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Web Services
Orchestrierung mit BPEL
2.0 und Apache ODE
 Tammo van Lessen | Uni Stuttgart
     tammo.van.lessen@iaas.uni-stuttgart.de
IAAS (University of Stuttgart)

           Institute of Architecture of Application Systems
                     Founded in September 2004
                     Director: Prof. Dr. Frank Leymann
                     22 research associates at present
                     5 external researchers
                     Web: www.iaas.uni‐stuttgart.de




© Tammo van Lessen                                            2
Research Focus in SOA / Web Services

           Co‐authoring Standards (OASIS, W3C)
           QoS in Web services
           Semantic Web Services (EU projects)
           Service Level Agreements
                     Management of SLAs
                     SLA Aggregation/Negotiation
           Service Composition (BPEL)
           Software as a Service / Cloud computing




© Tammo van Lessen                                   3
Research Focus in BPM und EAI
           Business Processes
                     BPEL (Standard, Extensions)
                     Coordination protocols
                     Transactions
                     Human Task Management
                     Semantic Business Process Management
                     Choreography
                     Business Activity Monitoring (BAM)
                     Compliance, Governance
           Integration of Applications, Middleware and Processes
                     Architecture
                        e.g. EAI Patterns
                     Technologies
                        e.g. WS‐*, SCA, Messaging, ESB, Spaces

© Tammo van Lessen                                                 4
About me: Tammo van Lessen

           Research Associate @ IAAS
                     EU Project SUPER
                       Combining BPM with Semantic Web (SBPM)
                       WSDL, BPEL, WSMO, WSMX, ServiceMix, ODE, …
                     PhD Thesis
                       Conversational Web Services, WSDL 2.0, BPEL 2.0, …
           Committer @ Apache Software Foundation
                     PMC Member @ Apache ODE
                       Extensibility, E4X/JS, Monitoring, SimPEL, BPELscript
                     Google Summer of Code 2008 Mentor
                       Milinda Pathirage: Management Console for Apache ODE



© Tammo van Lessen                                                             5
The Talk Today

           WS‐BPEL
                     Motivation
                     Concepts
                     Extensions
           Apache ODE
                     History
                     Architecture
                     Extensions
                     What’s next?




© Tammo van Lessen                  6
BPEL Concepts




© Tammo van Lessen                   7
The Basis: Service Platform


                                                   Orchestration     Protocols            State
                                                                                                        Components
               Discovery, Negotiation, Agreement




                                                           Composite                    Atomic


                                                     Reliable                                             Quality 
                                                                            Security     Transactions
                                                    Messaging                                            of Service


                                                     Interface + Bindings                Policy         Description

                                                               XML                      Non‐XML         Messaging

                                                                           Transports                    Transport




© Tammo van Lessen , Frank Leymann
The Basis: Web Service Platform


                                                     WS‐C, WS‐CDL, 
                                           BPEL                               WSRF
                                                      BPEL4Chor                              Components
                                              Composite                      Atomic
               UDDI, WS‐A, WS‐MEX, WSIL




                                                                                               Quality 
                                          WSRM             WS‐Security*     WS‐AT, WS‐BA,…
                                                                                              of Service


                                                  WSDL                     WS‐Policy*        Description

                                             SOAP, WS‐A                   JMS, RMI/IIOP      Messaging

                                          HTTP, SMTP, XMPP, TCP/IP, FTP, Tuple Spaces,…       Transport




© Tammo van Lessen , Frank Leymann
Why Orchestration?



                                     ???
                                           To achieve a business
                                           goal, you often need
                                           more than one
                                           service…
                                           Which to use, in which
                                           order, how to use them?




© Tammo van Lessen , Frank Leymann
Web Service Orchestration


                     BPEL!




