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Environmental Impact
Assessment (EIA) in
Nepal
ANSHU BHOOSAL
Contents
 Introduction
 History
 Process
 Practice in Nepal
 Conclusion
Introduction
• A process of evaluating the likely environmental impacts, taking into account
inter-related socio-economic, cultural, and human-health impacts, both beneficial
and adverse.
• A tool used to assess the significant effects of a project or development proposal
on the environment, in the pre-planning stage itself so that decisions can be taken
to reduce the adverse impacts.
EIA directive
 The EIA directive is the main step of European law regarding the assessment of
the environmental effects of projects, as it introduced the basic principles of
environmental assessment.
 Projects listed in Annex I and II of the EIA Directive (airports, nuclear
installations, railways, roads, waste disposal installations, wastewater treatment
plants, etc.) are carried out prior to their authorization.
Aim
 To ensure a high level of environmental protection and that environmental
considerations are integrated into the preparation and authorization of projects.
Objectives
 To identify, predict, and evaluate economic, environmental, and social impacts of
development activities.
 To provide information on the environmental consequences of decision-making.
 To promote environmentally sound and suitable development by identifying
appropriate alternatives and mitigation measures.
Criteria to determine EIA
 Characteristics of projects
 Location of projects
 Type and characteristics of the potential impact
Characteristics of projects
a. the size and design of the whole project;
b. cumulation with other existing and/or approved projects;
c. the use of natural resources, in particular land, soil, water, and biodiversity;
d. the production of waste;
e. pollution and nuisances;
f. the risk of major accidents and/or disasters that are relevant to the project
concerned, including those caused by climate change, in accordance with
scientific knowledge;
g. the risks to human health (for example due to water contamination or air
pollution).
Location of projects
a. The existing and approved land use;
b. The relative abundance, availability, quality, and regenerative capacity of natural
resources (including soil, land, water, and biodiversity) in the area and its
underground;
c. the absorption capacity of the natural environment, paying particular attention to the
following areas:
 wetlands, riparian areas, river mouths;
 coastal zones and the marine environment;
 mountain and forest areas;
 nature reserves and parks;
 areas classified or protected under national legislation; Natura 2000 areas
designated by Member States pursuant to Directive 92/43/EEC and Directive
2009/147/EC;
 areas in which there has already been a failure to meet the environmental quality
standards, laid down in Union legislation and relevant to the project, or in which it
is considered that there is such a failure;
 densely populated areas;
 landscapes and sites of historical, cultural or archaeological significance.
Types and characteristics of the
potential impact
 the magnitude and spatial extent of the impact (for example geographical area and
size of the population likely to be affected);
 the nature of the impact;
 the transboundary nature of the impact;
 the intensity and complexity of the impact;
Types and characteristics of the
potential impact… Continue
 the probability of the impact;
 the expected onset, duration, frequency, and reversibility of the impact;
 the cumulation of the impact with the impact of other existing and/or approved
projects;
 the possibility of effectively reducing the impact.
Stages of EIA
1. Screening
2. Scoping
3. Preparing the EIA Report
4. Making an application and consultation
5. Decision making
6. Post decision
mygov.scot/eia
Importance
 Helps to connect development and environmental protection so that state can
achieve the goal of sustainable development.
 Provides complete blueprint of the project and it makes sure that the project would
cause least possible environment damage.
 Provides the most efficient method to reduce the impacts of the project on the
environment which saves the environment and resources both.
Importance... Continue
 Creates a base for environmentally friendly projects.
 Spread awareness of environmental legislation reducing the counts of violations of
environmental-related acts.
 Promotes the protection of the environment.
 Optimum utilization of the available resources creating a balance between
development and environmental protection.
Importance… Continue
 Assist in predicting and avoiding natural disasters such as floods and landslides
 Helps in maintaining a healthy relationship between the government, developers,
environmentalists, and the public.
 Represents the complete study of the possible consequences of the proposed
project; increased project acceptance
 Reduces the cost and time of the proposed project and also improves the design of
the proposed project.
