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Jörg Nitzsche      | Daimler AG/IAAS, University of Stuttgart
Tammo van Lessen   | IAAS, University of Stuttgart




BPM meets
Semantic Web
About Us
Tammo van Lessen                          Jörg Nitzsche




   Independent Consultant             Enterprise Architecture
   Researcher & PhD Student            Management
    IAAS, University of Stuttgart       Daimler AG

   Committer & PMC Member             Researcher & PhD Student
    Apache ODE                          IAAS, University of Stuttgart
Prof. Scheer on BPM 3.0
                                                                          “Although semantic BPM currently
                                                                          only exists in the research labs of
                                                                          universities and a limited number
                                                                          of BPM technology providers, such
                                                                          as IDS Scheer, this technology is
                                                                          key to the future of BPM. For it to
                                                                          succeed, organizations must have a
                                                                          high level of BPM maturity, but
                                                                          given the rapid progress made
                                                                          recently by BPM at the technology
                                                                          and organizational levels, it can
                                                                          only be a matter of a few years
                                                                          before semantic BPM becomes
                                                                          reality.” [1]
[1] Scheer, A.W., Klueckmann, J.: „The Future of BPM starts now!”, ARIS Expert Paper, 2009.
http://cdn.ariscommunity.com/media/pdf/BPM_-_Scheer_Klueckmann_-_Future_of_BPM_-_en.pdf
The Talk Today
• Overview
  • Semantic Business Process Management
  • Problem Statement
• sBPM Lifecycle
  • Modelling
  • Configuration
  • Execution
  • Analysis
• Conclusion
Semantic Business Process
      Management
         (sBPM)
The Business-IT-Gap
Process Implementation
Problem Setting
What are my services?
Semantic Matchmaking




        Semantic Web Services
Matching Model Representations & Semantics
Querying the Process Space




                             12
Aim of Semantic BPM
What is SUPER?
SUPER      Semantics Utilised for Process management
           within and between EnteRprises

  EU Integrated Project (IP), FP6
  Program:      Information and Society Technologies
  Begin:        April 2006
  Duration:     36 months
  Funding:      ~16,4 Million €
                19 Partners, ~60 Researchers


  Consortium:
    SAP, CEFRIEL, Etel, Hanival, IBIS Prof. Thome, IBM, IDS Scheer, iSOCO,
    LFU Innsbruck, MIP, NUI Galway, Nexcom, Ontotext/Sirma, Open
    University, Telefonica, Telekomunikacja Polska, Poznan University, TU
    Eindhoven, University of Stuttgart
Semantic BPM Lifecycle
• Modelling – add semantic
  (ontological) annotations to
  business processes (BPMN):
  enables discovery of appropriate
  process fragments (auto-
  completion), enables composition

• Configuration – map from the
  business model to an executable
  process specification

• Execution – process execution
  (BPEL) with discovery of SWS
  during runtime

• Analysis – monitor, analyse &
  improve processes
sBP Modelling
sBP Modelling
• Processes are modeled in a graphical notation known to
  business people (e.g. BPMN)
• Processes are semantically annotatated
   • The semantics of process tasks and events are specified
     explicitly by using ontologies
   • Different kinds of ontologies needed
      •   Process Ontology
      •   Organizational Ontology
      •   SWS Ontology (WSMO)
      •   Domain ontologies

• Features during process modeling:
   • Semantic discovery of already existing processes and process
     fragments in the SBP repository
   Auto-Completion
   • Refinement of conceptual models via composition
   • Semantic Verification



       17
Semantics for the WWW

           Web Services       Semantic Web
Dynamic
           UDDI, WSDL, SOAP   Services
                              OWL-S, WSMO, SAWSDL




  Static
           WWW                Semantic Web
           URI, HTML, HTTP    RDF, RDF(S), OWL, WSML
WSMO – The Web Service Modelling
  Ontology
                        Semantic Description of the
                        requirements a client has:
                        •Capability (funtional)
                        •Interface (usage)


Provide the formally                                  Semantic description
specified terminology                                 of Web Services:
of the information                                    •Capability (functional)
used by all other                                     •Interface (usage)
components



                        Connectors between
                        components with mediation
                        facilities for handling
                        heterogenities
WSMO – Web Services (& Goals)
        - Advertising of Web Service                                - quality aspects
        - Support for WS Discovery                                  - Web Service Management

