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Who controls our smart cities?
Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D.
⚫ Free sharing of information, art and culture
⚫ Evidence-based policy with long-term vision
⚫ Stimulate self-determination, but keep rights
⚫ Trust civilians vs Distrust ‘power'
⚫ Enthusiastic about tech, but alert on risks
⚫ Tech to empower people; not to repress
Basic principles PPNL
Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
Is 'smart city' privatizing public services?
Who controls AI in
the ‘smart’ city?
Who controls the
data that we
produce together?
Who profits from
the benefits?
Who has to deal
with the cons?
Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
Amsterdam wants to collect
and share data, to:
– Solve societal problems
– Improve services
– Smarter law enforcement
– Manage public space
– Improve working processes
– Improve healthcare
– Recognize patterns
to influence behavior
“Hereby, Amsterdam is
happy to do business with
the market”Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
Cars that free your time
to do other things
Local vs Centralized data
Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
Who will control ‘smart’ cars?
Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
Monopolization
Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
The bigger the company
The bigger the power center
The bigger the chance the
company will misuse this
power for its own benefit..
Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
Corporate surveillance: ‘Smart TV’
Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
If technology thinks for you,
Then do the programmers tell you what to think?
Smart TV hackers are filming couples
having sex on their sofa’s
and they are putting it on porn sites!
Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
Who actually owns your 'smart home'?
Hackers? Viruses?
Terrorists?
Companies that
actually own your
devices?
The AI that tells you
what to do?
Or will they control
themselves?
Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
Mass surveillance: for one target, tens of thousands are spied on
Sharing info with dubious regimes
Keeping our devices insecure to hack us
Will the government protect your privacy?
Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
Will the government protect your privacy?
Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
Trade privacy for security?
1. Not effective
2. Leads to unhealthy power distribution
3. Privacy is a proviso for security
4. There are excellent alternatives
Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
Think you got nothing to hide?
Everybody's got something to hide
Function in social relations
Snowden: “I don't care about privacy,
'because I have nothing to hide', is like
I don't care about free speech,
Because I have nothing to say"
Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
Governments can't always be trusted
Many data breaches and lost USB-sticks
WRR: Government can't always be trusted with data.
Sometimes, information is being manipulated.
Also governments can act against the interest of people
Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our sm
Profiling
Big Data algorithms get the same
bias as their makers and/or
their training data
This amplifies discrimination of
stigmatized groups
(and some will use it
as justification of discrimination)
Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
Algorithms get
the same bias as
their makers
and/or training
data
Victims of Profiling
Slachtoffersvan Profiling
Slachtoffersvan Profiling
Google Sidewalks Toronto
Google Sidewalks Toronto
Should a commercial company do this? Google?
Lack of transparency
People sued municipality:
"We don't want to be Google lab rats"
Blackberry CEO: "This is a colonizing experiment in
surveillance capitalism attempting to bulldoze important
urban, civic and political issues."
Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
Google wanted a share of property taxes, development fees
Monetise government transportation and mobility
--> Google is trying to privatize public services​
Google privatizing Toronto
Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
Google designed privacy policies city neighbourhoods.​
- Individuals targeted with products.
- Even targeted to influence their votes​
Privacy adviser Ann Cavoukian resigned:​
"I imagined us creating a smart city of privacy,
as opposed to a smart city of surveillance"
Toronto: "The evaluation process will determine which
parts of the proposal, if any, may be pursued further."
Google Sidewalks Toronto
How can we do better?
Need to stop corporate surveillance
Set good standards for Privacy by Design / Data-ownership
Regulate Big Business vs
More freedom for small startups / cooperatives
How can we do better?
Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
Responsible Digital Cities
Control and freedom: People should stay in control over their data.
Legitimate and monitored: Citizens decide how the smart city develops
Commons: Collected data is from everyone – for everyone
Transparency: Be open about data collection and processing
Inclusive: Everybody can participate. No discrimination of stigmatized groups
Tailored to the people: Humanity always comes first; Empathy
https://tada.city/en/home-en/
Tech-Commons / Techno-progressivism
Democratize the way technologies are built
Costs, risks, and benefits of technolohy are equally shared
Equal access to technologies
Develop tech in a way that promotes freedom
Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
Case: Crowd control
Case: Smart traffic lights
Function creep: ANPR
Case: Targeted ads
Facial recognition
Should we
ban it?
https://ww
w.banfacial
recognition
.com/
Will superintelligent
AI become a new
superpower?
Why we should have mandatory
Machine Ethics
Paperclip machine
5G + IoT + AI = Superrobot
“With the Internet of
Things, we’re building a
world-size robot. How are
we going to control it?”
Click here to kill everyone
by Bruce Schneier
Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
Machine Ethics
Machines are becoming more autonomous
Machines and algorithms increasingly influence our lives
→We should manage that machines do not harm us
or threaten our autonomy
64
Moral reasoning system
We developed moral reasoning system
that balances between several moral goals
65
Autonomy
66
Results:
Able to simulate judge
decisions about:
•Assertive outreach
•Judicial coercion after self-
binding declaration
Cars that make ethical decisions
Why every AI
should have Machine Ethics
Machine Ethics = AI-Safety
Make sure the intelligence explosion benefits us
Why every AI
should be open-soure
Algorithms and robots are increasingly influencing our lives
Who will control the programmers?
