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VEGETARIANISM
A vegetarian diet is a powerful and pleasurable way to achieve good health.
The vegetarian eating pattern is based on a wide variety of foods that are
satisfying, delicious, and healthy.
Different definitions for different lifestyles.
Strict vegetarian or vegan
A vegetarian diet that excludes all animal products such as meat, poultry,
fish, eggs, milk, cheese, and other dairy products.
Lactovegetarian
A vegetarian diet that excludes meat, poultry, fish and eggs but includes dairy
products.
Lacto-ovo-vegetarian
A semi-vegetarian diet that excludes meat, poultry and fish but includes eggs
and dairy products. Most vegetarians in the United States fall into this
category.
Flexitarian
A semi-vegetarian diet with a focus on vegetarian food with occasional meat,
poultry, or fish consumption.
The key is to consume a variety of foods
and the right amount of foods to meet your
calorie needs.
KEY NUTRIENTS
Calcium. Vegetarians should consume a variety of calcium sources in
order to meet daily requirements. Dairy products are a rich source of
calcium. If dairy products are not included in your diet, adequate
amounts of calcium can be obtained from plant foods.
Sources of calcium include but are not limited to: Low-fat or fat-free
milk, yogurt and cheese, fortified soymilk or rice milk, leafy green vegetables
(collards, kale, mustard greens), broccoli, beans, almonds, chinese cabbage,
bok choy.
MYTHBUSTER
Myth: It is hard for a
vegetarian/vegan to eat
enough protein.
Reality: It is very easy to
consume enough protein on a
plant-based diet, as long as
the person eats a variety of
foods throughout the day.
Almost all foods contain some
protein, except alcohol, sugar,
and fat.
Protein requirements can be
met when a variety of plant
foods are eaten and overall
energy needs are met. All of
the essential amino acids can
be eaten throughout the day
and there is no need to
“combine proteins” at the
same meal.
KEY NUTRIENTS
Iron. Vegetarians should consume a variety of iron sources to meet daily
requirements. Consuming a good source of vitamin C (citrus fruits, orange
juice, tomatoes) at each meal increases iron absorption.
Good sources of iron include but are not limited to: Dark green, leafy
greens, beans, enriched breads, rice, and pasta, eggs, peanut butter.
Vitamin D. Few foods are naturally high in vitamin D, but dairy products
are fortified with vitamin D in the United States.
Sources of vitamin D include but are not limited to: eggs, vitamin D-
fortified soymilk, cow’s milk, orange juice, and ready-to-eat cereals.
Vitamin B12. B12 is found in all foods of animal origin, including eggs and
dairy products. An adequate intake of vitamin B12 is generally not a concern
for vegetarians who eat some dairy products or eggs. Strict vegetarians or
vegans, however, may need to supplement their diet by choosing a fortified
breakfast cereal or by taking a vitamin B12 (cobalamin) supplement.
Vitamin B12-fortified foods include nutritional yeast, soymilk, meat
substitutes, and ready-to-eat cereals. Be sure to check the label.
Protein. Protein is found in most plant foods as well as animal foods.
Sources include but are not limited to: beans, whole grains, soy
products (miso, tofu, and edamame), nuts and nut butters, dairy products,
eggs, falafel, and quinoa.
MEAL PLANNING IDEAS
Convenience foods cut cooking time. Supermarkets and natural foods stores stock a wide array of low-sodium instant
soups and main-dish vegetarian convenience items. Many canned soups, such as split pea, minestrone, black bean, lentil,
or vegetable, are vegetarian. Rice or grain mixes, like curried rice or tabouli salad, can be stretched into an entrée with a
can of beans.
Try substituting beans or soy crumbles for animal protein in all of your favorite dishes. For example, make black bean
burgers instead of hamburgers, and bean enchiladas instead of traditional enchiladas or chili. Even try mixing cannellini
beans into your pasta or using kidney beans in place of meat in your favorite sloppy joe recipe.
Find vegetarian cookbooks at your local library or bookstore and have fun experimenting with new foods and recipes.
Most restaurants can accommodate vegetarian modifications to menu items by substituting meatless sauces, omitting
meat from stir-fries, and adding vegetables or pasta in place of meat. These substitutions are more likely to be available at
restaurants that make food to order. Experiment with different ethnic food dishes, many Middle Eastern, Asian, South
Indian, and Mexican meals are vegetarian.
To create filling, healthy meals, use healthier vegetables, such as portobello mushroom and eggplant. Use these vegetables
to replace meat in your favorite dishes, such as lasagna. Grilling vegetables and topping them with cheese makes a fast and
easy sandwich.
When traveling, pack plenty of vegetarian snacks like instant low-sodium soups, fresh fruit and peanut butter, raw
vegetables and hummus, trail mix, granola bars, and homemade oatmeal cookies. Fill a cooler with sandwiches and
individual containers of juice, soymilk, and water.
