SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 10
Download to read offline
NISHANT ROHATGI
VII A
Roll no 26
Transport in plants
– Water and dissolved nutrients upwards from the roots
– Carbohydrates produced in leaves to rest of plant
• Transportation of carbohydrates
– Movement of carbohydrates through vascular system is called
translocation
– Carbohydrates produced in photosynthetic organs (usually
leaves) and often stored in roots
– Movement of carbohydrates is through phloem
» Sieve cells: living cells
stacked on top of each
other
» Sieve-tube members:
similar to sieve cells
but found only in
angiosperms
(flowering plants)
– Mass-flow or pressure-flow hypothesis:
– Carbohydrates move from source (site produced or stored) to
sink (site used)
– Carbohydrates actively transported into phloem at source
– High concentration of carbohydrates causes greater osmotic
pressure in phloem; water moves in from adjacent xylem by
osmosis
– Water influx creates (turgor) pressure inside phloem; pushing
water and dissolved carbohydrates through phloem
Mass-flow or Pressure-flow Hypothesis:
• Nutrients required by plants
– Macronutrients (required in relatively large amounts)
– 9 macronutrients including:
– Nitrogen
– Phosphorus
– Potassium
Fertilizer numbers (e.g.10-15-10)
refer to these macronutrients
• 7 micronutrients including:
– Chlorine
– Iron
– Manganese
• Nutrients required by plants
– Most nutrients needed by plants obtained from soil
• Most roots found in topsoil
• Mineral particleles (nutrients
• Some plants in acidic bogs obtain Nitrogen by trapping and
digesting insects (e.g. Venus flytrap)
• Legumes house Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in root nodules
• Most plants have mycorrhizal fungi that enhance nutrient
uptake by increasing surface area of ‘roots’
• How do plants get nutrients and water into
roots?
– Water ‘absorbed’ by root hairs (projections of
epidermis cells)
– Root hairs greatly increase surface area over which to
‘absorb’ water
– Root hairs have greater osmotic potential than soil
• osmotic (or solute) potential = pressure that must be
applied to stop osmosis
• Root cells actively pump ions (use ATP) into cells
• High concentration of ions creates a greater osmotic
pressure in plant than surrounding soil water; water moves
into cells by osmosis
• How do plants get nutrients and water up
xylem?
– Xylem includes 2 types of dead, hollow, tubular cells
• Vessel members: slightly large diameter; cells stacked
• Tracheids: smaller diameter; side to side overlap
– Vessel members only occur in angiosperms (flowering plants)
Transport of substances in plants

More Related Content

What's hot

Translocation in plants
Translocation in plantsTranslocation in plants
Translocation in plantseportch
 
Transportation in plants and animals
Transportation in plants and animalsTransportation in plants and animals
Transportation in plants and animalswodrick philemon
 
9.2 transport in the phloem of plants
9.2 transport in the phloem of plants9.2 transport in the phloem of plants
9.2 transport in the phloem of plantsBob Smullen
 
Sub 1[1].8 form 5
Sub 1[1].8   form 5Sub 1[1].8   form 5
Sub 1[1].8 form 5cikgushaik
 
Transport in plants 1
Transport in plants 1Transport in plants 1
Transport in plants 1stvb2170
 
Xylem phloem
Xylem phloemXylem phloem
Xylem phloemdhanuch
 
Transport system in plants
Transport system in plantsTransport system in plants
Transport system in plantsFaiz Abdullah
 
cape biology unit 2-_transport_systems_in_plants
cape biology unit 2-_transport_systems_in_plantscape biology unit 2-_transport_systems_in_plants
cape biology unit 2-_transport_systems_in_plantsHilton Ritch
 
Integrated Science M2 Transport in plants
Integrated Science M2 Transport in plantsIntegrated Science M2 Transport in plants
Integrated Science M2 Transport in plantseLearningJa
 