Good ideas are made to be copied:
Creating extra value with no extra costs
e-Democracy
• Easily participate in democratic process
• Vote on ideas; not on parties or persons
• Power of Ideas replace the idea of power
citizens.is
Better Alamance
• Everybody can add ideas
• Everybody can add arguments
• Best ideas and arguments automatically come up
How does it work?
• Don’t vote once every few years, but always adjust vote
• Representation can differ per subject
• Representation is voluntary
• Makes representationpersonal; implies trust
Representation in an e-Democracy
<slide e-democracy>
⚫ Could there be a symbiosis between AI and e-democracy?
https://www.democracy-
international.org/Taichung-Grant-
competition
Vote me to Taiwan
Thanks!
• @Matthijs85
• Matthijs Pontier
• matthijs@piratenpartij.nl
• http://www.piratenpartij.nl/
• @Piratenpartij
• Actief worden?
• vrijwilligers@piratenpartij.nl
More reading and watching
Intelligent cars could boost highway capacity by 273%
Autonomous Car Platoons
How to hack a car
Zelfrijdende auto's moeten leren wie ze dood willen rijden
Vrij van controledrift, bureaucratie en armoede met een basisinkomen
Boek: Machine Medical Ethics
Zorgrobots, maar geen botte zorg
Crowdsource EU: People's Constitution
De toekomst van democratie volgens Matthijs Pontier van de Piratenpartij
Gebruik alternatieven voor Big Tech (Google, Facebook, Microsoft, Amazon)
Enrypt e-mail Protonmail
Encrypt phone Signal
Encrypt messaging Signal
Iets van het Internet afhalen bestaat niet.
Betaal zoveel mogelijk contant
Weiger slimme meter; Wees kritisch over ‘smart’
Toolbox.BoF.nl
Gebruik Tor, VPN, DoNotTrack, uBlock, AdNauseam
Laat je niet meeslepen in het Big Data net
Book: Machine Medical Ethics
81
• How to develop robots with
human-like ethics?
• Need for Open Source
• How to use healthcare tech in a
way that improves well-being
• Changed doctor-patient relation
• Deep Brain Stimulation
• Sex-robots
• Etc.

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Who controls our smart cities - CuriousU Summer School - Twente University - 2019 08-16

  • 1. Who controls our smart cities? Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D.
  • 2. ⚫ Free sharing of information, art and culture ⚫ Evidence-based policy with long-term vision ⚫ Stimulate self-determination, but keep rights ⚫ Trust civilians vs Distrust ‘power' ⚫ Enthusiastic about tech, but alert on risks ⚫ Tech to empower people; not to repress Basic principles PPNL Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
  • 3. Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
  • 4. Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
  • 5.
  • 6. Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
  • 7. Is 'smart city' privatizing public services? Who controls AI in the ‘smart’ city? Who controls the data that we produce together? Who profits from the benefits? Who has to deal with the cons? Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
  • 8. Amsterdam wants to collect and share data, to: – Solve societal problems – Improve services – Smarter law enforcement – Manage public space – Improve working processes – Improve healthcare – Recognize patterns to influence behavior “Hereby, Amsterdam is happy to do business with the market”Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
  • 9. Cars that free your time to do other things
  • 10. Local vs Centralized data Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
  • 11. Who will control ‘smart’ cars? Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
  • 12. Monopolization Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
  • 13. The bigger the company The bigger the power center The bigger the chance the company will misuse this power for its own benefit.. Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
  • 14. Corporate surveillance: ‘Smart TV’ Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
  • 15. If technology thinks for you, Then do the programmers tell you what to think?
  • 16.
  • 17. Smart TV hackers are filming couples having sex on their sofa’s and they are putting it on porn sites! Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
  • 18. Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
  • 19.
  • 20. Who actually owns your 'smart home'? Hackers? Viruses? Terrorists? Companies that actually own your devices? The AI that tells you what to do? Or will they control themselves? Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
  • 21. Mass surveillance: for one target, tens of thousands are spied on Sharing info with dubious regimes Keeping our devices insecure to hack us Will the government protect your privacy? Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
  • 22. Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
  • 23.
  • 24. Will the government protect your privacy? Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
  • 25. Trade privacy for security? 1. Not effective 2. Leads to unhealthy power distribution 3. Privacy is a proviso for security 4. There are excellent alternatives Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
  • 26. Think you got nothing to hide? Everybody's got something to hide Function in social relations Snowden: “I don't care about privacy, 'because I have nothing to hide', is like I don't care about free speech, Because I have nothing to say" Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
  • 27. Governments can't always be trusted Many data breaches and lost USB-sticks WRR: Government can't always be trusted with data. Sometimes, information is being manipulated. Also governments can act against the interest of people
  • 28.
  • 29. Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
  • 30. Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our sm
  • 31. Profiling Big Data algorithms get the same bias as their makers and/or their training data This amplifies discrimination of stigmatized groups (and some will use it as justification of discrimination) Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
  • 32. Algorithms get the same bias as their makers and/or training data
  • 35.