© Tammo van Lessen , Frank Leymann
The Notion of Orchestration: Deja Vu

                                         Workflow




                                     Business Functions




© Tammo van Lessen , Frank Leymann
The Notion of Orchestration: Deja Vu

                                     Orchestration




                                     Web Services




© Tammo van Lessen , Frank Leymann
The Programming Models

                                      Application
                                        Processes

                 Programming in
                    the Large
                                  Business                  Workflow
                                                            System


                                   Service Configuration


                     Deployment         pL EPR             Service Bus
                                         pT



                 Programming in
                                         IT
                                      Web Services

                                                             Service
                    the Small                               Container




© Tammo van Lessen
What is BPEL?
           Business Process Execution Language
                     7/02 IBM & MS, 5/03 +BEA+SAP+Siebel, 4/07 OASIS Standard
           High‐level programming language
           Recursive Model
           BPEL has native support for
                     Long running processes
                     Scalability
                     Concurrency
                     Message and instance correlation
                     Fault handling
                     Compensation based recovery
                     Phoenix behaviour
                     Most important: BPEL is standard and supported the most important 
                     vendors.
           Defined Execution Semantics
           Abstract Processes (protocols, “views” on internal processes)

© Tammo van Lessen                                                                        15
What is BPEL not? Common Misconceptions

           “BPEL is block‐structured only and therefore not 
           usable for business users”
           “BPEL does not support multiple transport protocols”
                     Look at WSDL
           “BPEL interactions are only synchronous”
                     Look at WSDL
           “Look at this ugly XML, business people won’t 
           understand this cumbersome stuff”
                     Not meant to be hand‐written, use tools!
           BPEL is not a modelling notation


© Tammo van Lessen                                                16
BPEL’s Foundation

           Web Services
                     WSDL 1.1 – abstract part (concrete part ‐> ESB)
                     (SOAP)
                     (WS‐Addressing)
           Flow Control
                     Block structured (nested blocks)
                     Graph‐based flows (using <flow>)
           Data Model
                     W3C XML Schema 1.0
                     XML InfoSet
                     XPath 1.0
                     XSLT 1.0
© Tammo van Lessen                                                     17
BPEL Concepts: Variables & Partner Links
           Variables
                     Shared variables, statically typed via WSDL messages, XSD elements or 
                     XSD types
                     “Global” process variables and “local” scoped variables
           Partner Links / Partner Link Types
                     Partner Links define “contract channels” between partners
                     Mutual call‐back dependency
                     Associates interfaces (pTs) with roles
                     Partner Links define which partner takes which role
                     Key concept to enable asynchronous messaging!


                           Role 1 / myRole    Role 2 / partnerRole   “I expect from my partner
                                                                     an implementation of this!”


                      portType                         portType



© Tammo van Lessen                                                                             18
BPEL Concepts: Fault Handling & Compensation

           Fault Handling
                     Like in Java, enables alternative execution paths
                     Can trigger compensation
           Compensation
                     ACID Transactions are not applicable when dealing with 
                     long running processes
                     Compensation‐based recovery
                       Compensation Handler can reverse the work performed by an 
                       already completed scope
                       Compensation Handler is “installed” after successful execution of a 
                       scope
                       Compensation can only be triggered by 
                       fault/compensation/termination handler of the enclosing scope

© Tammo van Lessen                                                                        19
BPEL Concepts: Fault Handling & Compensation




© Tammo van Lessen                              20
BPEL Concepts: Data Manipulation

           (Strong type system)
           No explicit data flow
           Assigning variable values
                     By receiving a message from a partner service
                     By invoking a partner service and storing the result into a 
                     variable
                     Copying (parts) of variables into other variables
                       <assign>
                     Drawbacks: Quite cumbersome, requires often XSLT
                     Look at E4X and BPELJ



© Tammo van Lessen                                                                  21
BPEL Concepts: Modelling Styles

           Block structured modelling
                     Nesting of structured activities
                     Use of <flow> activity for parallelism
           Graph based modelling
                     <flow> activity with links                 t1   t2


                     Transition conditions & join conditions              j

                     Dead‐Path‐Elimination
                     Acyclic graph to ensure sound execution 
                     semantics
                     Loops can be realized with <while> / 
                     <repeatUntil> / <forEach>
                     Not supported by Sun & Oracle!
© Tammo van Lessen                                                            22
BPEL Concepts: Graph‐based Modelling