Movement across the plasma membrane copy
Movement across the plasma membrane   copyMovement across the plasma membrane   copy
Movement across the plasma membrane copyGuruMASTURABINTIMUHA
 
9.2 phloem
9.2 phloem9.2 phloem
9.2 phloemlucascw
 
Plants transport SPM notes
Plants transport SPM notesPlants transport SPM notes
Plants transport SPM notesFelicia Tan
 
Bio transport in flowering plants
Bio transport in flowering plantsBio transport in flowering plants
Bio transport in flowering plantsWali Arif
 

What's hot (20)

transport in plants
transport in plantstransport in plants
transport in plants
 
Transportation in plant
Transportation in plantTransportation in plant
Transportation in plant
 
Translocation in plants
Translocation in plantsTranslocation in plants
Translocation in plants
 
Transportation in plants and animals
Transportation in plants and animalsTransportation in plants and animals
Transportation in plants and animals
 
Transport system in plants
Transport system in plantsTransport system in plants
Transport system in plants
 
9.2 transport in the phloem of plants
9.2 transport in the phloem of plants9.2 transport in the phloem of plants
9.2 transport in the phloem of plants
 
Sub 1[1].8 form 5
Sub 1[1].8   form 5Sub 1[1].8   form 5
Sub 1[1].8 form 5
 
Transport in plants 1
Transport in plants 1Transport in plants 1
Transport in plants 1
 
Xylem phloem
Xylem phloemXylem phloem
Xylem phloem
 
Transport system in plants
Transport system in plantsTransport system in plants
Transport system in plants
 
cape biology unit 2-_transport_systems_in_plants
cape biology unit 2-_transport_systems_in_plantscape biology unit 2-_transport_systems_in_plants
cape biology unit 2-_transport_systems_in_plants
 
Plant physio
Plant physioPlant physio
Plant physio
 
Integrated Science M2 Transport in plants
Integrated Science M2 Transport in plantsIntegrated Science M2 Transport in plants
Integrated Science M2 Transport in plants
 
Plant transport ppt
Plant transport pptPlant transport ppt
Plant transport ppt
 
11. Transport in Plants
11. Transport in Plants11. Transport in Plants
11. Transport in Plants
 
Movement across the plasma membrane copy
Movement across the plasma membrane   copyMovement across the plasma membrane   copy
Movement across the plasma membrane copy
 
9.2 phloem
9.2 phloem9.2 phloem
9.2 phloem
 
06 vascular tissue
06 vascular tissue06 vascular tissue
06 vascular tissue
 
Plants transport SPM notes
Plants transport SPM notesPlants transport SPM notes
Plants transport SPM notes
 
Bio transport in flowering plants
Bio transport in flowering plantsBio transport in flowering plants
Bio transport in flowering plants
 

Viewers also liked

Potential_native_Plants_for_
Potential_native_Plants_for_Potential_native_Plants_for_
Potential_native_Plants_for_Arvind Bhatt
 
The role of gene bank to preservation halophytes
The role of gene bank to preservation halophytesThe role of gene bank to preservation halophytes
The role of gene bank to preservation halophytesDr.Elsayed Elazazi
 
Adaptations To Environment
Adaptations To EnvironmentAdaptations To Environment
Adaptations To Environmentscuffruff
 
Transport in plants 7 translocation of assimilates
Transport in plants 7 translocation of assimilatesTransport in plants 7 translocation of assimilates
Transport in plants 7 translocation of assimilatesstvb2170
 
Xylem and phloem
Xylem and phloemXylem and phloem
Xylem and phloemHusna Alias
 
Xylem And Phloem
Xylem And PhloemXylem And Phloem
Xylem And Phloemscuffruff
 
Chapter 9 Transport in Plants Lesson 2 - Xylem and Phloem structure and function
Chapter 9 Transport in Plants Lesson 2 - Xylem and Phloem structure and functionChapter 9 Transport in Plants Lesson 2 - Xylem and Phloem structure and function
Chapter 9 Transport in Plants Lesson 2 - Xylem and Phloem structure and functionj3di79
 

