SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 25
Principles of Sociology 3
Culture
What is Society?
• Society and “culture” are not exactly the same
thing.
• A “society” has the following features:
• A common culture that develops and changes.
• The people occupy a definite geographical area.
• Organization around a division of labor.
• Past societies were relatively independent, but the
emergence of interdependent national economies and,
most recently, a global economy, has changed this.
What is culture?
• culture = “the ways of thinking, the ways of acting,
and the material objects that together form a
peoples’ way of life” (Macionis, 60).
• Culture includes: food, religion, art, music, stories,
clothing, sports, political structures, etc., etc.
• Instead of relying on instinct, humans rely on culture
as their “tool kit” for survival.
• Culture is shared by groups of people that share life
together.
What is culture?
• material culture = the physical or tangible items
that members of a society create.
– EXs: high-heel shoes, log cabins, milk shakes, action
movies, computers, etc.
• non-material culture = the intangible ideas that
members of a society create.
– EXs: beliefs, values, political ideologies, norms,
technological methods, etc.
Elements of Culture
• cultural universals = common practices or beliefs
shared by all cultures.
Can include: appearances, activities, social institutions, or
customary practices.
EXs: hairstyles, sports, marriage, joking, religion, cooking, language
(but NOT written language!).
Cultural universals are only “universal” in a general sense; the
actual expressions of cultural universals vary from one culture
to another.
EX: all cultures feature some type of cooked cuisine, but the dishes
that are cooked vary widely.
Elements of Culture
• symbols = anything that meaningfully
represents something as recognized by
members of a culture.
– Symbols express abstract concepts with visible
objects.
– Includes: objects (heart = love), gestures (two
fingers = peace), brands (certain items indicate
class), or items (certain foods = good luck).
– Often, symbols may vary in meaning across
cultures.
Elements of Culture
• language = an abstract system of symbols
that expresses ideas and allows people in
a culture to communicate with one
another.
– Can be verbal or nonverbal (written or gestured).
– Enables us to: describe reality, share experiences and
feelings, create visual images, maintain group boundaries,
and transmit culture.
– As the world becomes sociologically smaller, more and more
societies are becoming multilingual.
Elements of Culture
• beliefs = specific ideas that members of a culture believe to
be true.
• values = the core sentiments that reflect beliefs and define
standards for a culture.
• Values can shape norms that bring sanctions.
• Social circumstances can also bring changes to which values
are prioritized.
– EX: global events (9/11, which brought the Patriot Act) and
technology (the internet, which made identity theft and govt.
surveillance easier) put a new spotlight on the “right to privacy.”
Elements of Culture
• norms = established expectations or standards of conduct.
formal norms = standards that are codified in laws and rules,
and for which there are formal penalties.
mores = norms necessary for the welfare of society.
taboos = mores whose violation is considered extremely offensive or
even unmentionable.
laws = formal norms enforced by legislatures and enforced by formal
sanctions.
informal norms = generally understood and informally
enforced by individuals and groups within society.
folkways = “understood” norms for everyday behavior.
Elements of Culture
• sanctions = penalties for violating norms
(negative), or rewards for conforming to social
norms (positive).
– Formal norms bring formal sanctions.
• EX: if you speed, you get a ticket.
– Informal norms bring informal sanctions.
• EX: if you wear a bikini to a funeral, you will get mean looks.
– Both types of sanctions can be positive (rewards) or
negative (penalties).
How Sanctions Work
POSITIVE NEGATIVE
formal The winner gets a trophy. The speeding motorist gets a ticket.
informal A child is praised for using good
manners.
A family is angry with their relative
who came to the funeral in shorts.
Elements of Culture
• technology = knowledge, techniques, and tools
that allow people to transform resources in
order to create a distinct way of life.
– “cultural information about how to use the material
resources of the environment to satisfy human