© Tammo van Lessen                      23
BPEL 2.0 Activities

                 Basic Activities                                                       Structured Activities

                       receive               reply             invoke                       A            flow                   pick

                                                                                                 B          C    M1 M2 … A

                      assign                  validate
                                                                                                     sequence              forEach

                                                                                            1.       2. … N.     1.     2. … N.
                       throw                   rethrow             exit

                                                                                                        while         if-elseif-else
                                                                                                                c1    c2
                        compensate                   compensateScope                             c                          …


                                                                                                 repeatUntil                scope
                       wait
                                                                                                        c



                        empty


                                                                        extensionActivity




© Tammo van Lessen , figures by Simon Moser and Oleg Danilov
BPEL Extensions
           BPEL4People/WS‐HT                  BPEL4SWS
                     Support for Human            Support for Semantic 
                     Tasks                        Web Services (Service 
                     Standardization              Discovery)
                     Committed at OASIS
                     currently being formed       Data Mediation
           BPEL‐SPE                           BPELlight
                     Support for sub‐             WSDL‐less BPEL
                     processes                    Is about message 
                     Autonomy is key              exchanges
           BPELJ                              BPEL JS/E4X
                     Use Java in BPEL             Use JavaScript/E4X for 
                     Activities                   variable assignments
                     Use Java types in BPEL
© Tammo van Lessen                                                         26
Apache ODE




© Tammo van Lessen                27
Apache ODE: Project History
           March 2006
                     Started in incubator
                     Code donations from Intalio and Sybase
                     Merge with Apache Agila
           July 2007
                     Graduated as top‐level project (TLP)
           August 2007
                     Release 1.1: Bug fixes, performance, BPEL compliance
           January 2008
                     Release 1.1.1: Bug fixes
           July 2008
                     Release 1.2: HTTP Binding, external variables, bug fixes
           November/December 2008
                     Release 1.3: RESTful BPEL, event multicasting, admin console, Eclipse 
                     integration
                     Release 2.0: Refactorings, backward compatibility, extensions.

© Tammo van Lessen                                                                            28
Apache ODE: Project Stats
           Cool and diverse community
           ODE being used in commercial projects
                     Intalio BPMS
                     Coghead
                     …
           Figures
                     ~ 10 committers
                     250 eMail / month (dev & user)
                     1500 page views / day
                     ~ 2000 downloads / week
           BPEL compliance
                     Supports BPEL 1.1 & BPEL 2.0
                     http://ode.apache.org/ws‐bpel‐20‐specification‐compliance.html
                     Interoperable with existing tools
© Tammo van Lessen                                                               29
Apache ODE: Features
           Fast and scalable process engine
           Modular design & embeddable
           Lightweight ESB included
                     Supported protocols: SOAP via HTTP/JMS/SMTP/what ever Axis2 
                     can do, POX/HTTP
           Implicit Message Correlation
                     Via HTTP headers and WS‐Addressing
           Supports BPEL extensibility (not yet released)
           Different deployment scenarios
                     JBI, hot‐deployment
           Robustness
                     Everything is internally executed within JTA/XA transactions
           Management and Auditing
© Tammo van Lessen                                                                  30
Apache ODE: Architecture
           Modular and extensible 
           architecture                                              Deployment
                                                                         Unit
                                                                                               *.bpel, *.wsdl, 
                                                                                               deploy.xml

                     Deployment Strategy
                                               Apache ODE
                     Integration Layer
                                                                         BPEL 
                     Process and Instance                               Compiler
                                                                                               OModel

                     Management
                     Data Access                      BPEL Runtime
                     Scheduler               Axis2




                                                                                                Management & 
                                                             JACOB             DAOs
                     Event Processor          JBI




                                                                                                   Events
                     Transaction Manager     SCA
                                                                           Hiber        Open
                                                            Scheduler
                     Activity                 …                            nate          JPA

                     Implementations
                     Expressions
                                                                                   DB


© Tammo van Lessen                                                                                                31
Apache ODE: Extensions

           Activity Recovery
           JS/E4X
           RESTful BPEL
           Extensibility
           SimPEL/BPELscript
           External Variables
           Process Multicasts




© Tammo van Lessen              32
Apache ODE: Getting Started
           Visit http://ode.apache.org/getting‐ode.html
           Download latest release
                     Axis2 deployable is the easiest starter kit
           Download Tomcat
           Deploy ode.war to Tomcat and run it
           Done.

