Do you remember being a child and your parents telling you, “Don’t worry, everything’s going to be fine.” …But you really thought they were lying just to make you feel better because it was dark, you were scared, and you didn’t know what to expect? Kind of like in this keynote? Well, then: “Don’t worry, everything’s going to be fine.”
  6. It’s a story we tell to project confidence and security. But it’s a hard promise to make. We can’t even predict the location and movements of a single atom—let alone complex things like world events, the stock market, or whether it’ll be nice out on Friday. So maybe, just maybe, everything’s not going to be fine. What then? This symbol is taken from one of the Pioneer satellites launched by NASA in the ‘60s. It was also used on Voyager, the furthest man-made object from the Earth, spinning from out of the blue and into the black.
  7. Today we’ll talk about this symbol and what it means. We’ll also cover a lot of science and math, but almost no science fiction—even though the ideas we’re discussing are fantastical. But other than quotes from books and TV shows like “Doctor Who,” everything you’re about to see is real. It’s true. And it’s troubling. Some of you will leave today saying, “This talk has NOTHING to do with content strategy!” Others will say, “This talk has EVERYTHING to do with content strategy!” Guess what? You’re both right.
  8. Stephen King once wrote about an idea he calls “The shape under the sheet.” He says that when you’re alone at night, lying awake, and it’s cold, and the wind is blowing, and the house is creaking… the shape you see at the foot of your bed, the shape under the sheet, could be just about anything. Anything at all. Except that we know it’s our body making that shape. But we don’t—because for a moment, our fear creates ambiguity as to what’s real and what’s not.
  9. That’s the nature of fear: the unknown. It makes us want to drop everything and run away as fast as we can. T.S. Elliot wrote about this, too, in “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock.” That’s the poem I quoted when we started. You know the story of Prufrock—after all, it’s the story of a nerd. In the poem, Prufrock is filled with indecision and anxiety. He asks: “Do I dare disturb the universe? Do I dare to eat a peach?” That’s our special nature as content strategists: we dare. Every damn day.
  10. [[ 5 MINUTE MARK ]] But let’s shift to talk about real problems. What’s the biggest problem you can think of in content strategy? Well, I certainly know the one that we talk about the most…
  11. Yeah, everyone thinks we’re just a bunch of writers with a fancy title! They only see your words on the surface, not all the planning, process, structure, and systems that lie underneath. Pssssht. And what have writers ever done for us, anyway? I mean, besides Shakespeare. And T.S. Eliot. And Stephen King. And Jane Austen. And Agatha Christie. And Margaret Atwood. And Anne Lamott! And Kristina Halvorson!
  12. After all, there’s so much more we can do than just write, isn’t there?
  13. Maybe you’re really a designer, creating new experiences and solving hard problems by focusing on people’s intent. And I KNOW all the designers in the room are cringing at my use of Comic Sans. Is it intentional? Or was I just lazy? AMBIGUITY.
  14. Or maybe you’re a developer, engineering sites, apps, and features—the links between systems and experiences.
  15. Or a researcher, asking the hardest questions and practicing empathy to discover how people live and work.
  16. Or an information architect, structuring data for the interfaces that connect people with systems.
  17. Or a content strategist, working with language, interfaces, systems, people, and the connections—and especially the disconnections—between them.
  18. Or hey, maybe you really are a writer and you use language to build narratives and create meaning. That’s great, too!
  19. Or hey, maybe you really are a creative—that’s great, too! It’s not a dirty word.
  20. Listen: I know this is a problem. And I know it’s something we spend a lot of time talking about. And we use all of these titles to frame our work, to talk about our impact. But I don’t think that our differences matter all that much.
  21. Because we’re bound together by something else, a greater force. We dare. We dare to stand united against ambiguity. That’s really what everyone here has in common. Abby Covert, President of the Information Architecture Institute, says “We make the unclear clear.” That’s our secret strength. So forget all these divisions. We solve our problems together—or not at all.
  22. But what about the shape under the sheet? What if you’re faced with a problem that’s so hard and so complex that you can’t solve it no matter what you do? What if you encountered a problem that was so massively interconnected that you weren’t even sure how to define it?