                Capability                                        Non-functional Properties

          functional description                                 DC + QoS + Version + financial



client-service                                                                    realization of
interaction interface                                                             functionality by
for consuming WS                         Web Service                         WS
                                                                                  aggregating
- External Visible                     Implementation                             other Web Services
                                                                             WS
  Behavior                             (not of interest in Web                    - functional
                                        Service Description)
- Communication                                                              WS
                                                                                    decomposition
  Structure                                                                       - WS composition
- ‘Grounding’
              Choreography --- Service Interfaces --- Orchestration
Attaching WSMO Goals to Processes
                                             client-service             - quality aspects
- Advertising of Web Service                 interaction interface      - Web Service Management
- Support for WS Discovery                   for consuming WS
                                             - External Visible       Non-functional Properties
       Capability                              Behavior
                                             - Communication
                                                                     DC + QoS + Version + financial
 functional description                        Structure
                                             - ‘Grounding’




                    </interactionActivity>
                      ...
                             messageRef=“out-only:Out”/>
                      <input messageLabel=“out-optional-in:Out”
                      mep=“out-only”
                    <interactionActivity ...
Features during Process Modelling
• Semantic discovery of already existing processes
  and process fragments in the SBP repository
Auto-Completion

• Semantic Verification

• Refinement of conceptual models via composition
   • Composition queries the service repository for
     appropriate services for each task of a process

  • In case there is no service for a given task,
    multiple services are combined

  • Based on ontologically defined inputs and
    outputs and ontological reasoning
Verification
Verification (2)
Verification (3)
Verification (4)
Verification (5)
Verification (6)
Verification (7)
Composition
Composition (2)
Composition (3)
sBP Configuration
Configuration options
• During configuration there are a couple of options to chose
  from

• Discover WS during configuration
    Conventional BPEL is produced
       • Endpoint references are fixed
       • Endpoint references are discovered during runtime based on WSDL
         interfaces
   • Pros: mature technology
   • Cons: limited flexibility

• Discover WS only during runtime based on semantic goal
  descriptions
    The result is BPEL4SWS
   • Pro: enhanced flexibility
   • Cons: semantic middleware is only implemented prototypically
BPEL Process
          BPEL Process
                 …                            Online Shop
                                              WSDL Service
                            salesPLT
                     A


                     …      orderItem



      …              B      payBill


                     …


                     C   getShippingDetails



                 …
BPEL for Semantic Web Services
BPELlight
   Extension of BPEL 2.0
   Removes dependencies on WSDL.
   Describes Message Exchanges.
   Independent of any IDL.
   Grouping Activities to
      Conversations and to logical partners
   “Binding” to Services is done
      during deployment.

BPEL4SWS
   Defines such a “Binding” for Semantic Web Services.
   Introduces an activity to perform data mediation
   Proposes an API for SWS middleware to support long running service
      interactions.
   Uses SAWSDL for Lifting and Lowering.
BPEL4SWS Process
BPELlight Process
                                            Aktivity definition
   …                                          with WSMO                                                            Online Shop
                                                                                                                   WSDL Service
                                                               WSMO Goal                WSMO Service
        A
                                                              Capabilities              Capabilities   orderItem
                                                              Choreography              Choreography
       …
                                                                             Achieved
                                                                                by
        B
                                                                                                       payBill

       …
                    getShippingDetails
                        Aktivity C
                           




        C                                getShippingDetails



   …
sBP Execution
SBP Execution – Architecture
Tools                     SEE            SBPELEE
Modelling                  Service          Navigator
Tool                       Discovery
                                                                                   Build Time DB
Monitoring                 Service
Tool                       Selection

Mining Tool                Service                                                  Runtime DB
                           Invocation

sRBE Tool
                                            WS Gateway   SWS Gateway   Event Publisher   Deployment Mgr



                                        Semantic Service Bus (SSB)

SPAB/SWAB          Binding      Data            LILO
Deployer           Components   Mediators
                                                                                 SWS             Execution
                                                                               Repository         History


              40
SBP Execution – Architecture
Tools                    SEE           SBPELEE
Modelling                                  Navigator
Tool
                                                                                  Build Time DB
Monitoring                               1. Deployment
Tool
                          Black box    2. Execution of sBP
Mining                                                                             Runtime DB
Tool                                      3. Monitoring
sRBE Tool
                                           WS Gateway   SWS Gateway   Event Publisher   Deployment Mgr