           Distro come with samples, just copy them into 
           WEB‐INF/processes
           Go to http://host:port/ode  to see the management 
           console
           Use SOAPUI to explore processes
© Tammo van Lessen                                                 33
Apache ODE: What’s keeping us busy
           The upcoming release
                     Both branches will be released soon
                     New Features:
                        AJAXy admin console
                        Support for custom activities
                        Event multicasting
                        HTTP binding
           Integration with Eclipse BPEL
           RESTful BPEL
           Human Tasks (SingleShot)
           SimPEL / BPELscript
                     Alternative Syntax for BPEL
                     Targeting Developers
                     SimPEL: BPEL relax
                     BPELscript:  Bi‐directional mapping
                        www.bpelscript.org
© Tammo van Lessen                                         34
Apache ODE: MMC




© Tammo van Lessen   35
Apache ODE: MMC




© Tammo van Lessen   36
Apache ODE: MMC




© Tammo van Lessen   37
Thank you!
                     Questions?



© Tammo van Lessen                38

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Web Services Orchestration with BPEL 2.0

  • 1. Web Services Orchestrierung mit BPEL 2.0 und Apache ODE Tammo van Lessen | Uni Stuttgart tammo.van.lessen@iaas.uni-stuttgart.de
  • 2. IAAS (University of Stuttgart) Institute of Architecture of Application Systems Founded in September 2004 Director: Prof. Dr. Frank Leymann 22 research associates at present 5 external researchers Web: www.iaas.uni‐stuttgart.de © Tammo van Lessen 2
  • 3. Research Focus in SOA / Web Services Co‐authoring Standards (OASIS, W3C) QoS in Web services Semantic Web Services (EU projects) Service Level Agreements Management of SLAs SLA Aggregation/Negotiation Service Composition (BPEL) Software as a Service / Cloud computing © Tammo van Lessen 3
  • 4. Research Focus in BPM und EAI Business Processes BPEL (Standard, Extensions) Coordination protocols Transactions Human Task Management Semantic Business Process Management Choreography Business Activity Monitoring (BAM) Compliance, Governance Integration of Applications, Middleware and Processes Architecture e.g. EAI Patterns Technologies e.g. WS‐*, SCA, Messaging, ESB, Spaces © Tammo van Lessen 4
  • 5. About me: Tammo van Lessen Research Associate @ IAAS EU Project SUPER Combining BPM with Semantic Web (SBPM) WSDL, BPEL, WSMO, WSMX, ServiceMix, ODE, … PhD Thesis Conversational Web Services, WSDL 2.0, BPEL 2.0, … Committer @ Apache Software Foundation PMC Member @ Apache ODE Extensibility, E4X/JS, Monitoring, SimPEL, BPELscript Google Summer of Code 2008 Mentor Milinda Pathirage: Management Console for Apache ODE © Tammo van Lessen 5
  • 6. The Talk Today WS‐BPEL Motivation Concepts Extensions Apache ODE History Architecture Extensions What’s next? © Tammo van Lessen 6
  • 7. BPEL Concepts © Tammo van Lessen 7
  • 8. The Basis: Service Platform Orchestration Protocols State Components Discovery, Negotiation, Agreement Composite Atomic Reliable Quality  Security Transactions Messaging of Service Interface + Bindings Policy Description XML Non‐XML Messaging Transports Transport © Tammo van Lessen , Frank Leymann
  • 9. The Basis: Web Service Platform WS‐C, WS‐CDL,  BPEL WSRF BPEL4Chor Components Composite Atomic UDDI, WS‐A, WS‐MEX, WSIL Quality  WSRM WS‐Security* WS‐AT, WS‐BA,… of Service WSDL WS‐Policy* Description SOAP, WS‐A JMS, RMI/IIOP Messaging HTTP, SMTP, XMPP, TCP/IP, FTP, Tuple Spaces,… Transport © Tammo van Lessen , Frank Leymann