  23. [[ 7.5 MINUTE MARK ]] Here we face different challenges—they’re called “Wicked Problems”. Wicked problems appear throughout all societies, cultures, and history. Simply put, they’re a special class of problem that we can’t solve because they have no final solutions.
  24. [[ 7.5 MINUTE MARK ]] Here we face different challenges—they’re called “Wicked Problems”. Wicked problems appear throughout all societies, cultures, and history. Simply put, they’re a special class of problem that we can’t solve because they have no final solutions.
  25. In 1973, the social scientists Horst Rittel (whose photo you see here) and Melvin Webber coined the term “Wicked Problem.” They found that wicked problems resist definition because each one is essentially unique. Each of them has constantly changing factors and requirements. And each has, at best, temporary mitigations that can’t be measured in terms of right or wrong… but only better or worse. Wicked problems are also extremely expensive to take on, they’re impossible to test, and the symptoms and factors of every wicked problem are, in fact, wicked problems themselves.
  26. Let’s look at an example of a problem in the field of public health. Have you ever seen this map before? Like all maps, it tells us a story. This is the story of the London cholera outbreak of 1854. Hundreds of people were dying and no one could figure out why.
  27. Let’s zoom in to the neighborhood where the outbreak occurred. Those little black squares represent the cases of cholera. These yellow circles show all the public water pumps. A doctor named—and this is true—John Snow linked the disease to contamination of the water at the pumps. He did this with statistics, using math to determine the cause and location of the infection. Once he made that link, increased sanitation measures were implemented and the disease died out. Now you might say, “You know nothing, John Snow,” but I’ll tell you what: John Snow knew enough to save London and invent the field of epidemiology at the same time.
  28. But even so, this is what Horst and Rittel call a “tame problem.” Sure, it was hard to figure out, but it has isolatable factors and a clear solution. A lot of us grapple with tame problems every day. And while they’re extremely challenging and hard to solve, they do have solutions. But when it comes to truly wicked problems, we’re talking about something entirely different.
  29. Take last year’s Ebola outbreak in West Africa, which later spread to many countries all over the world, including this one. There’s no simple solution here. As population increases, as resources become scarce, as wars break out, people are forced into developing lands that were once wild. And sometimes, they find disease waiting for them. When this happens, there are unintended consequences: not just disease outbreaks, but also the destruction of natural resources and habitats, leaving them barren. I saw this for myself when I was a Peace Corps Volunteer in West Africa back in the ‘90s. It was as if the desert swallowed up entire villages while I watched. When that happens, people are forced to further explore and develop wild lands in order to find ever-decreasing natural resources. So you see, wicked problems perpetuate themselves.
  30. [[ 11 MINUTE MARK ]] They aren’t just challenging, they have no final solutions. They don‘t just link to other issues—they’re massively interdependent. Let’s examine a few common wicked problems. We can find them everywhere. And they’ve been around for a long time because, by their very nature, they hide in plain sight.
  31. They’re present in urban planning, including the gentrification crisis faced by people in most large cities around the world. When people occupying their homes are pushed out—no matter by what measure, from economic to political—our “War on Poverty” begins to look much more like a real war than a helping hand. And whether we intend it or not, gentrification increases the gap between rich and poor while decreasing the diversity of our communities.
  32. And if we take gentrification to its ultimate conclusion, then we’re left with this: a shantytown outside of the city where the poor are trapped without access to social services or any hope for advancement. How can we make sure that all people earn a living wage and have access to proper housing, food, safe communities, health care, education and—most importantly—opportunity?
  33. Wicked problems are also present in our ongoing War on Drugs. Here we see militarized officers conducting an early morning raid of a home where drugs and weapons were later found.
  34. And yet we’ve made little progress in our global “War on Drugs,” curtailing neither trade nor use. But we’ve spent billions—if not trillions—of dollars trying. Worse still, we’ve imprisoned millions of people for what are largely non-violent, victimless crimes. These seized bricks of cocaine represent the smallest portion of the drug’s manufacture, trade, distribution, and use. All tactics, no strategy.
  35. But, of course, most of our wars are the result of wicked problems. Although they’re relics today, these howitzers were used by armies fighting in Europe during World War I over a hundred years ago. When we see them in a grainy black and white photo, it’s easy to dismiss them and their terrifying destructive force.