References and more
information can be found at:
www.pcrm.org
www.eatright.org
www.choosemyplate.gov

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VEGETARIANISM

  • 1. VEGETARIANISM A vegetarian diet is a powerful and pleasurable way to achieve good health. The vegetarian eating pattern is based on a wide variety of foods that are satisfying, delicious, and healthy. Different definitions for different lifestyles. Strict vegetarian or vegan A vegetarian diet that excludes all animal products such as meat, poultry, fish, eggs, milk, cheese, and other dairy products. Lactovegetarian A vegetarian diet that excludes meat, poultry, fish and eggs but includes dairy products. Lacto-ovo-vegetarian A semi-vegetarian diet that excludes meat, poultry and fish but includes eggs and dairy products. Most vegetarians in the United States fall into this category. Flexitarian A semi-vegetarian diet with a focus on vegetarian food with occasional meat, poultry, or fish consumption. The key is to consume a variety of foods and the right amount of foods to meet your calorie needs. KEY NUTRIENTS Calcium. Vegetarians should consume a variety of calcium sources in order to meet daily requirements. Dairy products are a rich source of calcium. If dairy products are not included in your diet, adequate amounts of calcium can be obtained from plant foods. Sources of calcium include but are not limited to: Low-fat or fat-free milk, yogurt and cheese, fortified soymilk or rice milk, leafy green vegetables (collards, kale, mustard greens), broccoli, beans, almonds, chinese cabbage, bok choy. MYTHBUSTER Myth: It is hard for a vegetarian/vegan to eat enough protein. Reality: It is very easy to consume enough protein on a plant-based diet, as long as the person eats a variety of foods throughout the day. Almost all foods contain some protein, except alcohol, sugar, and fat. Protein requirements can be met when a variety of plant foods are eaten and overall energy needs are met. All of the essential amino acids can be eaten throughout the day and there is no need to “combine proteins” at the same meal.
  • 2. KEY NUTRIENTS Iron. Vegetarians should consume a variety of iron sources to meet daily requirements. Consuming a good source of vitamin C (citrus fruits, orange juice, tomatoes) at each meal increases iron absorption. Good sources of iron include but are not limited to: Dark green, leafy greens, beans, enriched breads, rice, and pasta, eggs, peanut butter. Vitamin D. Few foods are naturally high in vitamin D, but dairy products are fortified with vitamin D in the United States. Sources of vitamin D include but are not limited to: eggs, vitamin D- fortified soymilk, cow’s milk, orange juice, and ready-to-eat cereals. Vitamin B12. B12 is found in all foods of animal origin, including eggs and dairy products. An adequate intake of vitamin B12 is generally not a concern for vegetarians who eat some dairy products or eggs. Strict vegetarians or vegans, however, may need to supplement their diet by choosing a fortified breakfast cereal or by taking a vitamin B12 (cobalamin) supplement. Vitamin B12-fortified foods include nutritional yeast, soymilk, meat substitutes, and ready-to-eat cereals. Be sure to check the label. Protein. Protein is found in most plant foods as well as animal foods. Sources include but are not limited to: beans, whole grains, soy products (miso, tofu, and edamame), nuts and nut butters, dairy products, eggs, falafel, and quinoa. MEAL PLANNING IDEAS Convenience foods cut cooking time. Supermarkets and natural foods stores stock a wide array of low-sodium instant soups and main-dish vegetarian convenience items. Many canned soups, such as split pea, minestrone, black bean, lentil, or vegetable, are vegetarian. Rice or grain mixes, like curried rice or tabouli salad, can be stretched into an entrée with a can of beans. Try substituting beans or soy crumbles for animal protein in all of your favorite dishes. For example, make black bean burgers instead of hamburgers, and bean enchiladas instead of traditional enchiladas or chili. Even try mixing cannellini beans into your pasta or using kidney beans in place of meat in your favorite sloppy joe recipe. Find vegetarian cookbooks at your local library or bookstore and have fun experimenting with new foods and recipes. Most restaurants can accommodate vegetarian modifications to menu items by substituting meatless sauces, omitting meat from stir-fries, and adding vegetables or pasta in place of meat. These substitutions are more likely to be available at restaurants that make food to order. Experiment with different ethnic food dishes, many Middle Eastern, Asian, South Indian, and Mexican meals are vegetarian. To create filling, healthy meals, use healthier vegetables, such as portobello mushroom and eggplant. Use these vegetables to replace meat in your favorite dishes, such as lasagna. Grilling vegetables and topping them with cheese makes a fast and easy sandwich. When traveling, pack plenty of vegetarian snacks like instant low-sodium soups, fresh fruit and peanut butter, raw vegetables and hummus, trail mix, granola bars, and homemade oatmeal cookies. Fill a cooler with sandwiches and individual containers of juice, soymilk, and water. References and more information can be found at: www.pcrm.org www.eatright.org www.choosemyplate.gov