needs and desires” (Lenski).
– Includes both material and non-material culture.
– Can be modifications of existing technologies or the
introduction of new technologies.
Cultural Diversity
• high culture = “cultural patterns that distinguish a society’s
elite” (Macionis, 72).
– EXs: season tickets to the opera, $5000 per plate charity dinners,
ballroom dancing.
– cultural capital theory (Bourdieu): views “high culture” as a tool used by
elites to exclude the subordinate classes.
• popular culture = more widespread cultural patterns.
– EXs: baseball, action movies, bar-be-que, “chick flicks.”
• cultural imperialism = situation where one nation’s culture is
infused into other nations (not always welcome).
– Some see the current process of westernization as creating the condition
of imperialism by producing a global culture.
Cultural Diversity
• There are varying ranges of diversity:
– homogeneous societies = citizens share a common
culture and are from similar backgrounds (EXs:
Sweden; Japan).
– heterogeneous societies = the society is
multicultural, featuring citizens from many different
backgrounds (EX: U.S.).
– Although some nations are clearly more diverse than
others, cultural diversity is currently spreading
across the world through immigration.
Cultural Diversity
• Culture can be multi-layered, with substantial variation
between cultures and even within a culture.
• multiculturalism = acknowledges and celebrates cultural
diversity over total assimilation (EX: the contemporary
U.S.).
• sub-cultures = segments of society sharing distinctive
cultural patterns that set them apart.
– Can be based on: age, race/ethnicity, religion, occupation, gender,
hobby/activity, specific interest, illness/disability, class, etc.
– countercultures = groups that strongly reject dominant societal
values and norms and seek alternative lifestyles.
Cultural Change
• Culture is not static but dynamic – cultures
continually change and people adapt.
• cultural innovation = when something new is
introduced into a culture.
discovery = learning of and understanding something
previously unknown or unrecognized.
invention = creation of new cultural elements.
Both types of innovation can have significant social
consequences.
Several examples of both are on the next slide: Think
about the changes that occurred in society with those
new things.
Cultural Change
• cultural diffusion = the process where cultural ideas or
items spread from culture to culture.
– Can occur through exploration, war, the media, tourism,
immigration, intentional export, etc.
• globalization = the current process through which the
world is becoming sociologically smaller due to
international trade markets, increased
communication, and the exchange of ideas.
• McDonaldization = the process whereby the principles
of predictability, calculability, efficiency, and control
through technology have come to dominate society.
Cultural Change
• culture lag = the time-gap between technology and a
society’s moral and legal institutions.
– The “lag” time where non-material culture is struggling to
catch up with the material culture.
– The rapid advance of technology often leaves generations of
users scrambling to merge their beliefs, values, norms, and
laws with the new scientific possibilities and gadgets that
become realities.
– Think about the examples on the next slide: How many
years were car wrecks happening before laws governing cell
phone usage in cars were created?
CULTURE LAG
Culture & the Individual
• culture shock = the disorientation that people feel when they
encounter a different way of life.
• ethnocentrism = the attitude, often held subconsciously, that
holds one’s own culture as superior.
• stereotypes = the unwarranted generalization of a trait applied
to an entire group of people.
• cultural relativism = a perspective that attempts to view
cultural items from the viewpoint of those within the culture.
• xenocentrism = holding another culture superior to one’s own.
A good way to begin understanding
different cultures is to consider the
topic of food …
• Look at the next slide. Do you eat bull testicles?
Pig intestines? Insects? Cheese balls with live
maggots? Kangaroo meat? Frog legs?
• If you are grossed out, ask yourself why that is.
• The fact is, many people in other cultures and
sub-cultures eat these things. Not only this, but
many of those people are grossed out by things
you may think are edible: rare steak, pork, blue
cheese … THINK ABOUT IT!
Food