  36. But our wars over politics, religion, and resources continue to this day. These soldiers in the Ukraine wear no national flag, but they were still part of Russia’s “annexation” of Crimea just last year. It’s war in everything but name—a secret war.
  37. We wage war on our planet as well. Just last year, scientists found that our glaciers are now melting at such a fast rate that we have absolutely no hope of stopping or reversing the damage. No matter what you believe about its causes, climate change will ensure that the world our children grow up in will be very different from our world. Our time. Family time.
  38. We pull at these problems, trying to work apart their knots. But for every strand we grasp, another slips through our fingers. We implement some solution and tie it off with a bow, only to see it unraveled by deeper, interconnected challenges. Complexity after complexity, constraint within constraint. It’s frustrating. But more than that, it’s heartbreaking. It’s tragic. Because these problems pull at us, too. I know that because they pull at me. They pull at my strings. They make me want to give up. That’s the poison of wicked problems—they sap our will to dare.
  39. Because when we encounter the shape under the sheet, we know it’s us. We know the shape of these problems because it’s our shape.
  40. [[ 15 MINUTE MARK ]] I’m telling you about these wicked problems because I believe that we face them in our work, too. So today we’re going to look at two of them.
  41. The first is how we should communicate with aliens. Settle down, settle down. I told you there was going to be a few fantastical moments, didn’t I? But we won’t be talking science fiction—only science… and a bit of history.
  42. We started with a memory. Now let’s look further into the past. Back in the 1800s, many people believed that intelligent beings might live on the Moon, Mars, and Venus. But we couldn’t travel to other planets yet. So people had to come up with ways to communicate with aliens even before radio was invented.
  43. Our story starts in the simplest of places: the desert. In the 1800s, Joseph Johann Littrow, an Austrian astronomer, proposed using the vast Sahara Desert as a sort of blackboard. He said that we should write messages that aliens could see as they pass by our planet.
  44. So he proposed digging giant trenches to create shapes and letters nearly 20 miles wide. Then kerosene would be poured into the trenches and set on fire at night. This would create a huge visual message that could be seen from the sky.
  45. Using this method, a different message could be created every night.
  46. It could even serve as an advertisement of sorts.
  47. But why stop with setting our planet on fire? There are so many other planets out there! Charles Cros, an inventor, was convinced that pinpoints of light observed on Mars were, in fact, the lights of large cities. So he spent years of his life trying to get funding for a gigantic signal mirror that he’d use to communicate with the Martians.
  48. The mirror would be focused on the Martian desert. The intense, reflected beam of sunlight would let us burn messages into the Martian sands.
  49. So instead of just using our own planet as a canvas for messages, we could use other planets, too. I mean, come on—what self-respecting aliens wouldn’t want us to get in touch by SETTING THEM ON FIRE?! By the way, I want to take a moment here to say something. All these people throughout history who wanted to burn shit up? They were MEN. All men. Every single one of them. Men!
  50. Later, scientists stopped setting things on fire just long enough to ask whether there were actually any aliens to communicate with in the first place. In 1961, astronomer and physicist Frank Drake came up with this equation. The Drake Equation deals in probabilities as a way of estimating the number of alien civilizations in the universe. After all, probabilities rely on the same kind of math that John Snow used to save London from cholera. And while it’s imprecise and full of holes, the Drake Equation served as a catalyst to get scientists talking about the possibility of communicating with aliens. It’s impact isn’t in solving the problem, but in sparking creativity in our approach.
  51. Each symbol in the equation represents a variable, such as the likelihood that an alien civilization has invented radio. So if you plug in the lowest possible number for each variable, you’ll find that the number of alien civilizations in our Universe is very, very low, indeed: 8 times 10 to the negative 20.
  52. But if you’re feeling optimistic and plug in the highest numbers? You’ll find that our Universe is rich with life. There are over 36 million civilizations out there! Woohoo—party! But, uhhhh… B.Y.O.B. You don’t want to get stuck with the bill for 36 million cocktails. Trust me on this. So: what lies between those two figures? What makes up the gap? The unknown.
  53. This image is taken from the plaques on the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft. And that symbol I showed you earlier appears on the left. Here we see a man and woman, a schematic of a hydrogen atom, our sun’s location in the universe, the look of the Pioneer spacecraft, our solar system, and even the planet where we come from. What a rich message, so full of science and humanity.