Viewers also liked (9)

9 tissues ppt
9 tissues ppt9 tissues ppt
9 tissues ppt
 
Protection of habitat of corals
Protection of habitat of coralsProtection of habitat of corals
Protection of habitat of corals
 
Potential_native_Plants_for_
Potential_native_Plants_for_Potential_native_Plants_for_
Potential_native_Plants_for_
 
The role of gene bank to preservation halophytes
The role of gene bank to preservation halophytesThe role of gene bank to preservation halophytes
The role of gene bank to preservation halophytes
 
Adaptations To Environment
Adaptations To EnvironmentAdaptations To Environment
Adaptations To Environment
 
Transport in plants 7 translocation of assimilates
Transport in plants 7 translocation of assimilatesTransport in plants 7 translocation of assimilates
Transport in plants 7 translocation of assimilates
 
Xylem and phloem
Xylem and phloemXylem and phloem
Xylem and phloem
 
Xylem And Phloem
Xylem And PhloemXylem And Phloem
Xylem And Phloem
 
Chapter 9 Transport in Plants Lesson 2 - Xylem and Phloem structure and function
Chapter 9 Transport in Plants Lesson 2 - Xylem and Phloem structure and functionChapter 9 Transport in Plants Lesson 2 - Xylem and Phloem structure and function
Chapter 9 Transport in Plants Lesson 2 - Xylem and Phloem structure and function
 

Similar to Transport of substances in plants

Aaa Transport
Aaa TransportAaa Transport
Aaa Transportstantonmk
 
Biology Form 5 chapter 1.7 & 1.8 (Transport in Plants)
Biology Form 5 chapter 1.7 & 1.8 (Transport in Plants)Biology Form 5 chapter 1.7 & 1.8 (Transport in Plants)
Biology Form 5 chapter 1.7 & 1.8 (Transport in Plants)mellina23
 
9_ Transport in Plants.ppt
9_ Transport in Plants.ppt9_ Transport in Plants.ppt
9_ Transport in Plants.pptMahdAli3
 
Transportation In Plants
Transportation In PlantsTransportation In Plants
Transportation In PlantsRukhma Aijaz
 
Transpotation
TranspotationTranspotation
TranspotationMamta2695
 
Ch35_36_Plant Structure, Growth, and Development.ppt
Ch35_36_Plant Structure, Growth, and Development.pptCh35_36_Plant Structure, Growth, and Development.ppt
Ch35_36_Plant Structure, Growth, and Development.pptRaulemar1
 
Food Production & The Environment
Food Production & The EnvironmentFood Production & The Environment
Food Production & The Environmentguest5b46792
 
Food Production & The Environment
Food Production & The EnvironmentFood Production & The Environment
Food Production & The Environmentguest5b46792
 
Chapter 22- Plant Diversity
Chapter 22- Plant DiversityChapter 22- Plant Diversity
Chapter 22- Plant DiversityMary Beth Smith
 
Topic 6 Plant Structure
Topic 6  Plant Structure Topic 6  Plant Structure
Topic 6 Plant Structure SHAKINAZ DESA
 
02 plant structure supplement - vascular tissue
02   plant structure supplement - vascular tissue02   plant structure supplement - vascular tissue
02 plant structure supplement - vascular tissuemrtangextrahelp
 

Similar to Transport of substances in plants (20)

Aaa transport
Aaa transportAaa transport
Aaa transport
 
Aaa Transport
Aaa TransportAaa Transport
Aaa Transport
 
Biology Form 5 chapter 1.7 & 1.8 (Transport in Plants)
Biology Form 5 chapter 1.7 & 1.8 (Transport in Plants)Biology Form 5 chapter 1.7 & 1.8 (Transport in Plants)
Biology Form 5 chapter 1.7 & 1.8 (Transport in Plants)
 