                                      Semantic Service Bus (SSB)

SPAB/SWAB         Binding      Data            LILO
Deployer          Components   Mediators
                                                                                SWS             Execution
                                                                              Repository         History


             41
SBP Deployment
                             BPEL4SWSs

                             (SA-)WSDLs

                       Deployment Descriptor
 Semantic Process
 Artefacts Bundle           WSMO Goals
      (SPAB)
                        Partner WSMO WSs


                           Partner WSDLs


                    Lifting & Lowering Definitions
SBP Deployment (2)
Tools                SEE            SBPELEE
Modelling             Service          Navigator
Tool                  Discovery
                                                                              Build Time DB
Monitoring            Service
Tool                  Selection

Mining Tool           Service                                                  Runtime DB
                      Invocation

sRBE Tool
                                       WS Gateway   SWS Gateway   Event Publisher   Deployment Mgr



                                   Semantic Service Bus (SSB)

SPAB/SWAB     Binding      Data            LILO
Deployer      Components   Mediators
                                                                            SWS             Execution
                                                                          Repository         History
SBP Execution (vanilla WS)
Tools                    SEE            SBPELEE
Modelling                 Service          Navigator
Tool                      Discovery
                                                                                  Build Time DB
Monitoring                Service
Tool                      Selection

Mining                    Service                                                  Runtime DB
Tool                      Invocation

sRBE Tool
                                           WS Gateway   SWS Gateway   Event Publisher   Deployment Mgr



                                       Semantic Service Bus (SSB)

SPAB/SWAB         Binding      Data            LILO
Deployer          Components   Mediators
                                                                                SWS             Execution
                                                                              Repository         History


             44
SBP Execution (SWS)
Tools                    SEE            SBPELEE
Modelling                 Service          Navigator
Tool                      Discovery
                                                                                  Build Time DB
Monitoring                Service
Tool                      Selection

Mining                    Service                                                  Runtime DB
Tool                      Invocation

sRBE Tool
                                           WS Gateway   SWS Gateway   Event Publisher   Deployment Mgr



                                       Semantic Service Bus (SSB)

SPAB/SWAB         Binding      Data            LILO
Deployer          Components   Mediators
                                                                                SWS             Execution
                                                                              Repository         History


             45
SBP Execution – Generic LILO
                        WSMLreq                                                 WSMLresp




              SBPELEE
                                                                                   SEE
                                  XMLreq

                                  WSMLreq     Lifting &              WSMLreqS
                                              Lowering         XMLreqS
                                  WSMLresp   Component
                                                                    XMLrespS
                                  XMLresp
                                                               WSMLrespS


                                                          XMLreqS
                                                                     XMLrespS
-Supports orchestration of legacy WS (backward compatibility)
-Processes are provided as WS and SWS
-Virtual Dualism of BPEL4SWS variables       WSs…
-SEE serves as ‘semantic adapter’ for legacy WS

        46
SBP Execution – Monitoring
Tools                    SEE            SBPELEE
Modelling                 Service          Navigator
Tool                      Discovery
                                                                                  Build Time DB
Monitoring                Service
Tool                      Selection

Mining                    Service                                                  Runtime DB
Tool                      Invocation

sRBE Tool
                                           WS Gateway   SWS Gateway   Event Publisher   Deployment Mgr



                                       Semantic Service Bus (SSB)

SPAB/SWAB         Binding      Data            LILO
Deployer          Components   Mediators
                                                                                SWS             Execution
                                                                              Repository         History


             47
Nexcom Prototype
B2B and Automated Decision Making
Implemented business process




 49    Ivan Pavlov(Nexcom)
Nexcom Prototype
■ The customer enters data (name, address) requested
  services and QoS parameters
■ The system:
   ■ Checks for available services ( B2B partners)
   ■ Extracts data about the customer from IT Systems
■ Reasoning is used to rate the services:
   ■ Customer credit rating and company policy are considered
   ■ Highest rated are the services which Nexcom is most willing to
     offer for this customer
■ The customer receives offers, ordered by their rating
   ■ In the full implementation, the customer will see only the
     “best” offers ????
■ The sales person manages the process:
   ■ Edits the ontologies
   ■ Monitors the process
Scenario
  Platform Services                  Execution Environment
   Lifting &                          SBPELEE                SEE      SWS                Nexcom
   Lowering                                                         Repository          Ontology
                                                                                        Repository