  54. It was designed by a young scientist you’ve heard of named Carl Sagan. Carl Sagan, as you know, turned out to be one of the greatest content strategists who ever lived.
  55. Both Sagan and Drake would continue to use math as a form of communication, layering data on top of data like a palimpsest. Here we see a binary message they sent from the Arecibo radio telescope in Peru in 1974. I’ve placed the binary numbers from that message horizontally. If you squint, you might be able to see shapes emerge from the 1s set amidst the background of 0s. Let me help with that.
  56. That’s better. Drake and Sagan intended this message to be as simple and human as possible. See if you can make out any of these things: - The numbers 1 to 10 - Our Solar System - A human figure and our DNA - The shape of a radio telescope It’s all in there. But will aliens be able to make sense of it?
  57. Later, in 1977, came the two Voyager probes with their Golden Records. They contain sounds, images, and data showing the diversity of life and culture on Earth. The Voyager probes are the furthest man-made objects from Earth, about 1.2 quadrillion miles away from us. The scientists who built them solved the tame problems of engineering so well that we’re still in contact with them and they’re still sending us data.
  58. The golden record on Voyager contains photography, natural sounds, greetings and music from all around the world, as well as instructions for playback, which are etched onto its surface. Also on the outside, you can again see that same schematic of the hydrogen atom along with the symbol that shows the position of our sun. They’re sort of like our calling cards, showing everyone how nerdy we are about astronomy and chemistry. But that’s just the outside of the record. Inside, the layers of data are far deeper than in previous messages.
  59. Among all that data on Voyager is this: the brain waves of a young woman named Ann Druyan. She was a member of the project team. This EEG recording of her brainwaves was made right after she and Carl Sagan told each other that they were in love with one another. After the recording, Druyan said that her sub-conscious was “buzzing with the euphoria of the Great Idea of True Love.”
  60. The Great Idea of True Love! So one of the most powerful feelings we’ve transmitted out into the depths of the cosmos is also one of the most personal, the most intimate. It’s not meaningful because it represents everyone on Earth. It’s meaningful because it’s a connection shared between just two of them. It’s beauty isn’t in its scale, but in its uniquity. Only the smallest scope can inspire the greatest empathy. You can’t stop the signal.
  61. But will an alien civilization understand? Will they be able to decode and replay these messages? Will they hold any meaning? And what action might they take in response?
  62. So many unanswered questions. What’s the probability that an alien civilization will succeed at solving these problems when we can’t solve them ourselves? And so we’re challenged by the unknown. We find the shape under the sheet in the signals we send beyond the stars. And while we might laugh at the historical efforts to create that link, those early scientists and philosophers answered the call of duty of content strategy: to stand united against ambiguity, to make the unclear clear. They dared.
  63. [[ 25 MINUTE MARK ]] So! We’ve looked more than 200 years into the past. Now we’ll leap ahead almost 3 trillion years into the future. That’s right—it’s Eloi and Morlock time. “Hold on to your butts!”
  64. We’re going to see how content strategists are trying to solve the wicked problem of nuclear waste—and how to communicate the threat it poses to future generations.
  65. Whether they’re used as weapons or as fuel to create energy, the processing of nuclear materials leaves behind waste products. This waste is dangerous because it emits radiation that destroys all life as we know it. And yet you can’t build weapons or generate power without it. And using nuclear power keeps us from extracting and burning fossil fuels that pollute our environment, causing climate change.
  66. But wait, what’s this?
  67. See? Even the barrel itself is feeling conflicted! So how should we communicate the dangers of nuclear waste to future generations?
  68. This is the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository in Nevada. It was intended to serve as a storage site for nuclear waste after a 2002 act of Congress. It’s total estimated cost was $90 billion. However, it’s since been shuttered and research continues to find and develop a new site for waste storage.
  69. Nuclear waste is so dangerous to life that it must be stored securely in a remote, shielded location deep beneath the Earth. Here we see the plan for the Yucca Mountain repository and its three bays where waste was to be stored. So how long would that all that waste need to remain hidden and undisturbed in order to become safe? Let’s find out.