Talk 4-Mineral Nutrition.ppt
Talk 4-Mineral Nutrition.pptTalk 4-Mineral Nutrition.ppt
Talk 4-Mineral Nutrition.ppt
 
9_ Transport in Plants.ppt
9_ Transport in Plants.ppt9_ Transport in Plants.ppt
9_ Transport in Plants.ppt
 
Transportation In Plants
Transportation In PlantsTransportation In Plants
Transportation In Plants
 
Transpotation
TranspotationTranspotation
Transpotation
 
Ch35_36_Plant Structure, Growth, and Development.ppt
Ch35_36_Plant Structure, Growth, and Development.pptCh35_36_Plant Structure, Growth, and Development.ppt
Ch35_36_Plant Structure, Growth, and Development.ppt
 
Plant structure function and transport
Plant structure function and transportPlant structure function and transport
Plant structure function and transport
 
Food Production & The Environment
Food Production & The EnvironmentFood Production & The Environment
Food Production & The Environment
 
Food Production & The Environment
Food Production & The EnvironmentFood Production & The Environment
Food Production & The Environment
 
Chapter 22- Plant Diversity
Chapter 22- Plant DiversityChapter 22- Plant Diversity
Chapter 22- Plant Diversity
 
Plants ch 22
Plants ch 22Plants ch 22
Plants ch 22
 
Topic 6 Plant Structure
Topic 6  Plant Structure Topic 6  Plant Structure
Topic 6 Plant Structure
 
World of Plants
World of PlantsWorld of Plants
World of Plants
 
Producers I
Producers IProducers I
Producers I
 
Plants 2023.pptx
Plants 2023.pptxPlants 2023.pptx
Plants 2023.pptx
 
Chapter 10
Chapter 10Chapter 10
Chapter 10
 
02 plant structure supplement - vascular tissue
02   plant structure supplement - vascular tissue02   plant structure supplement - vascular tissue
02 plant structure supplement - vascular tissue
 
Transport in plants
Transport in plantsTransport in plants
Transport in plants
 

More from Nishant Rohatgi (15)

Triangles
TrianglesTriangles
Triangles
 
Matter in our surrundings
Matter in our surrundingsMatter in our surrundings
Matter in our surrundings
 
9 class motion
9 class motion9 class motion
9 class motion
 
Matter in our surrundings
Matter in our surrundingsMatter in our surrundings
Matter in our surrundings
 
Vedic mathematic techniques
Vedic mathematic techniquesVedic mathematic techniques
Vedic mathematic techniques
 
The influence of human activity on the environment
The influence of human activity on the environmentThe influence of human activity on the environment
The influence of human activity on the environment
 
Rationalnumbers
RationalnumbersRationalnumbers
Rationalnumbers
 
Neslon
NeslonNeslon
Neslon
 
Nelson mandela
Nelson mandelaNelson mandela
Nelson mandela
 
Kriya
KriyaKriya
Kriya
 
Green revolution
Green revolutionGreen revolution
Green revolution
 
Dohe hindi
Dohe hindiDohe hindi
Dohe hindi
 
Billgates
BillgatesBillgates
Billgates
 
Vedic maths
Vedic mathsVedic maths
Vedic maths
 
Ppt of women reformers
Ppt of women reformersPpt of women reformers
Ppt of women reformers
 

Recently uploaded

FBI Profiling - Forensic Psychology.pptx
FBI Profiling - Forensic Psychology.pptxFBI Profiling - Forensic Psychology.pptx
FBI Profiling - Forensic Psychology.pptxPayal Shrivastava
 
whole genome sequencing new and its types including shortgun and clone by clone
whole genome sequencing new  and its types including shortgun and clone by clonewhole genome sequencing new  and its types including shortgun and clone by clone
whole genome sequencing new and its types including shortgun and clone by clonechaudhary charan shingh university
 
Abnormal LFTs rate of deco and NAFLD.pptx
Abnormal LFTs rate of deco and NAFLD.pptxAbnormal LFTs rate of deco and NAFLD.pptx
Abnormal LFTs rate of deco and NAFLD.pptxzeus70441
 