  • 10. Why Orchestration? ??? To achieve a business goal, you often need more than one service… Which to use, in which order, how to use them? © Tammo van Lessen , Frank Leymann
  • 11. Web Service Orchestration BPEL! © Tammo van Lessen , Frank Leymann
  • 12. The Notion of Orchestration: Deja Vu Workflow Business Functions © Tammo van Lessen , Frank Leymann
  • 13. The Notion of Orchestration: Deja Vu Orchestration Web Services © Tammo van Lessen , Frank Leymann
  • 14. The Programming Models Application Processes Programming in the Large Business Workflow System Service Configuration Deployment pL EPR Service Bus pT Programming in IT Web Services Service the Small Container © Tammo van Lessen
  • 15. What is BPEL? Business Process Execution Language 7/02 IBM & MS, 5/03 +BEA+SAP+Siebel, 4/07 OASIS Standard High‐level programming language Recursive Model BPEL has native support for Long running processes Scalability Concurrency Message and instance correlation Fault handling Compensation based recovery Phoenix behaviour Most important: BPEL is standard and supported the most important  vendors. Defined Execution Semantics Abstract Processes (protocols, “views” on internal processes) © Tammo van Lessen 15
  • 16. What is BPEL not? Common Misconceptions “BPEL is block‐structured only and therefore not  usable for business users” “BPEL does not support multiple transport protocols” Look at WSDL “BPEL interactions are only synchronous” Look at WSDL “Look at this ugly XML, business people won’t  understand this cumbersome stuff” Not meant to be hand‐written, use tools! BPEL is not a modelling notation © Tammo van Lessen 16
  • 17. BPEL’s Foundation Web Services WSDL 1.1 – abstract part (concrete part ‐> ESB) (SOAP) (WS‐Addressing) Flow Control Block structured (nested blocks) Graph‐based flows (using <flow>) Data Model W3C XML Schema 1.0 XML InfoSet XPath 1.0 XSLT 1.0 © Tammo van Lessen 17
  • 18. BPEL Concepts: Variables & Partner Links Variables Shared variables, statically typed via WSDL messages, XSD elements or  XSD types “Global” process variables and “local” scoped variables Partner Links / Partner Link Types Partner Links define “contract channels” between partners Mutual call‐back dependency Associates interfaces (pTs) with roles Partner Links define which partner takes which role Key concept to enable asynchronous messaging! Role 1 / myRole Role 2 / partnerRole “I expect from my partner an implementation of this!” portType portType © Tammo van Lessen 18
  • 19. BPEL Concepts: Fault Handling & Compensation Fault Handling Like in Java, enables alternative execution paths Can trigger compensation Compensation ACID Transactions are not applicable when dealing with  long running processes Compensation‐based recovery Compensation Handler can reverse the work performed by an  already completed scope Compensation Handler is “installed” after successful execution of a  scope Compensation can only be triggered by  fault/compensation/termination handler of the enclosing scope © Tammo van Lessen 19
  • 21. BPEL Concepts: Data Manipulation (Strong type system) No explicit data flow Assigning variable values By receiving a message from a partner service By invoking a partner service and storing the result into a  variable Copying (parts) of variables into other variables <assign> Drawbacks: Quite cumbersome, requires often XSLT Look at E4X and BPELJ © Tammo van Lessen 21
  • 22. BPEL Concepts: Modelling Styles Block structured modelling Nesting of structured activities Use of <flow> activity for parallelism Graph based modelling <flow> activity with links t1 t2 Transition conditions & join conditions j Dead‐Path‐Elimination Acyclic graph to ensure sound execution  semantics Loops can be realized with <while> /  <repeatUntil> / <forEach> Not supported by Sun & Oracle! © Tammo van Lessen 22
