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NISHANT ROHATGI
8 A
ROLL NO . 24
Numbers below a base
number
 ! 88 × 97 = 8536
 We notice here that both numbers being multiplied are close to 100:
88 is 12 below 100, and 97 is 3 below it.
-12 -3
88 × 97 = 85/36
 The deficiencies (12 and 3) have been written above the numbers (on
the
flag – a sub-sutra), the minus signs indicating that the numbers are below
100.
The answer 8536 is in two parts: 85 and 36.
 The 85 is found by taking one of the deficiencies from the other number.
 That is: 88 – 3 = 85 or 97 – 12 = 85 (whichever you like), and the 36 is
simply the product of the deficiencies: 12 × 3 = 36.
 It could hardly be easier.
Splitting numbers
 18
For eg. 18
18 * 7
9 2
We can write it as :
7 * 9 * 2 = 63 * 2
= 126
Multiplying by 4
 For eg. 4
53 * 4
2 * 2
53 * 4 = 53 * 2 *2
Double of 53 = 106
Double of 106 = 212
Hence , 53 * 4 = 212
The sutras
 8 By the Completion or Non-Completion
 12 The Remainders by the Last Digit
 13 The Ultimate and Twice the Penultimate
 14 By One Less than the One Before
 15 The Product of the Sum
 16 All the Multipliers
Sutra 8,
By the Completion or Non-Completion : The
technique called completing the square’ for
solving quadratic equations is an illustration
of this Sutra. But the Vedic method extends
to ‘completing the cubic’ and has many
other applications
Sutra 11,
 Specific and General is useful for finding
products and solving certain types of
equation. It also applies when an average is
used, as an average is a specific value
representing a range of values. So to multiply
 57×63 we may note that the average is 60 so
we find 602 – 32 = 3600 – 9 =3591.
 Here the 3 which we square and subtract is
the difference of eachnumber in the sum
from the average (
Sutra 12,
 The Remainders By the Last Digit is useful in
converting fractions to decimals. For example if
you convert 17to a decimal by long division you
will get the remainders 3, 2, 6, 4, 5, 1 . . . and if
these are multiplied in turn by
 the last digit of the recurring decimal, which is
7, you get 21, 14, 42, 28, 35, 7 .
 . . The last digit of each of these gives the decimal
for 17
 = 0.142857 . . .
 The remainders and the last digit of the recurring
decimal can be easily obtained
Sutra 13,
 The Ultimate and Twice the Penultimate can
be used for testing if a number is divisible by 4.
To find out if 9176 is divisible by 4 for example
we add the ultimate which is 6 and twice the
penultimate, the 7. Since:
 6 + twice 7 = 20 and 20 is divisible by 4 we can
say 9176 is divisible by 4.
 Similarly, testing the number 27038 we find 8 +
twice 3 which is 14.
 As 14 is not divisible by 4 neither is 27038
Sutra 14,
 By One Less than the One Before is useful
for multiplying by nines.
 For example to find 777 × 999 we reduce
the 777 by 1 to get 776 and then use All
from 9 and the last from 10 on 777.
 This gives 777 × 999 = 776/223.
Sutra 15,
 The Product of the Sum was illustrated in
the Fun with Figures book for checking
calculations using digit sums: we find the
product of the digit sums in a
multiplication sum to see if it is the same
as the digit sum of the answer.
 Another example is Pythagoras’ Theorem:
the square on the hypotenuse is the sum
of the squares on the other sides.
Sutra 16,
 All the Multipliers is useful for finding a
number of arrangements of objects. For
example the number of ways of arranging
the three letters A, B, C is 3×2×1 = 6 ways.

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Vedic mathematic techniques

  • 2. Numbers below a base number  ! 88 × 97 = 8536  We notice here that both numbers being multiplied are close to 100: 88 is 12 below 100, and 97 is 3 below it. -12 -3 88 × 97 = 85/36  The deficiencies (12 and 3) have been written above the numbers (on the flag – a sub-sutra), the minus signs indicating that the numbers are below 100. The answer 8536 is in two parts: 85 and 36.  The 85 is found by taking one of the deficiencies from the other number.  That is: 88 – 3 = 85 or 97 – 12 = 85 (whichever you like), and the 36 is simply the product of the deficiencies: 12 × 3 = 36.  It could hardly be easier.
  • 3. Splitting numbers  18 For eg. 18 18 * 7 9 2 We can write it as : 7 * 9 * 2 = 63 * 2 = 126
  • 4. Multiplying by 4  For eg. 4 53 * 4 2 * 2 53 * 4 = 53 * 2 *2 Double of 53 = 106 Double of 106 = 212 Hence , 53 * 4 = 212
  • 5. The sutras  8 By the Completion or Non-Completion  12 The Remainders by the Last Digit  13 The Ultimate and Twice the Penultimate  14 By One Less than the One Before  15 The Product of the Sum  16 All the Multipliers
  • 6. Sutra 8, By the Completion or Non-Completion : The technique called completing the square’ for solving quadratic equations is an illustration of this Sutra. But the Vedic method extends to ‘completing the cubic’ and has many other applications
  • 7. Sutra 11,  Specific and General is useful for finding products and solving certain types of equation. It also applies when an average is used, as an average is a specific value representing a range of values. So to multiply  57×63 we may note that the average is 60 so we find 602 – 32 = 3600 – 9 =3591.  Here the 3 which we square and subtract is the difference of eachnumber in the sum from the average (
  • 8. Sutra 12,  The Remainders By the Last Digit is useful in converting fractions to decimals. For example if you convert 17to a decimal by long division you will get the remainders 3, 2, 6, 4, 5, 1 . . . and if these are multiplied in turn by  the last digit of the recurring decimal, which is 7, you get 21, 14, 42, 28, 35, 7 .  . . The last digit of each of these gives the decimal for 17  = 0.142857 . . .  The remainders and the last digit of the recurring decimal can be easily obtained
  • 9. Sutra 13,  The Ultimate and Twice the Penultimate can be used for testing if a number is divisible by 4. To find out if 9176 is divisible by 4 for example we add the ultimate which is 6 and twice the penultimate, the 7. Since:  6 + twice 7 = 20 and 20 is divisible by 4 we can say 9176 is divisible by 4.  Similarly, testing the number 27038 we find 8 + twice 3 which is 14.  As 14 is not divisible by 4 neither is 27038
  • 10. Sutra 14,  By One Less than the One Before is useful for multiplying by nines.  For example to find 777 × 999 we reduce the 777 by 1 to get 776 and then use All from 9 and the last from 10 on 777.  This gives 777 × 999 = 776/223.
  • 11. Sutra 15,  The Product of the Sum was illustrated in the Fun with Figures book for checking calculations using digit sums: we find the product of the digit sums in a multiplication sum to see if it is the same as the digit sum of the answer.  Another example is Pythagoras’ Theorem: the square on the hypotenuse is the sum of the squares on the other sides.
  • 12. Sutra 16,  All the Multipliers is useful for finding a number of arrangements of objects. For example the number of ways of arranging the three letters A, B, C is 3×2×1 = 6 ways.