DETECTION OF MUTATION BY CLB METHOD.pptx
DETECTION OF MUTATION BY CLB METHOD.pptxDETECTION OF MUTATION BY CLB METHOD.pptx
DETECTION OF MUTATION BY CLB METHOD.pptx201bo007
 
Timeless Cosmology: Towards a Geometric Origin of Cosmological Correlations
Timeless Cosmology: Towards a Geometric Origin of Cosmological CorrelationsTimeless Cosmology: Towards a Geometric Origin of Cosmological Correlations
Timeless Cosmology: Towards a Geometric Origin of Cosmological CorrelationsDanielBaumann11
 
BACTERIAL SECRETION SYSTEM by Dr. Chayanika Das
BACTERIAL SECRETION SYSTEM by Dr. Chayanika DasBACTERIAL SECRETION SYSTEM by Dr. Chayanika Das
BACTERIAL SECRETION SYSTEM by Dr. Chayanika DasChayanika Das
 
Think Science: What Are Eclipses (101), by Craig Bobchin
Think Science: What Are Eclipses (101), by Craig BobchinThink Science: What Are Eclipses (101), by Craig Bobchin
Think Science: What Are Eclipses (101), by Craig BobchinNathan Cone
 
GenAI talk for Young at Wageningen University & Research (WUR) March 2024
GenAI talk for Young at Wageningen University & Research (WUR) March 2024GenAI talk for Young at Wageningen University & Research (WUR) March 2024
GenAI talk for Young at Wageningen University & Research (WUR) March 2024Jene van der Heide
 
Loudspeaker- direct radiating type and horn type.pptx
Loudspeaker- direct radiating type and horn type.pptxLoudspeaker- direct radiating type and horn type.pptx
Loudspeaker- direct radiating type and horn type.pptxpriyankatabhane
 
cybrids.pptx production_advanges_limitation
cybrids.pptx production_advanges_limitationcybrids.pptx production_advanges_limitation
cybrids.pptx production_advanges_limitationSanghamitraMohapatra5
 
Charateristics of the Angara-A5 spacecraft launched from the Vostochny Cosmod...
Charateristics of the Angara-A5 spacecraft launched from the Vostochny Cosmod...Charateristics of the Angara-A5 spacecraft launched from the Vostochny Cosmod...
Charateristics of the Angara-A5 spacecraft launched from the Vostochny Cosmod...Christina Parmionova
 
Immunoblott technique for protein detection.ppt
Immunoblott technique for protein detection.pptImmunoblott technique for protein detection.ppt
Immunoblott technique for protein detection.pptAmirRaziq1
 
bonjourmadame.tumblr.com bhaskar's girls
bonjourmadame.tumblr.com bhaskar's girlsbonjourmadame.tumblr.com bhaskar's girls
bonjourmadame.tumblr.com bhaskar's girlshansessene
 
Harry Coumnas Thinks That Human Teleportation May Ensure Humanity's Survival
Harry Coumnas Thinks That Human Teleportation May Ensure Humanity's SurvivalHarry Coumnas Thinks That Human Teleportation May Ensure Humanity's Survival
Harry Coumnas Thinks That Human Teleportation May Ensure Humanity's Survivalkevin8smith
 
Observation of Gravitational Waves from the Coalescence of a 2.5–4.5 M⊙ Compa...
Observation of Gravitational Waves from the Coalescence of a 2.5–4.5 M⊙ Compa...Observation of Gravitational Waves from the Coalescence of a 2.5–4.5 M⊙ Compa...
Observation of Gravitational Waves from the Coalescence of a 2.5–4.5 M⊙ Compa...Sérgio Sacani
 
Environmental acoustics- noise criteria.pptx
Environmental acoustics- noise criteria.pptxEnvironmental acoustics- noise criteria.pptx
Environmental acoustics- noise criteria.pptxpriyankatabhane
 
6.2 Pests of Sesame_Identification_Binomics_Dr.UPR
6.2 Pests of Sesame_Identification_Binomics_Dr.UPR6.2 Pests of Sesame_Identification_Binomics_Dr.UPR
6.2 Pests of Sesame_Identification_Binomics_Dr.UPRPirithiRaju
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Interferons.pptx.
Interferons.pptx.Interferons.pptx.
Interferons.pptx.
 