  • 24. BPEL 2.0 Activities Basic Activities Structured Activities receive reply invoke A flow pick B C M1 M2 … A assign validate sequence forEach 1. 2. … N. 1. 2. … N. throw rethrow exit while if-elseif-else c1 c2 compensate compensateScope c … repeatUntil scope wait c empty extensionActivity © Tammo van Lessen , figures by Simon Moser and Oleg Danilov
  • 25. BPEL Extensions BPEL4People/WS‐HT BPEL4SWS Support for Human  Support for Semantic  Tasks Web Services (Service  Standardization  Discovery) Committed at OASIS currently being formed Data Mediation BPEL‐SPE BPELlight Support for sub‐ WSDL‐less BPEL processes Is about message  Autonomy is key exchanges BPELJ BPEL JS/E4X Use Java in BPEL  Use JavaScript/E4X for  Activities variable assignments Use Java types in BPEL © Tammo van Lessen 26
  • 26. Apache ODE © Tammo van Lessen 27
  • 27. Apache ODE: Project History March 2006 Started in incubator Code donations from Intalio and Sybase Merge with Apache Agila July 2007 Graduated as top‐level project (TLP) August 2007 Release 1.1: Bug fixes, performance, BPEL compliance January 2008 Release 1.1.1: Bug fixes July 2008 Release 1.2: HTTP Binding, external variables, bug fixes November/December 2008 Release 1.3: RESTful BPEL, event multicasting, admin console, Eclipse  integration Release 2.0: Refactorings, backward compatibility, extensions. © Tammo van Lessen 28
  • 28. Apache ODE: Project Stats Cool and diverse community ODE being used in commercial projects Intalio BPMS Coghead … Figures ~ 10 committers 250 eMail / month (dev & user) 1500 page views / day ~ 2000 downloads / week BPEL compliance Supports BPEL 1.1 & BPEL 2.0 http://ode.apache.org/ws‐bpel‐20‐specification‐compliance.html Interoperable with existing tools © Tammo van Lessen 29
  • 29. Apache ODE: Features Fast and scalable process engine Modular design & embeddable Lightweight ESB included Supported protocols: SOAP via HTTP/JMS/SMTP/what ever Axis2  can do, POX/HTTP Implicit Message Correlation Via HTTP headers and WS‐Addressing Supports BPEL extensibility (not yet released) Different deployment scenarios JBI, hot‐deployment Robustness Everything is internally executed within JTA/XA transactions Management and Auditing © Tammo van Lessen 30
  • 30. Apache ODE: Architecture Modular and extensible  architecture Deployment Unit *.bpel, *.wsdl,  deploy.xml Deployment Strategy Apache ODE Integration Layer BPEL  Process and Instance  Compiler OModel Management Data Access BPEL Runtime Scheduler Axis2 Management &  JACOB DAOs Event Processor JBI Events Transaction Manager SCA Hiber Open Scheduler Activity  … nate JPA Implementations Expressions DB © Tammo van Lessen 31
  • 31. Apache ODE: Extensions Activity Recovery JS/E4X RESTful BPEL Extensibility SimPEL/BPELscript External Variables Process Multicasts © Tammo van Lessen 32
  • 32. Apache ODE: Getting Started Visit http://ode.apache.org/getting‐ode.html Download latest release Axis2 deployable is the easiest starter kit Download Tomcat Deploy ode.war to Tomcat and run it Done. Distro come with samples, just copy them into  WEB‐INF/processes Go to http://host:port/ode  to see the management  console Use SOAPUI to explore processes © Tammo van Lessen 33
  • 33. Apache ODE: What’s keeping us busy The upcoming release Both branches will be released soon New Features: AJAXy admin console Support for custom activities Event multicasting HTTP binding Integration with Eclipse BPEL RESTful BPEL Human Tasks (SingleShot) SimPEL / BPELscript Alternative Syntax for BPEL Targeting Developers SimPEL: BPEL relax BPELscript:  Bi‐directional mapping www.bpelscript.org © Tammo van Lessen 34
  • 37. Thank you! Questions? © Tammo van Lessen 38