History
 1969-US Government passed the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
 NEPA- contained a provision for an environmental assessment of a project
 1970s- adopted in high-income countries like Canada, Australia, and New
Zealand, developing countries like Columbia and the Philippines
History… Continue
 Mid 1980s- World Bank adopted EIA for major development projects
 1997- Nepal started its application after enacting the Environment Protection Act.
 Large projects require a full environmental impact assessment (EIA), whereas
smaller ones require an initial environmental examination (IEE).
EIA in Nepal
 Published jointly by ADB and International Centre for Integrated Mountain
Development (ICIMOD), to bring together a large part of what is available to provide
an analysis of environmental status and trends in the country.
 The Government has made EIA developed by the NPC compulsory since 1993 under
the EIA National Guidelines in compliance with the provisions of the Environment
Protection Act 1996.
 6th Five Year Plan (1980-1985) emphasized in the initiation of EIA of development
projects, regulations on urban environment, environmental aspects included in land use
policy.
 8th Five Year Plan (1992-1997)establishment of Ministry of Population and
Environment that assisted in preparation of EIA guidelines
EIA in Nepal… Continue
 The Environment Protection Act 1996 and the Environment Protection
Regulations 1997 are the two main legal documents providing for environmental
information and public participation in the EIA process.
 The Act and Regulations provide a legal basis for protecting the environment and
controlling pollution.
 Current EPA and EPR are of 2076 and 2077 respectively.
 The Ministry of Forests and Environment (MoFE) is responsible for reviewing
and approving EIAs.
EIA in Nepal… Continue
 In Nepal, EIAs have been of low quality, failing to accomplish their intended
objective of alleviating environmental concerns and protecting populations.
 EIAs have been viewed by developers as just a pre-project procedure rather than a
tool for mitigating environmental risks and ultimately safeguarding investments.
 When requested to review and rework, political lobbying starts.
EIA in Nepal… Continue
 EIA rules that for every tree felled for a project within a national forest or
protected area, 10 trees must be planted, previously 25; no scientific basis.
 In the last 25 years, the MoFE approved 550 EIAs but does not have the total
number of IEEs approved by all ministries. (2022)
 The MoFE’s EIA section comprises 5 members of staff to evaluate the projects
across the country.
Success stories of EIA in Nepal
 Babai irrigation project (Bardiya, 2003):
o The Department of Irrigation requested permission to clear 1150 hectares of forest
to construct an irrigation canal.
o The Ministry of Forests directed the department to conduct an EIA, which resulted
in approval to cut down 22 hectares.
Mugling-Pokhara Highway:
 A road expansion project to widen 81km of the highway to four lanes
 Asian Development Bank (2019) prepared IEE and provided a loan of USD 195
million to the Nepalese Government for the project.
 Air pollution- one of the possible environmental impacts, including dust from
earthworks and emissions from construction equipment and vehicles.
 Proposed mitigation measures: Water sprinkling, water fogging, broom sweeping
in dust-prone locations.
 Monitoring air quality during the construction stage and if found above the
prescribed limit, suitable control measures to be applied
Nijgad Airport
 Expected to be the biggest airport in South Asia in terms of area.
 More than 2.4 million small and large trees need to be cut down to build the
airport.
 The Ministry of Environment approved the EIA report, clearing the path for the
construction of the airport in May 2018; caused controversary.
 Environmentalists have been lobbying highlighting the damage of project.
References:
 Website: https://www.mygov.scot/eia, https://byjus.com/free-ias-prep/eia/
 Convention on Biological Diversity website: https://www.cbd.int/impact/whatis.shtml
 National Parks & Wildlife Service https://www.npws.ie/legislation/eu-directives/eia-
directive
 Corpseed- Importance of Environmental Impact Assessment In India
https://www.corpseed.com/knowledge-centre/importance-of-environmental-impact-
assessment-in-india
 Environment Assessment of Nepal Emerging Issues and Challenges
file:///C:/Users/Admin/Downloads/attachment_20.pdf
 Environmental impact assessment
https://www.slideshare.net/JiniRajendran/environmental-impact-assessment-46841400
Thank You!