  70. Meet Plutonium-239. It’s a radioactive element commonly used as a nuclear fuel. It has a half-life of just over 24,000 years. This means that it burns off one half of its dangerous radioactivity over that amount of time. Every 24,000 years, it burns off another half, and another half, and so on. Let’s say that to become even remotely stable and safe, a chunk of Plutonium-239 needs to pass through four of these half-life cycles, meaning just shy of 100,000 years. Give or take—I mean, what’s a few millennia between friends, am I right?
  71. On the other hand, Uranium-235, another common element in fuel and weaponry, has a far, far greater half-life.
  72. Over 700 million years. It takes Uranium-235 over 700 million years to burn off just one-half of its radioactivity. If you go through four of those cycles, you get…
  73. 2.8 trillion years. 2.8 trillion years! So, my friends and neighbors, if you think this keynote is dragging on… Oh no no no no—that’s nothing compared to the half-life of Uranium.
  74. So how do we keep people safe from nuclear waste over these vast periods of time? At first glance, our content strategy toolbox doesn’t seem to offer much. Our usual approach of using systems, structures, language, colors, and symbols just won’t be relevant to future generations living thousands of years from now. Even when we look just 24,000 years into our past, languages and symbols fade away quickly. And who’s to say what could happen in the future.
  75. Which is why the US government, recognizing this wicked problem, created—and this is true—the “Human Interference Task Force” to come up with solutions. Because there were no experts in this subject, the task force was made up of researchers, historians, futurists, social scientists, and even science fiction writers—all people forced to think beyond their field of expertise. They were charged with stopping people in the future from coming into contact with nuclear waste generated in the past.
  76. Their approach was to create some form of message, as well as the transmission and reception systems for that message. Oh, and by the way, their message had to be effective for at least 10,000 years.
  77. They were charged with three outcomes. The first was to convey to any future recipients that this was, indeed, a message from the distant past.
  78. The second was to show people that the place in which they receive the message is a very dangerous area that should be avoided.
  79. And then—only then—came the hard part: they had to communicate “WHY.” And they had to do it in a way that future civilizations would be absolutely sure to understand. Because there’s so much on the line, so much life at risk. We can’t fuck this up because we have no right to be wrong. But it’s so hard to get this right because we can’t test it—the people creating this message have no way of knowing if it will reach their audience or be understood. A very wicked problem indeed. Let’s see what they came up with.
  80. Thomas Sebeok, a linguist, proposed that we create a new religion. It would be known as—and this is true—The Atomic Priesthood. It would be like the Catholic Church, but charged with communicating the dangers of the radioactive waste sites over the millennia. Sure, it sounds funny, but beyond language, colors, and symbols, what’s shown more power to endure over time than organized religion? But, of course, religions can rise and fall.
  81. Stanislaw Lem, a science fiction writer, wanted to create a global network of satellites that would constantly communicate messages about the locations and compositions of the nuclear waste sites. But as we saw in the movie “Gravity,” space is no sanctuary. Satellites and other spacecraft are vulnerable to the elements.
  82. Lem also proposed that we alter the DNA of plants to encode messages within them. He called these “information plants”. They would only grow near waste sites in the presence of radiation. They would serve as a perpetual warning system made of natural, renewable materials. Their DNA, once decoded, would contain messages about each waste site’s composition and other important information. But what if future societies don’t have the ability to break the cipher to the DNA in these plants? Or what if the plants are destroyed by acts of man or nature?
  83. This is the part you’ve been waiting for. French authors Françoise Bastide and Paolo Fabbri had an interesting approach. They said—and, again, this is ALL TRUE—we should breed “radiation cats" or "ray cats.”
  84. These “ray cats” would be genetically engineered to GLOW in the presence of radiation, warning humans that they were in the danger zone. Seriously, how awesome is that?
  85. Yeah, you’re laughing, but remember: humans have a long association with cats. Egyptians worshipped them. And we domesticated them over tens of thousands of years. We even created the Internet to honor them!
  86. So it makes sense that future generations would also keep cats… or be kept by them, from the cat’s perspective. But what if they don’t?
  87. The task force also proposed many options for communicating through inaccessible architecture and design. Here we see an artist’s depiction of a hellscape of giant, building-sized thorns that would be grown around a waste disposal site. The message here seems clear: stay out, this place is dangerous, it’s useless for settling or cultivation. But what if it turns into some sort of adventure sports park instead?