  SSB




  Binding Components                                               Nexcom Reasoning Services
    HTTP                                                            Service1        Service2             ServiceN
                                                                                                     …


                                                             …

                       Nexcom Legacy Systems        Marketplace
                       Service Layer                Services




                                                                    Nexcom
  Nexcom
                                                                    Administrator
  Clients GUI
                                                                    GUI
Demo
sBP Analysis
SBP Analysis & Monitoring
• Semantic annotations can significantly improve the
  results of process mining tools.
  • Open World Assumption makes domain and organisational
    models accessible.
  • Ontologies and Mediators help to introduce terminology
    transparency
  • During runtime, semantic
    model references can be
    seen as “traces” that
    allow for inferring
    information about which
    element of a business
    model relates to a
    technical, executable
    model.
sBP Monitoring & Analysis Tools
Conclusions
•Semantics can help narrowing the gap
between business and IT…
  •Modelling: composition, auto-completion,
  validation
  •Configuration/Execution: Improved Flexibility,
  loose coupling
  •Analysis: semantic queries based on ontologies
•…but: requires additional effort
•Prototypes for all phases of the lifecycle exist
Thank you for your attention!

                         Questions?


Further information: http://ip-super.org

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BPM meets Semantic Web

  • 1. Jörg Nitzsche | Daimler AG/IAAS, University of Stuttgart Tammo van Lessen | IAAS, University of Stuttgart BPM meets Semantic Web
  • 2. About Us Tammo van Lessen Jörg Nitzsche  Independent Consultant  Enterprise Architecture  Researcher & PhD Student Management IAAS, University of Stuttgart Daimler AG  Committer & PMC Member  Researcher & PhD Student Apache ODE IAAS, University of Stuttgart
  • 3. Prof. Scheer on BPM 3.0 “Although semantic BPM currently only exists in the research labs of universities and a limited number of BPM technology providers, such as IDS Scheer, this technology is key to the future of BPM. For it to succeed, organizations must have a high level of BPM maturity, but given the rapid progress made recently by BPM at the technology and organizational levels, it can only be a matter of a few years before semantic BPM becomes reality.” [1] [1] Scheer, A.W., Klueckmann, J.: „The Future of BPM starts now!”, ARIS Expert Paper, 2009. http://cdn.ariscommunity.com/media/pdf/BPM_-_Scheer_Klueckmann_-_Future_of_BPM_-_en.pdf
  • 4. The Talk Today • Overview • Semantic Business Process Management • Problem Statement • sBPM Lifecycle • Modelling • Configuration • Execution • Analysis • Conclusion
  • 5. Semantic Business Process Management (sBPM)
  • 9. What are my services?
  • 10. Semantic Matchmaking Semantic Web Services
  • 14. What is SUPER? SUPER Semantics Utilised for Process management within and between EnteRprises EU Integrated Project (IP), FP6 Program: Information and Society Technologies Begin: April 2006 Duration: 36 months Funding: ~16,4 Million € 19 Partners, ~60 Researchers Consortium: SAP, CEFRIEL, Etel, Hanival, IBIS Prof. Thome, IBM, IDS Scheer, iSOCO, LFU Innsbruck, MIP, NUI Galway, Nexcom, Ontotext/Sirma, Open University, Telefonica, Telekomunikacja Polska, Poznan University, TU Eindhoven, University of Stuttgart
  • 15. Semantic BPM Lifecycle • Modelling – add semantic (ontological) annotations to business processes (BPMN): enables discovery of appropriate process fragments (auto- completion), enables composition • Configuration – map from the business model to an executable process specification • Execution – process execution (BPEL) with discovery of SWS during runtime • Analysis – monitor, analyse & improve processes