FBI Profiling - Forensic Psychology.pptx
FBI Profiling - Forensic Psychology.pptxFBI Profiling - Forensic Psychology.pptx
FBI Profiling - Forensic Psychology.pptx
 
whole genome sequencing new and its types including shortgun and clone by clone
whole genome sequencing new  and its types including shortgun and clone by clonewhole genome sequencing new  and its types including shortgun and clone by clone
whole genome sequencing new and its types including shortgun and clone by clone
 
Ultrastructure and functions of Chloroplast.pptx
Ultrastructure and functions of Chloroplast.pptxUltrastructure and functions of Chloroplast.pptx
Ultrastructure and functions of Chloroplast.pptx
 
Abnormal LFTs rate of deco and NAFLD.pptx
Abnormal LFTs rate of deco and NAFLD.pptxAbnormal LFTs rate of deco and NAFLD.pptx
Abnormal LFTs rate of deco and NAFLD.pptx
 
Introduction Classification Of Alkaloids
Introduction Classification Of AlkaloidsIntroduction Classification Of Alkaloids
Introduction Classification Of Alkaloids
 
DETECTION OF MUTATION BY CLB METHOD.pptx
DETECTION OF MUTATION BY CLB METHOD.pptxDETECTION OF MUTATION BY CLB METHOD.pptx
DETECTION OF MUTATION BY CLB METHOD.pptx
 
Timeless Cosmology: Towards a Geometric Origin of Cosmological Correlations
Timeless Cosmology: Towards a Geometric Origin of Cosmological CorrelationsTimeless Cosmology: Towards a Geometric Origin of Cosmological Correlations
Timeless Cosmology: Towards a Geometric Origin of Cosmological Correlations
 
BACTERIAL SECRETION SYSTEM by Dr. Chayanika Das
BACTERIAL SECRETION SYSTEM by Dr. Chayanika DasBACTERIAL SECRETION SYSTEM by Dr. Chayanika Das
BACTERIAL SECRETION SYSTEM by Dr. Chayanika Das
 
Think Science: What Are Eclipses (101), by Craig Bobchin
Think Science: What Are Eclipses (101), by Craig BobchinThink Science: What Are Eclipses (101), by Craig Bobchin
Think Science: What Are Eclipses (101), by Craig Bobchin
 
GenAI talk for Young at Wageningen University & Research (WUR) March 2024
GenAI talk for Young at Wageningen University & Research (WUR) March 2024GenAI talk for Young at Wageningen University & Research (WUR) March 2024
GenAI talk for Young at Wageningen University & Research (WUR) March 2024
 
Loudspeaker- direct radiating type and horn type.pptx
Loudspeaker- direct radiating type and horn type.pptxLoudspeaker- direct radiating type and horn type.pptx
Loudspeaker- direct radiating type and horn type.pptx
 
cybrids.pptx production_advanges_limitation
cybrids.pptx production_advanges_limitationcybrids.pptx production_advanges_limitation
cybrids.pptx production_advanges_limitation
 
Charateristics of the Angara-A5 spacecraft launched from the Vostochny Cosmod...
Charateristics of the Angara-A5 spacecraft launched from the Vostochny Cosmod...Charateristics of the Angara-A5 spacecraft launched from the Vostochny Cosmod...
Charateristics of the Angara-A5 spacecraft launched from the Vostochny Cosmod...
 