  88. The task force looked at constructing jagged spikes so giant that could be seen from miles away, or possibly from space. Incidentally, this illustration and the following images come from a government report created by Sandia Labs. It’s one of the most fascinating documents ever produced by or for any government, ever. If you want to check it out later, there’s a URL in the small text at the bottom of the slides.
  89. Part of what they were trying to achieve was to make the waste repository site look dangerous. Spiky shapes with sharp angles make it seem menacing, inaccessible, and impenetrable as possible. Even so, these shapes could decay over time. Or they might be seen as welcoming by future cultures.
  90. Another approach would be to make the site look unnatural. Here we see a huge man-made square of black granite or painted concrete. An extra bonus would be that the sun would cause the black square to become so hot that it would burn skin when touched. But colors can fade. Or get covered up as the lands shift.
  91. But perhaps a flat square wouldn’t be enough. What about raised square pillars to block access instead? Sounds good, but what if an earthquake breaks them apart? Or what it it’s seen as some sort of monument?
  92. But that’s all so large in scale and cost. Why not retreat toward simplicity instead? Comics could tell the story of the dangers inherent in the area. These panels show how a person becomes sick by accessing the waste site. But while these seem simple, what if future cultures read them from bottom to top? Then they see a story in which sick people become healthy by accessing the waste.
  93. Long-term communications are complex, far harder than they look at first. Each of these scenarios has weak points. Each has flaws which, if exploited by man or nature, would cause catastrophic failure, the end of all life on Earth. And yet we must try to solve this problem nonetheless. Because we have no right to be wrong. Because bowing to inevitability is surely worse than planning for a positive outcome. Or is it? And so we return to the shape under the sheet.
  94. [[ 35 MINUTE MARK ]] Over the course of the past half hour, we’ve looked at two wicked problems in long-term content strategy. And I’ve shown how each of them pulls at us even as we pull back. That’s because they’re rife with ambiguity. And while I’ve turned to fantastical scenarios to illustrate this point, our everyday lives are filled with the unknown. It greets us in the morning, sits with us at meals, and it’s ever present in our relationships and work. It hides in plain sight—we know it’s there.
  95. [[ 35 MINUTE MARK ]] Over the course of the past half hour, we’ve looked at two wicked problems in long-term content strategy. And I’ve shown how each of them pulls at us even as we pull back. That’s because they’re rife with ambiguity. And while I’ve turned to fantastical scenarios to illustrate this point, our everyday lives are filled with the unknown. It greets us in the morning, sits with us at meals, and it’s ever present in our relationships and work. It hides in plain sight—we know it’s there.
  96. This is the “Pale Blue Dot” photo taken by Voyager on its journey from Earth into the solar system. And later, beyond it. Now it’s gone 1.2 quadrillion miles away from us. Out of the blue and into the black.
  97. Carl Sagan said that “Everyone you’ve ever known or will ever know lives here on this speck of dust suspended in a sun beam.” We all live and die here, do all our work here, love each other here. Every message we create starts here.
  98. Each one a cry into an indifferent universe, “full of sound and fury, signifying nothing.”
  99. Or does it? While I’ve talked about huge efforts and fantastical notions, ambiguity isn’t just for scientists and engineers working on big problems—we all deal with uncertainty every day of our lives. Remember what Prufrock asked: “Do I dare disturb the universe? Do I dare to eat a peach?” As we chip away at our daily, small ambiguities, I believe that we make progress against the greater whole. Our problems—and our solutions to them—need not last throughout the ages to be significant. That’s not what makes them meaningful.
  100. What makes them truly significant is that they’re ephemeral. They don’t endure, they don’t last. Sometimes, the things that affect us most aren’t problems of the infinite; they’re curiosities of the finite. The smallest problems, the most constrained in scope, the ones that only we know about… They’re the ones that inspire empathy. They’re the ones that keep us awake at night. They’re the fears that force us to consider the shape under the sheet. Or, if not fear, then love. Like the love that Ann Druyan and Carl Sagan felt. The most personal, the most intimate of feelings.
  101. They don’t last. “In this galaxy, there's a mathematical probability of three million Earth-type planets. And in all of the universe, three million-million galaxies like this. And in all of that... and perhaps more, only one of each of us.” So our problems matter. You matter. I’ve been on this planet for 40 years and I’ve never met anyone who didn’t.