More Related Content

What's hot

Week 13: Groups and Organizations
Week 13: Groups and Organizations Week 13: Groups and Organizations
Week 13: Groups and Organizations
kilgore1
 
Week 15: Collective Behavior and Social Change
Week 15: Collective Behavior and Social Change Week 15: Collective Behavior and Social Change
Week 15: Collective Behavior and Social Change
kilgore1
 
Week 9: Government and the Economy
Week 9: Government and the Economy Week 9: Government and the Economy
Week 9: Government and the Economy
kilgore1
 
Social stratification
Social stratificationSocial stratification
Social stratification
Allain Flores
 

What's hot (20)

Week 6: Social Class
Week 6: Social Class Week 6: Social Class
Week 6: Social Class
 
Week 14: Health and Medicine
Week 14: Health and Medicine Week 14: Health and Medicine
Week 14: Health and Medicine
 
culture
cultureculture
culture
 
Sociological theories
Sociological theoriesSociological theories
Sociological theories
 
Week 13: Groups and Organizations
Week 13: Groups and Organizations Week 13: Groups and Organizations
Week 13: Groups and Organizations
 
Week 6: Social Stratification
Week 6: Social Stratification Week 6: Social Stratification
Week 6: Social Stratification
 
Week 9: Education
Week 9: Education Week 9: Education
Week 9: Education
 
Week 7: Race and Ethnicity
Week 7: Race and Ethnicity Week 7: Race and Ethnicity
Week 7: Race and Ethnicity
 
Week 15: Collective Behavior and Social Change
Week 15: Collective Behavior and Social Change Week 15: Collective Behavior and Social Change
Week 15: Collective Behavior and Social Change
 
SOCIAL STRATIFICATION
SOCIAL STRATIFICATIONSOCIAL STRATIFICATION
SOCIAL STRATIFICATION
 
Week 9: Government and the Economy
Week 9: Government and the Economy Week 9: Government and the Economy
Week 9: Government and the Economy
 
Social stratification
Social stratificationSocial stratification
Social stratification
 
Whatissociology
WhatissociologyWhatissociology
Whatissociology
 
Week 10: Families
Week 10: Families Week 10: Families
Week 10: Families
 
Social inequality
Social inequalitySocial inequality
Social inequality
 
Social stratification
Social stratification Social stratification
Social stratification
 
Social stratification
Social stratificationSocial stratification
Social stratification
 
Social Inequality
Social  InequalitySocial  Inequality
Social Inequality
 
Chapter 9 Social Stratification (Introduction of Sociology and Anthropology)
Chapter 9 Social Stratification (Introduction of Sociology and Anthropology)Chapter 9 Social Stratification (Introduction of Sociology and Anthropology)
Chapter 9 Social Stratification (Introduction of Sociology and Anthropology)
 
Power point - social stratification
Power point - social stratificationPower point - social stratification
Power point - social stratification
 

Similar to Week 2: Culture

NOA-Sociology-01.pptxsociologynotesforcss
NOA-Sociology-01.pptxsociologynotesforcssNOA-Sociology-01.pptxsociologynotesforcss
NOA-Sociology-01.pptxsociologynotesforcss
SaraAffandi1
 

Similar to Week 2: Culture (20)

Socio101 report pres
Socio101 report presSocio101 report pres
Socio101 report pres
 
School college university academic 2.pptx
School college university academic 2.pptxSchool college university academic 2.pptx
School college university academic 2.pptx
 
Culture
CultureCulture
Culture
 
Study unit 3 culture
Study unit 3 cultureStudy unit 3 culture
Study unit 3 culture
 
Culture
CultureCulture
Culture
 
culture.pptx
culture.pptxculture.pptx
culture.pptx
 
Ucsp.module1.lesson3
Ucsp.module1.lesson3Ucsp.module1.lesson3
Ucsp.module1.lesson3
 
Culture_3.pptx
Culture_3.pptxCulture_3.pptx
Culture_3.pptx
 
chapter three.pptx
chapter three.pptxchapter three.pptx
chapter three.pptx
 
culture.pptx
culture.pptxculture.pptx
culture.pptx
 
culture.pptx
culture.pptxculture.pptx
culture.pptx
 
The Concept of Culture and the Importance.pptx
The Concept of Culture and the Importance.pptxThe Concept of Culture and the Importance.pptx
The Concept of Culture and the Importance.pptx
 
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared ResourceSociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
 
OER Chapter 3 - Culture
OER Chapter 3 - CultureOER Chapter 3 - Culture
OER Chapter 3 - Culture
 
UCSP.pptx
UCSP.pptxUCSP.pptx
UCSP.pptx
 
DAY-15 CULTURE.pptx
DAY-15 CULTURE.pptxDAY-15 CULTURE.pptx
DAY-15 CULTURE.pptx
 
Culture
CultureCulture
Culture
 
Lec 6 & 7.pptx
Lec 6 & 7.pptxLec 6 & 7.pptx
Lec 6 & 7.pptx
 
Chapter 2 (Understanding Culture and Society).pptx
Chapter 2 (Understanding Culture and Society).pptxChapter 2 (Understanding Culture and Society).pptx
Chapter 2 (Understanding Culture and Society).pptx
 
