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What type of (smart) city do we want to live in?


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Presentation about better metrics and design principles for smart cities.

NEXT Conference Hamburg, 19 September 2019.

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What type of (smart) city do we want to live in?

  1. 1. 
 The Waving Cat: Strategy, Research, Policy & Foresight around Emerging Technologies | @thewavingcat Peter Bihr | @peterbihr 
 What Type of Smart City
 Do We Want to Live in? NEXT Hamburg, 19 Sep 2019
  2. 2. About me Peter Bihr explores the impact of emerging technologies, and how to put them to work responsibly and for the public good. • The Waving Cat GmbH
 Founder and Managing director. 
 Strategy, research, policy, foresight • ThingsCon e.V.
 Co-founder, Chair of the Board. 
 Advocacy for responsible technology, esp. Internet of Things • Fellowships
 Mozilla 2018/19, Edgeryders 2019
  3. 3. Image: Futurefive Why Smart Cities, why now? • Literally impacts billions of lives • It’s early days but moving very quickly • We’re laying the foundation today for decades of “connecting cities” & a massive transition
  4. 4. A gentle reminder 1. The future is not predetermined. 2. The future is not predictable. 3. Future outcomes can be influenced by our choices in the present.  Source: Dr Joseph Voros, Swinburne University of Technology —The 3 “Laws” of Foresight
  5. 5. Images: Stephen die Donato, Andrew Welch Connected Home Smart
 City Power dynamics (used to be private) (there is no opt-out)
  6. 6. Let’s talk about framing
  7. 7. Framing matters Images: Wikipedia, GACHA
  8. 8. Two frames for a smart city: • IBM: “[a city] that makes optimal use of all the interconnected information available today to better understand and control its operations and optimize the use of limited resources” • British Standards Institute (BSI): “the effective integration of physical, digital and human systems in the built environment to deliver [a] sustainable, prosperous and inclusive future for its citizens” BSI (2014), Smart cities framework – Guide to establishing strategies for smart cities and communities, PAS 181:2014 Cosgrove M & al, (2011), Smart Cities series: introducing the IBM city operations and management solutions. IBM.
  9. 9. What do we want to optimize for? • Efficiency • City management • Resource control • Participation & Opportunity • Equality & Digital Citizens Rights • Sustainability & Resilience
  10. 10. A Tale of Two Cities Three
  11. 11. City 1: Efficient, centralized control A centralized control center aims to massively increase efficiency and prevents crime: A centralized government database identifies all citizens by their fingerprints for seamless service delivery when they use government services, apply for a credit card, or buy a new SIM card. As long as the fingerprint sensors can read the fingerprints. Jaywalkers are captured by facial recognition cameras and publicly shamed. They are further punished through their Social Credit Rating, creating pressure to behave better.
  12. 12. City 2: Convenient pay-for-play The regular lines at the subway are enormous. Luckily, your Amazon Prime membership has expanded to give you VIP access to the newly privatized public transport system. You get to skip the line (please swipe your phone for payment upon entrance). It’s not cheap, but it’s frictionless. Image: The
  13. 13. City 3: Decentralized, open governance This smart city prioritizes participation & resilience over efficiency. Both governance structures and the deployed infrastructure is as decentralized and open as possible.
  14. 14. Which do you prefer?
  15. 15. What to optimize for? • Participation & Opportunity • Equality & Digital Citizens Rights • Sustainability & Resilience • Decentralized & participatoy • Open & transparent • Bottom-up is built in • Monolithic, centralized control • Black box algorithms • Top-down • Efficiency • City management • Resource control
  16. 16. Trustable Technology Mark A Trustmark for the Internet of Things is an initiative by ThingsCon e.V. 
 with support from Mozilla.
  17. 17. The trustmark evaluates products for 5 dimensions that we identified as most crucial for consumers Dimensions of trustworthiness *See A Trustmark for IoT (2017), p. 56 Privacy & Data Practices
 How respectful of privacy? Is it designed using state of the art data practices? Transparency
 Is it obvious to users what the device does and how data might be used? Security
 Is it designed and built using state of the art security practices and safeguards? Stability
 How robust? How long a lifecycle to expect? Openness
 How open are device and manufacturer? Is open data used or generated?
  18. 18. How might these guiding principles translate from consumer rights to citizen rights in a Smart City? Privacy & Data Practices Transparency Security Stability Openness
 Privacy & Data Practices Transparency & Accountability Security Resilience Openness
 Consumer Products Smart City
  19. 19. Proposing the PAT Framework
  20. 20. Participation Accountability Trust The PAT Framework
  21. 21. Participation: Anything that allows for, and increases, participation. Requires transparency, access, informed citizens. Projects to be understandable, and citizens to be informed. Accountability: Make sure someone’s truly responsible. A meaningful way of addressing issues, clear responsibilities on government & private sector side, “skin in the game”. Trust: Anything that makes sure citizens can trust the systems, processes, institutions, products. Everything can be checked by experts (openness), processes can be adapted (agile), and results can be challenged (redress). Resilience and safeguards against failure are top prioritites. The PAT Framework
  22. 22. Let’s get this right. Thank you. The Waving Cat GmbH Twitter @thewavingcat Web Peter Bihr Twitter @peterbihr Email