  102. Because we’re ephemeral, too. Everything we do counts. There’s no do-overs. Remember: “We’re all stories in the end. Make yours a good one, eh?”
  103. Because our stories matter, but our divisions don’t. We have all of these labels we use to describe ourselves, to classify our approaches and tools and the unique value we create. And so of course we take offense, we take umbrage, when someone fails to recognize the clarity we bring, the particular sort of meaning we make, our expertise in being experts.
  104. But even so, we all have something in common across these fields, as surely as one star has something in common with another star thousands of light-years away. Our divisions don’t matter. We solve our problems together—or not at all.
  105. Carl Sagan used to say, “We’re all made of star-stuff.” I’d add that we all have to deal with uncertainty, with the unknown, with mysteries beyond our comprehension.
  106. We’re all in search of answers. So our minor differences pale in comparison with the shape under the sheet.
  107. Because what unites us will always be far more important than what drives us apart. And as the shape becomes clear, so do our connections with each other.
  108. Whether we write copy, develop systems and interfaces, research people and their problems, structure content and data, design experiences and flows, or tell stories and earn attention… we have something in common with each other. We stand united in dispelling ambiguity. We create meaning and make the unclear clear. “DO I DARE DISTURB THE UNIVERSE? DO I DARE TO EAT A PEACH?” We dare.
  109. We have to dare, because wicked problems surround us. Here’s proof of that—this is Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle, rendered in math. And like all math, it tells us a story. Heisenberg’s story is that whenever an object is moving, we can’t tell precisely where it is. Quantum mechanics proves this principle is built into the fabric of our universe.
  110. I mean, fuck—we can’t even tell where things are! Or where they’re going! How can we even pretend to know anything about ourselves, or other people, or what they need from us? Ambiguity doesn’t just surround us—it’s within us.
  111. So we pull at these wicked problems and they pull back. They pull at me. And as I try to adapt to them, they change. But listen: we’re living “in one corner of one country in one continent on one planet that's in a corner of a galaxy that's in a corner of a universe that is forever growing and shrinking and creating and destroying and never remaining the same, not for a single millisecond. And there is so much, so much to see. Because it all changes so fast.” And because we change in response. You’re changing, too. The person you are right now, right at this very minute, wasn’t there a moment before. And the people who hear me say these words won’t be here another minute from now.
  112. And that’s the key—wicked problems change us surely as we try to fight them.
  113. They stoke our genius. They force us to dare. “Ray cats”? “Information plants”? Inventing pictures out of binary numbers? Communicating chemistry in code? SETTING PLANETS ON FIRE?
  114. Such creative responses from people who dared to work outside their fields of expertise: Scientists, philosophers, mathematicians, programmers, inventors, designers, linguists, engineers, sci-fi writers. CONTENT STRATEGISTS. I don’t care—I don’t care who gets the credit. But I don’t want to live in a world without wicked problems because they bring out our best qualities. So I think that we all need wicked problems to solve. Because they ignite our collective creativity.
  115. The force us to shift and evolve. They pull us forward by asking us to think beyond impossible constraints.
  116. And so when you find yourself “making something out of nothing,” grappling with ambiguity to make the unclear clear, you too are tackling a significant problem. You, too, are part of that greater whole.
  117. Tackling wicked problems doesn’t require fearlessness, but rather the ability to recognize and then overcome our fears. To dare. Other people without your talents, without your skills, would take one look at the ambiguity you take on and run away screaming. And that’s what makes you different: when you encounter ambiguity, when you find unsolvable problems, you don’t run away from them. You run toward them.
  118. [[ 45 MINUTE MARK ]] So I want to leave you with five ways you can respond to—if not solve—wicked problems in your work and those gray areas of ambiguity that they represent.
  119. Start by being open and direct. When you can acknowledge the presence of ambiguity in your work, you help others recognize it as well. Don’t let it go unspoken. Instead, be upfront—let people know that you sense the strangeness, too.
  120. One way you can do this is to make sure that you and your partners agree on what the problem is that you’re trying to solve. And dare yourself to take on the biggest problems you can. And never let other people dismiss your work or the challenges you’re facing. You’re content strategists, after all, and you make the numinous.