NOA-Sociology-01.pptxsociologynotesforcss
NOA-Sociology-01.pptxsociologynotesforcssNOA-Sociology-01.pptxsociologynotesforcss
NOA-Sociology-01.pptxsociologynotesforcss
 

Recently uploaded

Recently uploaded (20)

The Ultimate Guide to Social Media Marketing in 2024.pdf
The Ultimate Guide to Social Media Marketing in 2024.pdfThe Ultimate Guide to Social Media Marketing in 2024.pdf
The Ultimate Guide to Social Media Marketing in 2024.pdf
 
Word Stress rules esl .pptx
Word Stress rules esl               .pptxWord Stress rules esl               .pptx
Word Stress rules esl .pptx
 
The Benefits and Challenges of Open Educational Resources
The Benefits and Challenges of Open Educational ResourcesThe Benefits and Challenges of Open Educational Resources
The Benefits and Challenges of Open Educational Resources
 
How to Manage Notification Preferences in the Odoo 17
How to Manage Notification Preferences in the Odoo 17How to Manage Notification Preferences in the Odoo 17
How to Manage Notification Preferences in the Odoo 17
 
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Discuss App.pptx
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Discuss App.pptxAn Overview of the Odoo 17 Discuss App.pptx
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Discuss App.pptx
 
Matatag-Curriculum and the 21st Century Skills Presentation.pptx
Matatag-Curriculum and the 21st Century Skills Presentation.pptxMatatag-Curriculum and the 21st Century Skills Presentation.pptx
Matatag-Curriculum and the 21st Century Skills Presentation.pptx
 
Operations Management - Book1.p - Dr. Abdulfatah A. Salem
Operations Management - Book1.p  - Dr. Abdulfatah A. SalemOperations Management - Book1.p  - Dr. Abdulfatah A. Salem
Operations Management - Book1.p - Dr. Abdulfatah A. Salem
 
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 2 STEPS Using Odoo 17
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 2 STEPS Using Odoo 17Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 2 STEPS Using Odoo 17
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 2 STEPS Using Odoo 17
 
BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...
BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...
BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...
 
Removal Strategy _ FEFO _ Working with Perishable Products in Odoo 17
Removal Strategy _ FEFO _ Working with Perishable Products in Odoo 17Removal Strategy _ FEFO _ Working with Perishable Products in Odoo 17
Removal Strategy _ FEFO _ Working with Perishable Products in Odoo 17
 
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT VẬT LÝ 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯ...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT VẬT LÝ 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯ...TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT VẬT LÝ 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯ...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT VẬT LÝ 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯ...
 
Capitol Tech Univ Doctoral Presentation -May 2024
Capitol Tech Univ Doctoral Presentation -May 2024Capitol Tech Univ Doctoral Presentation -May 2024
Capitol Tech Univ Doctoral Presentation -May 2024
 
Mbaye_Astou.Education Civica_Human Rights.pptx
Mbaye_Astou.Education Civica_Human Rights.pptxMbaye_Astou.Education Civica_Human Rights.pptx
Mbaye_Astou.Education Civica_Human Rights.pptx
 
REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY STUDIE OF MALE AND FEMALEpptx
REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY  STUDIE OF MALE AND FEMALEpptxREPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY  STUDIE OF MALE AND FEMALEpptx
REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY STUDIE OF MALE AND FEMALEpptx
 
Application of Matrices in real life. Presentation on application of matrices
Application of Matrices in real life. Presentation on application of matricesApplication of Matrices in real life. Presentation on application of matrices
Application of Matrices in real life. Presentation on application of matrices
 
size separation d pharm 1st year pharmaceutics
size separation d pharm 1st year pharmaceuticssize separation d pharm 1st year pharmaceutics
size separation d pharm 1st year pharmaceutics
 