Immunoblott technique for protein detection.ppt
Immunoblott technique for protein detection.pptImmunoblott technique for protein detection.ppt
Immunoblott technique for protein detection.ppt
 
bonjourmadame.tumblr.com bhaskar's girls
bonjourmadame.tumblr.com bhaskar's girlsbonjourmadame.tumblr.com bhaskar's girls
bonjourmadame.tumblr.com bhaskar's girls
 
Harry Coumnas Thinks That Human Teleportation May Ensure Humanity's Survival
Harry Coumnas Thinks That Human Teleportation May Ensure Humanity's SurvivalHarry Coumnas Thinks That Human Teleportation May Ensure Humanity's Survival
Harry Coumnas Thinks That Human Teleportation May Ensure Humanity's Survival
 
Observation of Gravitational Waves from the Coalescence of a 2.5–4.5 M⊙ Compa...
Observation of Gravitational Waves from the Coalescence of a 2.5–4.5 M⊙ Compa...Observation of Gravitational Waves from the Coalescence of a 2.5–4.5 M⊙ Compa...
Observation of Gravitational Waves from the Coalescence of a 2.5–4.5 M⊙ Compa...
 
Environmental acoustics- noise criteria.pptx
Environmental acoustics- noise criteria.pptxEnvironmental acoustics- noise criteria.pptx
Environmental acoustics- noise criteria.pptx
 
6.2 Pests of Sesame_Identification_Binomics_Dr.UPR
6.2 Pests of Sesame_Identification_Binomics_Dr.UPR6.2 Pests of Sesame_Identification_Binomics_Dr.UPR
6.2 Pests of Sesame_Identification_Binomics_Dr.UPR
 

Transport of substances in plants

  • 2. Transport in plants – Water and dissolved nutrients upwards from the roots – Carbohydrates produced in leaves to rest of plant
  • 3. • Transportation of carbohydrates – Movement of carbohydrates through vascular system is called translocation – Carbohydrates produced in photosynthetic organs (usually leaves) and often stored in roots – Movement of carbohydrates is through phloem » Sieve cells: living cells stacked on top of each other » Sieve-tube members: similar to sieve cells but found only in angiosperms (flowering plants)
  • 4. – Mass-flow or pressure-flow hypothesis: – Carbohydrates move from source (site produced or stored) to sink (site used) – Carbohydrates actively transported into phloem at source – High concentration of carbohydrates causes greater osmotic pressure in phloem; water moves in from adjacent xylem by osmosis – Water influx creates (turgor) pressure inside phloem; pushing water and dissolved carbohydrates through phloem
  • 6. • Nutrients required by plants – Macronutrients (required in relatively large amounts) – 9 macronutrients including: – Nitrogen – Phosphorus – Potassium Fertilizer numbers (e.g.10-15-10) refer to these macronutrients • 7 micronutrients including: – Chlorine – Iron – Manganese
  • 7. • Nutrients required by plants – Most nutrients needed by plants obtained from soil • Most roots found in topsoil • Mineral particleles (nutrients • Some plants in acidic bogs obtain Nitrogen by trapping and digesting insects (e.g. Venus flytrap) • Legumes house Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in root nodules • Most plants have mycorrhizal fungi that enhance nutrient uptake by increasing surface area of ‘roots’
  • 8. • How do plants get nutrients and water into roots? – Water ‘absorbed’ by root hairs (projections of epidermis cells) – Root hairs greatly increase surface area over which to ‘absorb’ water – Root hairs have greater osmotic potential than soil • osmotic (or solute) potential = pressure that must be applied to stop osmosis • Root cells actively pump ions (use ATP) into cells • High concentration of ions creates a greater osmotic pressure in plant than surrounding soil water; water moves into cells by osmosis
  • 9. • How do plants get nutrients and water up xylem? – Xylem includes 2 types of dead, hollow, tubular cells • Vessel members: slightly large diameter; cells stacked • Tracheids: smaller diameter; side to side overlap – Vessel members only occur in angiosperms (flowering plants)