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Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in Nepal.pptx

  • 1. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in Nepal ANSHU BHOOSAL
  • 2. Contents  Introduction  History  Process  Practice in Nepal  Conclusion
  • 3. Introduction • A process of evaluating the likely environmental impacts, taking into account inter-related socio-economic, cultural, and human-health impacts, both beneficial and adverse. • A tool used to assess the significant effects of a project or development proposal on the environment, in the pre-planning stage itself so that decisions can be taken to reduce the adverse impacts.
  • 4. EIA directive  The EIA directive is the main step of European law regarding the assessment of the environmental effects of projects, as it introduced the basic principles of environmental assessment.  Projects listed in Annex I and II of the EIA Directive (airports, nuclear installations, railways, roads, waste disposal installations, wastewater treatment plants, etc.) are carried out prior to their authorization.
  • 5. Aim  To ensure a high level of environmental protection and that environmental considerations are integrated into the preparation and authorization of projects.
  • 6. Objectives  To identify, predict, and evaluate economic, environmental, and social impacts of development activities.  To provide information on the environmental consequences of decision-making.  To promote environmentally sound and suitable development by identifying appropriate alternatives and mitigation measures.
  • 7. Criteria to determine EIA  Characteristics of projects  Location of projects  Type and characteristics of the potential impact
  • 8. Characteristics of projects a. the size and design of the whole project; b. cumulation with other existing and/or approved projects; c. the use of natural resources, in particular land, soil, water, and biodiversity; d. the production of waste; e. pollution and nuisances; f. the risk of major accidents and/or disasters that are relevant to the project concerned, including those caused by climate change, in accordance with scientific knowledge; g. the risks to human health (for example due to water contamination or air pollution).
  • 9. Location of projects a. The existing and approved land use; b. The relative abundance, availability, quality, and regenerative capacity of natural resources (including soil, land, water, and biodiversity) in the area and its underground; c. the absorption capacity of the natural environment, paying particular attention to the following areas:  wetlands, riparian areas, river mouths;  coastal zones and the marine environment;  mountain and forest areas;  nature reserves and parks;
  • 10.  areas classified or protected under national legislation; Natura 2000 areas designated by Member States pursuant to Directive 92/43/EEC and Directive 2009/147/EC;  areas in which there has already been a failure to meet the environmental quality standards, laid down in Union legislation and relevant to the project, or in which it is considered that there is such a failure;  densely populated areas;  landscapes and sites of historical, cultural or archaeological significance.
  • 11. Types and characteristics of the potential impact  the magnitude and spatial extent of the impact (for example geographical area and size of the population likely to be affected);  the nature of the impact;  the transboundary nature of the impact;  the intensity and complexity of the impact;
  • 12. Types and characteristics of the potential impact… Continue  the probability of the impact;  the expected onset, duration, frequency, and reversibility of the impact;  the cumulation of the impact with the impact of other existing and/or approved projects;  the possibility of effectively reducing the impact.
  • 13. Stages of EIA 1. Screening 2. Scoping 3. Preparing the EIA Report 4. Making an application and consultation 5. Decision making 6. Post decision
  • 15. Importance  Helps to connect development and environmental protection so that state can achieve the goal of sustainable development.  Provides complete blueprint of the project and it makes sure that the project would cause least possible environment damage.  Provides the most efficient method to reduce the impacts of the project on the environment which saves the environment and resources both.
  • 16. Importance... Continue  Creates a base for environmentally friendly projects.  Spread awareness of environmental legislation reducing the counts of violations of environmental-related acts.  Promotes the protection of the environment.  Optimum utilization of the available resources creating a balance between development and environmental protection.
  • 17. Importance… Continue  Assist in predicting and avoiding natural disasters such as floods and landslides  Helps in maintaining a healthy relationship between the government, developers, environmentalists, and the public.  Represents the complete study of the possible consequences of the proposed project; increased project acceptance  Reduces the cost and time of the proposed project and also improves the design of the proposed project.
