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Water for All? Collaborative Water
Allocation in the Awash River Basin
Feyera Hirpa, University of Oxford
feyera.hirpa@ouce.ox.ac.uk
REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference
27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford
THE AWASH RIVER BASIN, ETHIOPIA
• A major contributor to Ethiopia’s GDP
– Agriculture, hydropower, livestock.
Domestic and industrial water supply,
ecosystem, commercial
• Highly variable rainfall
– Frequent occurrence of flood and
drought
– Low specific water yield (1/6th of Abbay;
but with 15% more population density)
• Multiple decision makes and
stakeholders
– Shared by 5 Regional States (112
woredas), and 2 Administrative City
Councils
REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference
27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford
DEMAND AND SUPPLY MISMATCH
Supply
Demand
Demand
– Agricultural
– Livestock
– Domestic and
municipal
– Industrial
– Environmental flow
Supply
– Rainfall
– River flow
– Groundwater
REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference
27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford
FUTURE FLOW WILL LIKELY DECREASE IN ETHIOPIA
• High resolution climate simulations
show the future streamflow will
decrease in the Awash river basin
• The high flows are expected to
decrease, which may reduce the
groundwater recharge rates
• Low flows also will likely decrease,
reducing water availability during
the dry seasons.
REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference
27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford
GROUNDWATER RESOURCES IN AWASH
Six major aquifers in
Awash basin
Kebede et al., 2019 (in prep)
REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference
27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford
SEDMENTATION IS FILLING THE RESERVIORS
Sediment accumulation in
Koka reservoir is
decreasing the storage
capacity by 13M m3/year.
This may also be a problem
for other dams.
REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference
27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford
DECISION SUPPORT TOOLS FOR WATER
RESOURCES PLANNING AND ALLOCATION
Developed in collaboration with the
Awash Basin Authority
• Performs water allocation
• Considers climate, policy and
socio-economic changes
WEAP model for the Awash basin
Demand sites, catchments
REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference
27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford
COLLABORATIVE ALLOCATION FOR
EQUITABLE WATER ACCESS
Stakeholders
• Woredas (120)
• Irrigated farmers (23)
• Basin Authority
– Hydrologists
– Regulators
REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference
27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford
COLLABORATIVE ALLOCATION FOR
EQUITABLE WATER ACCESS
• Only surface water supply • With surface and groundwater
supply
With no regulation/collaboration
REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference
27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford
COLLABORATIVE ALLOCATION FOR
EQUITABLE WATER ACCESS
Surface and groundwater supply
• No regulation/collaboration • Capped water use for irrigation
REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference
27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford
COLLABORATIVE ALLOCATION FOR
EQUITABLE WATER ACCESS
• Surface water only
• No regulation
1984 was extremely dry year
• Groundwater and
surface water
• No regulation
• Groundwater and
surface water
• Capped irrigation
water use
REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference
27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford
SUMMARY AND ONGOING WORK
Summary
• Water availability in the basin is changing
• Sediment load is a major problem for water storage
• Collaborative water allocation improves climate
resilience in arid downstream Woredas
Ongoing work
• Add more regulations and policy options
• Future population and economic growth
• Link with groundwater model MODFLOW
Funded by:

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Water for All? Collaborative Water Allocation in the Awash River Basin

  • 1. Water for All? Collaborative Water Allocation in the Awash River Basin Feyera Hirpa, University of Oxford feyera.hirpa@ouce.ox.ac.uk
  • 2. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford THE AWASH RIVER BASIN, ETHIOPIA • A major contributor to Ethiopia’s GDP – Agriculture, hydropower, livestock. Domestic and industrial water supply, ecosystem, commercial • Highly variable rainfall – Frequent occurrence of flood and drought – Low specific water yield (1/6th of Abbay; but with 15% more population density) • Multiple decision makes and stakeholders – Shared by 5 Regional States (112 woredas), and 2 Administrative City Councils
  • 3. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford DEMAND AND SUPPLY MISMATCH Supply Demand Demand – Agricultural – Livestock – Domestic and municipal – Industrial – Environmental flow Supply – Rainfall – River flow – Groundwater
  • 4. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford FUTURE FLOW WILL LIKELY DECREASE IN ETHIOPIA • High resolution climate simulations show the future streamflow will decrease in the Awash river basin • The high flows are expected to decrease, which may reduce the groundwater recharge rates • Low flows also will likely decrease, reducing water availability during the dry seasons.
  • 5. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford GROUNDWATER RESOURCES IN AWASH Six major aquifers in Awash basin Kebede et al., 2019 (in prep)
  • 6. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford SEDMENTATION IS FILLING THE RESERVIORS Sediment accumulation in Koka reservoir is decreasing the storage capacity by 13M m3/year. This may also be a problem for other dams.
  • 7. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford DECISION SUPPORT TOOLS FOR WATER RESOURCES PLANNING AND ALLOCATION Developed in collaboration with the Awash Basin Authority • Performs water allocation • Considers climate, policy and socio-economic changes WEAP model for the Awash basin Demand sites, catchments
  • 8. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford COLLABORATIVE ALLOCATION FOR EQUITABLE WATER ACCESS Stakeholders • Woredas (120) • Irrigated farmers (23) • Basin Authority – Hydrologists – Regulators
  • 9. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford COLLABORATIVE ALLOCATION FOR EQUITABLE WATER ACCESS • Only surface water supply • With surface and groundwater supply With no regulation/collaboration
  • 10. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford COLLABORATIVE ALLOCATION FOR EQUITABLE WATER ACCESS Surface and groundwater supply • No regulation/collaboration • Capped water use for irrigation
  • 11. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford COLLABORATIVE ALLOCATION FOR EQUITABLE WATER ACCESS • Surface water only • No regulation 1984 was extremely dry year • Groundwater and surface water • No regulation • Groundwater and surface water • Capped irrigation water use
  • 12. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford SUMMARY AND ONGOING WORK Summary • Water availability in the basin is changing • Sediment load is a major problem for water storage • Collaborative water allocation improves climate resilience in arid downstream Woredas Ongoing work • Add more regulations and policy options • Future population and economic growth • Link with groundwater model MODFLOW