  • 37.
  • 39. Google Sidewalks Toronto Should a commercial company do this? Google? Lack of transparency People sued municipality: "We don't want to be Google lab rats" Blackberry CEO: "This is a colonizing experiment in surveillance capitalism attempting to bulldoze important urban, civic and political issues." Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
  • 40. Google wanted a share of property taxes, development fees Monetise government transportation and mobility --> Google is trying to privatize public services​ Google privatizing Toronto Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
  • 41. Google designed privacy policies city neighbourhoods.​ - Individuals targeted with products. - Even targeted to influence their votes​ Privacy adviser Ann Cavoukian resigned:​ "I imagined us creating a smart city of privacy, as opposed to a smart city of surveillance" Toronto: "The evaluation process will determine which parts of the proposal, if any, may be pursued further." Google Sidewalks Toronto
  • 42. How can we do better?
  • 43. Need to stop corporate surveillance Set good standards for Privacy by Design / Data-ownership Regulate Big Business vs More freedom for small startups / cooperatives How can we do better? Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
  • 44.
  • 45. Responsible Digital Cities Control and freedom: People should stay in control over their data. Legitimate and monitored: Citizens decide how the smart city develops Commons: Collected data is from everyone – for everyone Transparency: Be open about data collection and processing Inclusive: Everybody can participate. No discrimination of stigmatized groups Tailored to the people: Humanity always comes first; Empathy https://tada.city/en/home-en/
  • 46. Tech-Commons / Techno-progressivism Democratize the way technologies are built Costs, risks, and benefits of technolohy are equally shared Equal access to technologies Develop tech in a way that promotes freedom
  • 47.
  • 48. Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
  • 49.
  • 54. Facial recognition Should we ban it? https://ww w.banfacial recognition .com/
  • 55. Will superintelligent AI become a new superpower?
  • 56.
  • 57.
  • 58.
  • 59. Why we should have mandatory Machine Ethics
  • 61. 5G + IoT + AI = Superrobot “With the Internet of Things, we’re building a world-size robot. How are we going to control it?” Click here to kill everyone by Bruce Schneier Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
  • 62.
  • 63. Matthijs Pontier, Ph.D., CuriousU Summer School,Twente University, 16-08-2019,Who controls our smart cities?
  • 64. Machine Ethics Machines are becoming more autonomous Machines and algorithms increasingly influence our lives →We should manage that machines do not harm us or threaten our autonomy 64
  • 65. Moral reasoning system We developed moral reasoning system that balances between several moral goals 65
  • 66. Autonomy 66 Results: Able to simulate judge decisions about: •Assertive outreach •Judicial coercion after self- binding declaration
  • 67. Cars that make ethical decisions
  • 68. Why every AI should have Machine Ethics Machine Ethics = AI-Safety Make sure the intelligence explosion benefits us
  • 69. Why every AI should be open-soure Algorithms and robots are increasingly influencing our lives Who will control the programmers? Good ideas are made to be copied: Creating extra value with no extra costs
  • 70. e-Democracy • Easily participate in democratic process • Vote on ideas; not on parties or persons • Power of Ideas replace the idea of power
  • 72. • Everybody can add ideas • Everybody can add arguments • Best ideas and arguments automatically come up How does it work?
  • 73.
  • 74. • Don’t vote once every few years, but always adjust vote • Representation can differ per subject • Representation is voluntary • Makes representationpersonal; implies trust Representation in an e-Democracy
  • 76. ⚫ Could there be a symbiosis between AI and e-democracy?
  • 78. Thanks! • @Matthijs85 • Matthijs Pontier • matthijs@piratenpartij.nl • http://www.piratenpartij.nl/ • @Piratenpartij • Actief worden? • vrijwilligers@piratenpartij.nl
  • 79. More reading and watching Intelligent cars could boost highway capacity by 273% Autonomous Car Platoons How to hack a car Zelfrijdende auto's moeten leren wie ze dood willen rijden Vrij van controledrift, bureaucratie en armoede met een basisinkomen Boek: Machine Medical Ethics Zorgrobots, maar geen botte zorg Crowdsource EU: People's Constitution De toekomst van democratie volgens Matthijs Pontier van de Piratenpartij
  • 80. Gebruik alternatieven voor Big Tech (Google, Facebook, Microsoft, Amazon) Enrypt e-mail Protonmail Encrypt phone Signal Encrypt messaging Signal Iets van het Internet afhalen bestaat niet. Betaal zoveel mogelijk contant Weiger slimme meter; Wees kritisch over ‘smart’ Toolbox.BoF.nl Gebruik Tor, VPN, DoNotTrack, uBlock, AdNauseam Laat je niet meeslepen in het Big Data net
  • 81. Book: Machine Medical Ethics 81 • How to develop robots with human-like ethics? • Need for Open Source • How to use healthcare tech in a way that improves well-being • Changed doctor-patient relation • Deep Brain Stimulation • Sex-robots • Etc.