  • 18. History  1969-US Government passed the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)  NEPA- contained a provision for an environmental assessment of a project  1970s- adopted in high-income countries like Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, developing countries like Columbia and the Philippines
  • 19. History… Continue  Mid 1980s- World Bank adopted EIA for major development projects  1997- Nepal started its application after enacting the Environment Protection Act.  Large projects require a full environmental impact assessment (EIA), whereas smaller ones require an initial environmental examination (IEE).
  • 20. EIA in Nepal  Published jointly by ADB and International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), to bring together a large part of what is available to provide an analysis of environmental status and trends in the country.  The Government has made EIA developed by the NPC compulsory since 1993 under the EIA National Guidelines in compliance with the provisions of the Environment Protection Act 1996.  6th Five Year Plan (1980-1985) emphasized in the initiation of EIA of development projects, regulations on urban environment, environmental aspects included in land use policy.  8th Five Year Plan (1992-1997)establishment of Ministry of Population and Environment that assisted in preparation of EIA guidelines
  • 21. EIA in Nepal… Continue  The Environment Protection Act 1996 and the Environment Protection Regulations 1997 are the two main legal documents providing for environmental information and public participation in the EIA process.  The Act and Regulations provide a legal basis for protecting the environment and controlling pollution.  Current EPA and EPR are of 2076 and 2077 respectively.  The Ministry of Forests and Environment (MoFE) is responsible for reviewing and approving EIAs.
  • 22. EIA in Nepal… Continue  In Nepal, EIAs have been of low quality, failing to accomplish their intended objective of alleviating environmental concerns and protecting populations.  EIAs have been viewed by developers as just a pre-project procedure rather than a tool for mitigating environmental risks and ultimately safeguarding investments.  When requested to review and rework, political lobbying starts.
  • 23. EIA in Nepal… Continue  EIA rules that for every tree felled for a project within a national forest or protected area, 10 trees must be planted, previously 25; no scientific basis.  In the last 25 years, the MoFE approved 550 EIAs but does not have the total number of IEEs approved by all ministries. (2022)  The MoFE’s EIA section comprises 5 members of staff to evaluate the projects across the country.
  • 24. Success stories of EIA in Nepal  Babai irrigation project (Bardiya, 2003): o The Department of Irrigation requested permission to clear 1150 hectares of forest to construct an irrigation canal. o The Ministry of Forests directed the department to conduct an EIA, which resulted in approval to cut down 22 hectares.
  • 25. Mugling-Pokhara Highway:  A road expansion project to widen 81km of the highway to four lanes  Asian Development Bank (2019) prepared IEE and provided a loan of USD 195 million to the Nepalese Government for the project.  Air pollution- one of the possible environmental impacts, including dust from earthworks and emissions from construction equipment and vehicles.  Proposed mitigation measures: Water sprinkling, water fogging, broom sweeping in dust-prone locations.  Monitoring air quality during the construction stage and if found above the prescribed limit, suitable control measures to be applied
  • 26. Nijgad Airport  Expected to be the biggest airport in South Asia in terms of area.  More than 2.4 million small and large trees need to be cut down to build the airport.  The Ministry of Environment approved the EIA report, clearing the path for the construction of the airport in May 2018; caused controversary.  Environmentalists have been lobbying highlighting the damage of project.
  • 27. References:  Website: https://www.mygov.scot/eia, https://byjus.com/free-ias-prep/eia/  Convention on Biological Diversity website: https://www.cbd.int/impact/whatis.shtml  National Parks & Wildlife Service https://www.npws.ie/legislation/eu-directives/eia- directive  Corpseed- Importance of Environmental Impact Assessment In India https://www.corpseed.com/knowledge-centre/importance-of-environmental-impact- assessment-in-india  Environment Assessment of Nepal Emerging Issues and Challenges file:///C:/Users/Admin/Downloads/attachment_20.pdf  Environmental impact assessment https://www.slideshare.net/JiniRajendran/environmental-impact-assessment-46841400