  • 17. sBP Modelling • Processes are modeled in a graphical notation known to business people (e.g. BPMN) • Processes are semantically annotatated • The semantics of process tasks and events are specified explicitly by using ontologies • Different kinds of ontologies needed • Process Ontology • Organizational Ontology • SWS Ontology (WSMO) • Domain ontologies • Features during process modeling: • Semantic discovery of already existing processes and process fragments in the SBP repository Auto-Completion • Refinement of conceptual models via composition • Semantic Verification 17
  • 18. Semantics for the WWW Web Services Semantic Web Dynamic UDDI, WSDL, SOAP Services OWL-S, WSMO, SAWSDL Static WWW Semantic Web URI, HTML, HTTP RDF, RDF(S), OWL, WSML
  • 19. WSMO – The Web Service Modelling Ontology Semantic Description of the requirements a client has: •Capability (funtional) •Interface (usage) Provide the formally Semantic description specified terminology of Web Services: of the information •Capability (functional) used by all other •Interface (usage) components Connectors between components with mediation facilities for handling heterogenities
  • 20. WSMO – Web Services (& Goals) - Advertising of Web Service - quality aspects - Support for WS Discovery - Web Service Management Capability Non-functional Properties functional description DC + QoS + Version + financial client-service realization of interaction interface functionality by for consuming WS Web Service WS aggregating - External Visible Implementation other Web Services WS Behavior (not of interest in Web - functional Service Description) - Communication WS decomposition Structure - WS composition - ‘Grounding’ Choreography --- Service Interfaces --- Orchestration
  • 21. Attaching WSMO Goals to Processes client-service - quality aspects - Advertising of Web Service interaction interface - Web Service Management - Support for WS Discovery for consuming WS - External Visible Non-functional Properties Capability Behavior - Communication DC + QoS + Version + financial functional description Structure - ‘Grounding’ </interactionActivity> ... messageRef=“out-only:Out”/> <input messageLabel=“out-optional-in:Out” mep=“out-only” <interactionActivity ...
  • 22. Features during Process Modelling • Semantic discovery of already existing processes and process fragments in the SBP repository Auto-Completion • Semantic Verification • Refinement of conceptual models via composition • Composition queries the service repository for appropriate services for each task of a process • In case there is no service for a given task, multiple services are combined • Based on ontologically defined inputs and outputs and ontological reasoning
  • 34. Configuration options • During configuration there are a couple of options to chose from • Discover WS during configuration  Conventional BPEL is produced • Endpoint references are fixed • Endpoint references are discovered during runtime based on WSDL interfaces • Pros: mature technology • Cons: limited flexibility • Discover WS only during runtime based on semantic goal descriptions  The result is BPEL4SWS • Pro: enhanced flexibility • Cons: semantic middleware is only implemented prototypically
  • 35. BPEL Process BPEL Process … Online Shop WSDL Service salesPLT A … orderItem … B payBill … C getShippingDetails …
  • 36. BPEL for Semantic Web Services BPELlight Extension of BPEL 2.0 Removes dependencies on WSDL. Describes Message Exchanges. Independent of any IDL. Grouping Activities to Conversations and to logical partners “Binding” to Services is done during deployment. BPEL4SWS Defines such a “Binding” for Semantic Web Services. Introduces an activity to perform data mediation Proposes an API for SWS middleware to support long running service interactions. Uses SAWSDL for Lifting and Lowering.
  • 37. BPEL4SWS Process BPELlight Process Aktivity definition … with WSMO Online Shop WSDL Service WSMO Goal WSMO Service A Capabilities Capabilities orderItem Choreography Choreography … Achieved by B payBill … getShippingDetails Aktivity C  C getShippingDetails …
  • 39. SBP Execution – Architecture Tools SEE SBPELEE Modelling Service Navigator Tool Discovery Build Time DB Monitoring Service Tool Selection Mining Tool Service Runtime DB Invocation sRBE Tool WS Gateway SWS Gateway Event Publisher Deployment Mgr Semantic Service Bus (SSB) SPAB/SWAB Binding Data LILO Deployer Components Mediators SWS Execution Repository History 40