The Last Leaf, a short story by O. Henry
The Last Leaf, a short story by O. HenryThe Last Leaf, a short story by O. Henry
The Last Leaf, a short story by O. Henry
 
factors influencing drug absorption-final-2.pptx
factors influencing drug absorption-final-2.pptxfactors influencing drug absorption-final-2.pptx
factors influencing drug absorption-final-2.pptx
 
Post Exam Fun(da) Intra UEM General Quiz 2024 - Prelims q&a.pdf
Post Exam Fun(da) Intra UEM General Quiz 2024 - Prelims q&a.pdfPost Exam Fun(da) Intra UEM General Quiz 2024 - Prelims q&a.pdf
Post Exam Fun(da) Intra UEM General Quiz 2024 - Prelims q&a.pdf
 
Navigating the Misinformation Minefield: The Role of Higher Education in the ...
Navigating the Misinformation Minefield: The Role of Higher Education in the ...Navigating the Misinformation Minefield: The Role of Higher Education in the ...
Navigating the Misinformation Minefield: The Role of Higher Education in the ...
 

Week 2: Culture

  • 2. What is Society? • Society and “culture” are not exactly the same thing. • A “society” has the following features: • A common culture that develops and changes. • The people occupy a definite geographical area. • Organization around a division of labor. • Past societies were relatively independent, but the emergence of interdependent national economies and, most recently, a global economy, has changed this.
  • 3. What is culture? • culture = “the ways of thinking, the ways of acting, and the material objects that together form a peoples’ way of life” (Macionis, 60). • Culture includes: food, religion, art, music, stories, clothing, sports, political structures, etc., etc. • Instead of relying on instinct, humans rely on culture as their “tool kit” for survival. • Culture is shared by groups of people that share life together.
  • 4. What is culture? • material culture = the physical or tangible items that members of a society create. – EXs: high-heel shoes, log cabins, milk shakes, action movies, computers, etc. • non-material culture = the intangible ideas that members of a society create. – EXs: beliefs, values, political ideologies, norms, technological methods, etc.
  • 5. Elements of Culture • cultural universals = common practices or beliefs shared by all cultures. Can include: appearances, activities, social institutions, or customary practices. EXs: hairstyles, sports, marriage, joking, religion, cooking, language (but NOT written language!). Cultural universals are only “universal” in a general sense; the actual expressions of cultural universals vary from one culture to another. EX: all cultures feature some type of cooked cuisine, but the dishes that are cooked vary widely.
  • 6. Elements of Culture • symbols = anything that meaningfully represents something as recognized by members of a culture. – Symbols express abstract concepts with visible objects. – Includes: objects (heart = love), gestures (two fingers = peace), brands (certain items indicate class), or items (certain foods = good luck). – Often, symbols may vary in meaning across cultures.
  • 7.
  • 8. Elements of Culture • language = an abstract system of symbols that expresses ideas and allows people in a culture to communicate with one another. – Can be verbal or nonverbal (written or gestured). – Enables us to: describe reality, share experiences and feelings, create visual images, maintain group boundaries, and transmit culture. – As the world becomes sociologically smaller, more and more societies are becoming multilingual.
  • 9. Elements of Culture • beliefs = specific ideas that members of a culture believe to be true. • values = the core sentiments that reflect beliefs and define standards for a culture. • Values can shape norms that bring sanctions. • Social circumstances can also bring changes to which values are prioritized. – EX: global events (9/11, which brought the Patriot Act) and technology (the internet, which made identity theft and govt. surveillance easier) put a new spotlight on the “right to privacy.”
  • 10. Elements of Culture • norms = established expectations or standards of conduct. formal norms = standards that are codified in laws and rules, and for which there are formal penalties. mores = norms necessary for the welfare of society. taboos = mores whose violation is considered extremely offensive or even unmentionable. laws = formal norms enforced by legislatures and enforced by formal sanctions. informal norms = generally understood and informally enforced by individuals and groups within society. folkways = “understood” norms for everyday behavior.
  • 11. Elements of Culture • sanctions = penalties for violating norms (negative), or rewards for conforming to social norms (positive). – Formal norms bring formal sanctions. • EX: if you speed, you get a ticket. – Informal norms bring informal sanctions. • EX: if you wear a bikini to a funeral, you will get mean looks. – Both types of sanctions can be positive (rewards) or negative (penalties).