  121. Creativity only thrives in an environment where we can suppress our urge to control things. Instead, to solve the hardest problems, we have to help people think big, sometimes bigger than they’ve ever thought before. As leaders, we’re responsible for creating the culture that makes this possible. So the accountability that we establish in our organizations has to be flexible. After all, accountability was never meant to be used as a weapon.
  122. Rather, it should be more like a warm blanket that helps people feel supported and secure enough to try new things, to take big risks. This is especially true when we face problems that are so vast and interconnected that we can’t see the whole picture or understand their shape. To make the most progress in our encounters with ambiguity, our accountability must always be counter-balanced by empathy.
  123. Now let me share a secret with you—it’s the only real secret I know. There’s no such thing as “perfect.” There’s no such thing as perfect! And the drive to somehow become perfect and to create perfect things distracts us from what we’re supposed to be doing: making things better right now.
  124. The longer we take to solve a problem, the more impact we allow it to have on more people. So we have to become comfortable with taking on risk, with being good enough instead of being perfect. And then getting even better over time. Perfection isn’t some sort of peak or plateau we somehow reach someday if only we work hard enough. Perfection is just a barrier to our progress, collaboration, and creativity.
  125. This means that we’re bound to falter from time to time, especially as we take on more and bigger chunks of ambiguity in our work. The point isn’t to succeed at all costs. I think it’s to fail—and to fail as often and as quickly as possible. This—and only this—helps us increase our knowledge and understanding of the world and find out what people need from us.
  126. If we can stop punishing failure and start rewarding learning, we’ll incentivize everyone to take on more ambiguity in their work. So you can build leadership through failure, through humility—I think it’s the only way to build meaningful, empathetic leadership that lasts.
  127. What I love most about our work is not the finished product, not the completed puzzle. I love the journey—the fitting together of all the small pieces into that greater whole. We can’t solve every problem. We can’t even, perhaps, solve the hardest problems. Or sometimes the problems that matter most. But we can try.
  128. We can dare. And that effort, that process… it’s what we do best. It’s who we are. It’s the journey we’re all on. And it matters.
  129. [[ 49 MINUTE MARK ]] But for now, we’ve reached a way-station on that road. Our time together is almost complete. Over the next two days, you’ll attend great sessions from leaders in the industry, people who have made the unclear clear. Folks like Margot Bloomstein, Rachel Lovinger—COME ON, GIVE IT UP—Gerry McGovern, Ron Bronson, Rebekah Cancino, Noz Urbina, Laura Creekmore, Matt Grocki, Margo Stern, Corey Vilhauer, and many, many more. But as the clock runs down, as entropy collapses our universe, I want you to keep something in mind.
  130. [[ 49 MINUTE MARK ]] But for now, we’ve reached a way-station on that road. Our time together is almost complete. Over the next two days, you’ll attend great sessions from leaders in the industry, people who have made the unclear clear. Folks like Margot Bloomstein, Rachel Lovinger—COME ON, GIVE IT UP—Gerry McGovern, Ron Bronson, Rebekah Cancino, Noz Urbina, Laura Creekmore, Matt Grocki, Margo Stern, Corey Vilhauer, and many, many more. But as the clock runs down, as entropy collapses our universe, I want you to keep something in mind.
  131. We have problems. And there are issues and challenges that seek to divide us. But those divisions don’t really matter.
  132. Because, in a way, we’re all working on the same problem. And that challenge matters so much more to the people we serve than the trivial things that try to tear us apart.
  133. We’re united in our recognition of this problem, and our willingness to take it on. After all, it’s the biggest problem there is. And the oldest. And it hides openly, in plain sight.
  134. When we’re faced with ambiguity, we’re not afraid. Because we know how to recognize and overcome our fear. So we don’t run away from it.
  135. We dare to run toward it.
  136. And that’s how our story ends, at least for now. Not with a bang, nor a whimper, but with a click.
  137. And so you see, everything really did turn out fine—just like I promised at the beginning. I’ve brought you all back, safe and sound. But as I mentioned earlier, the people who started out on this journey… they aren’t here anymore—we’ve left them behind forever.
  138. So there’s one last thing I want to leave you with before I disappear, too. A signal that can’t be stopped, heading out of the blue and into the black.
  139. One final piece of ambiguity.
  140. Thank you.