  • 40. SBP Execution – Architecture Tools SEE SBPELEE Modelling Navigator Tool Build Time DB Monitoring 1. Deployment Tool Black box 2. Execution of sBP Mining Runtime DB Tool 3. Monitoring sRBE Tool WS Gateway SWS Gateway Event Publisher Deployment Mgr Semantic Service Bus (SSB) SPAB/SWAB Binding Data LILO Deployer Components Mediators SWS Execution Repository History 41
  • 41. SBP Deployment BPEL4SWSs (SA-)WSDLs Deployment Descriptor Semantic Process Artefacts Bundle WSMO Goals (SPAB) Partner WSMO WSs Partner WSDLs Lifting & Lowering Definitions
  • 42. SBP Deployment (2) Tools SEE SBPELEE Modelling Service Navigator Tool Discovery Build Time DB Monitoring Service Tool Selection Mining Tool Service Runtime DB Invocation sRBE Tool WS Gateway SWS Gateway Event Publisher Deployment Mgr Semantic Service Bus (SSB) SPAB/SWAB Binding Data LILO Deployer Components Mediators SWS Execution Repository History
  • 43. SBP Execution (vanilla WS) Tools SEE SBPELEE Modelling Service Navigator Tool Discovery Build Time DB Monitoring Service Tool Selection Mining Service Runtime DB Tool Invocation sRBE Tool WS Gateway SWS Gateway Event Publisher Deployment Mgr Semantic Service Bus (SSB) SPAB/SWAB Binding Data LILO Deployer Components Mediators SWS Execution Repository History 44
  • 44. SBP Execution (SWS) Tools SEE SBPELEE Modelling Service Navigator Tool Discovery Build Time DB Monitoring Service Tool Selection Mining Service Runtime DB Tool Invocation sRBE Tool WS Gateway SWS Gateway Event Publisher Deployment Mgr Semantic Service Bus (SSB) SPAB/SWAB Binding Data LILO Deployer Components Mediators SWS Execution Repository History 45
  • 45. SBP Execution – Generic LILO WSMLreq WSMLresp SBPELEE SEE XMLreq WSMLreq Lifting & WSMLreqS Lowering XMLreqS WSMLresp Component XMLrespS XMLresp WSMLrespS XMLreqS XMLrespS -Supports orchestration of legacy WS (backward compatibility) -Processes are provided as WS and SWS -Virtual Dualism of BPEL4SWS variables WSs… -SEE serves as ‘semantic adapter’ for legacy WS 46
  • 46. SBP Execution – Monitoring Tools SEE SBPELEE Modelling Service Navigator Tool Discovery Build Time DB Monitoring Service Tool Selection Mining Service Runtime DB Tool Invocation sRBE Tool WS Gateway SWS Gateway Event Publisher Deployment Mgr Semantic Service Bus (SSB) SPAB/SWAB Binding Data LILO Deployer Components Mediators SWS Execution Repository History 47
  • 47. Nexcom Prototype B2B and Automated Decision Making Implemented business process 49 Ivan Pavlov(Nexcom)
  • 48. Nexcom Prototype ■ The customer enters data (name, address) requested services and QoS parameters ■ The system: ■ Checks for available services ( B2B partners) ■ Extracts data about the customer from IT Systems ■ Reasoning is used to rate the services: ■ Customer credit rating and company policy are considered ■ Highest rated are the services which Nexcom is most willing to offer for this customer ■ The customer receives offers, ordered by their rating ■ In the full implementation, the customer will see only the “best” offers ???? ■ The sales person manages the process: ■ Edits the ontologies ■ Monitors the process
  • 49. Scenario Platform Services Execution Environment Lifting & SBPELEE SEE SWS Nexcom Lowering Repository Ontology Repository SSB Binding Components Nexcom Reasoning Services HTTP Service1 Service2 ServiceN … … Nexcom Legacy Systems Marketplace Service Layer Services Nexcom Nexcom Administrator Clients GUI GUI
  • 50. Demo
  • 52. SBP Analysis & Monitoring • Semantic annotations can significantly improve the results of process mining tools. • Open World Assumption makes domain and organisational models accessible. • Ontologies and Mediators help to introduce terminology transparency • During runtime, semantic model references can be seen as “traces” that allow for inferring information about which element of a business model relates to a technical, executable model.
  • 53. sBP Monitoring & Analysis Tools
  • 54. Conclusions •Semantics can help narrowing the gap between business and IT… •Modelling: composition, auto-completion, validation •Configuration/Execution: Improved Flexibility, loose coupling •Analysis: semantic queries based on ontologies •…but: requires additional effort •Prototypes for all phases of the lifecycle exist
  • 55. Thank you for your attention! Questions? Further information: http://ip-super.org