  • 12. How Sanctions Work POSITIVE NEGATIVE formal The winner gets a trophy. The speeding motorist gets a ticket. informal A child is praised for using good manners. A family is angry with their relative who came to the funeral in shorts.
  • 13. Elements of Culture • technology = knowledge, techniques, and tools that allow people to transform resources in order to create a distinct way of life. – “cultural information about how to use the material resources of the environment to satisfy human needs and desires” (Lenski). – Includes both material and non-material culture. – Can be modifications of existing technologies or the introduction of new technologies.
  • 14. Cultural Diversity • high culture = “cultural patterns that distinguish a society’s elite” (Macionis, 72). – EXs: season tickets to the opera, $5000 per plate charity dinners, ballroom dancing. – cultural capital theory (Bourdieu): views “high culture” as a tool used by elites to exclude the subordinate classes. • popular culture = more widespread cultural patterns. – EXs: baseball, action movies, bar-be-que, “chick flicks.” • cultural imperialism = situation where one nation’s culture is infused into other nations (not always welcome). – Some see the current process of westernization as creating the condition of imperialism by producing a global culture.
  • 15. Cultural Diversity • There are varying ranges of diversity: – homogeneous societies = citizens share a common culture and are from similar backgrounds (EXs: Sweden; Japan). – heterogeneous societies = the society is multicultural, featuring citizens from many different backgrounds (EX: U.S.). – Although some nations are clearly more diverse than others, cultural diversity is currently spreading across the world through immigration.
  • 16. Cultural Diversity • Culture can be multi-layered, with substantial variation between cultures and even within a culture. • multiculturalism = acknowledges and celebrates cultural diversity over total assimilation (EX: the contemporary U.S.). • sub-cultures = segments of society sharing distinctive cultural patterns that set them apart. – Can be based on: age, race/ethnicity, religion, occupation, gender, hobby/activity, specific interest, illness/disability, class, etc. – countercultures = groups that strongly reject dominant societal values and norms and seek alternative lifestyles.
  • 17. Cultural Change • Culture is not static but dynamic – cultures continually change and people adapt. • cultural innovation = when something new is introduced into a culture. discovery = learning of and understanding something previously unknown or unrecognized. invention = creation of new cultural elements. Both types of innovation can have significant social consequences. Several examples of both are on the next slide: Think about the changes that occurred in society with those new things.
  • 18.
  • 19. Cultural Change • cultural diffusion = the process where cultural ideas or items spread from culture to culture. – Can occur through exploration, war, the media, tourism, immigration, intentional export, etc. • globalization = the current process through which the world is becoming sociologically smaller due to international trade markets, increased communication, and the exchange of ideas. • McDonaldization = the process whereby the principles of predictability, calculability, efficiency, and control through technology have come to dominate society.
  • 20.
  • 21. Cultural Change • culture lag = the time-gap between technology and a society’s moral and legal institutions. – The “lag” time where non-material culture is struggling to catch up with the material culture. – The rapid advance of technology often leaves generations of users scrambling to merge their beliefs, values, norms, and laws with the new scientific possibilities and gadgets that become realities. – Think about the examples on the next slide: How many years were car wrecks happening before laws governing cell phone usage in cars were created?
  • 23. Culture & the Individual • culture shock = the disorientation that people feel when they encounter a different way of life. • ethnocentrism = the attitude, often held subconsciously, that holds one’s own culture as superior. • stereotypes = the unwarranted generalization of a trait applied to an entire group of people. • cultural relativism = a perspective that attempts to view cultural items from the viewpoint of those within the culture. • xenocentrism = holding another culture superior to one’s own.
  • 24. A good way to begin understanding different cultures is to consider the topic of food … • Look at the next slide. Do you eat bull testicles? Pig intestines? Insects? Cheese balls with live maggots? Kangaroo meat? Frog legs? • If you are grossed out, ask yourself why that is. • The fact is, many people in other cultures and sub-cultures eat these things. Not only this, but many of those people are grossed out by things you may think are edible: rare steak, pork, blue cheese … THINK ABOUT IT!
  • 25. Food