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Design Psychology: Motivate
Your Users
Amy Bucher, Ph.D.
amy.bucher@gmail.com
@ab_phd
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Agenda
• Self-determination theory: Overview
• Competence: Helping people grow
• Autonomy: Helping people choose
• Relatedness: Helping people connect
• Tying it all together
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Self-Determination Theory
Overview
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
“It’s not that I’m lazy, it’s that I just don’t care.”
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Self­Efficacy
Social Learning
Hierarchy of Needs
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Types of Motivation: Self Determination
Theory
AutonomousControlled
More likely to sustain
behavior change
Adapted from Segar & Hall (2011) Source: Ryan & Deci (2000)
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Self-Determination Theory (SDT):
Antecedents of Motivation
Motivation
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Applying Self-Determination Theory
Adapted from Scott Rigby
Perceived Autonomy
Help people feel they have control
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Pandora.comAmy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
WeightWatchers.comAmy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Weight Watchers
food choice tools
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Constrained Choice
Perceived Competence
Help people feel they can do it
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Ability
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
2xweight loss in people who track food
6+ days per week vs. people who track
less than 11
1. Hollis, J. F. et al. (2008). Weight loss during the intensive intervention phase of the weight-loss maintenance trial. American Journal of
Preventative Medicine, 32(5), 118-126.
2. Kruger, J., Blanck, H. M., & Gillespie, C. (2006). Dietary and physical activity behaviors among adults successful at weight loss maintenance.
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 3.
3. Bravata, D. M., et al. (2007). Using pedometers to increase physical activity and improve health: A systematic review. Journal of the
American Medical Association, 298(19), 2296-2304.
18%of successful dieters kept a calorie
diary, vs. 8% of unsuccessful dieters2
People using pedometers keep their
physical activity at 27%above baseline
levels3
Opower.com
1.4 – 3.3% energy use reduction per household (Alcott, 2011)
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
How Video
Games Support
Competence
Feedback Granularity
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
You’ve Earned a Badge!
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Yelp
Untappd
Fitocracy
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
$26
Million
in first year1
1. http://news.starbucks.com/article_display.cfm?article_id=598, retrived October 1, 2012
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
J&J Digital Health Scorecard http://www.digitalhealthscorecard.com/?sf7635864=1
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Does it work?
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
http://duolingo.com/#/effectiveness-study
34 Hours of Duolingo 1 University Semester
Perceived Relatedness
Show people they’re connected
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Sometimes the responses
are just
acknowledgements . . .
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Sometimes the
responses are
helpful . . .
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Sometimes the responses
are repetitive . . .
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Sometimes the responses
are to other brands, not
end users . . .
Sometimes the responses
are deliberately funny . . .
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
ELIZA
Human: My boyfriend made me come here.
ELIZA: Your boyfriend made you come here?
Human: He says I’m depressed.
ELIZA: I’m sorry to hear you are depressed.
Human: It’s true. I’m unhappy.
ELIZA: Do you think talking to me will help you
not be unhappy?
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Weizenbaum, J. (1966). ELIZA—A computer program for the study of natural language
communication between man and machine. Communications of the ACM, 9(1), 36-45.
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Design that Responds
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Contrast this . . .
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
With this:
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
SDT Applied to Beer
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Additional Resources
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Glued to Games, by Scott Rigby and Richard Ryan
selfdeterminationtheory.org  links to academic papers, research
Stanford University Persuasive Technology Lab (
http://captology.stanford.edu/)
I also like:
•Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion, by Robert Cialdini
•Willpower, by Roy Baumeister and John Tierney
•The Power of Habit: Why We Do What We Do in Life and in Business, by Charles
Duhigg
From this presentation:
Questions & Discussion
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy Bucher, Ph.D.
amy.bucher@gmail.com
@ab_phd

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UXPA Boston 2014 Presentation: Motivate Your User Through Design Psychology

  • 1. Design Psychology: Motivate Your Users Amy Bucher, Ph.D. amy.bucher@gmail.com @ab_phd Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
  • 2. Agenda • Self-determination theory: Overview • Competence: Helping people grow • Autonomy: Helping people choose • Relatedness: Helping people connect • Tying it all together Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
  • 3. Self-Determination Theory Overview Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
  • 4. Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com) “It’s not that I’m lazy, it’s that I just don’t care.”
  • 5. Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com) Self­Efficacy Social Learning Hierarchy of Needs
  • 6. Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com) Types of Motivation: Self Determination Theory AutonomousControlled More likely to sustain behavior change Adapted from Segar & Hall (2011) Source: Ryan & Deci (2000)
  • 7. Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
  • 8. Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com) Self-Determination Theory (SDT): Antecedents of Motivation Motivation
  • 9. Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com) Applying Self-Determination Theory Adapted from Scott Rigby
  • 10. Perceived Autonomy Help people feel they have control Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
  • 11. Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
  • 12. Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
  • 13. Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
  • 14. Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
  • 15. Pandora.comAmy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
  • 16. WeightWatchers.comAmy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com) Weight Watchers food choice tools
  • 17. Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
  • 18. Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
  • 20. Perceived Competence Help people feel they can do it Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
  • 21. Ability Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
  • 22. Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com) 2xweight loss in people who track food 6+ days per week vs. people who track less than 11 1. Hollis, J. F. et al. (2008). Weight loss during the intensive intervention phase of the weight-loss maintenance trial. American Journal of Preventative Medicine, 32(5), 118-126. 2. Kruger, J., Blanck, H. M., & Gillespie, C. (2006). Dietary and physical activity behaviors among adults successful at weight loss maintenance. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 3. 3. Bravata, D. M., et al. (2007). Using pedometers to increase physical activity and improve health: A systematic review. Journal of the American Medical Association, 298(19), 2296-2304. 18%of successful dieters kept a calorie diary, vs. 8% of unsuccessful dieters2 People using pedometers keep their physical activity at 27%above baseline levels3
  • 23. Opower.com 1.4 – 3.3% energy use reduction per household (Alcott, 2011) Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
  • 24. Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com) How Video Games Support Competence
  • 25. Feedback Granularity Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
  • 26. Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
  • 27. You’ve Earned a Badge! Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
  • 28. Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com) Yelp Untappd Fitocracy
  • 29. Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
  • 30.
  • 31. Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com) $26 Million in first year1 1. http://news.starbucks.com/article_display.cfm?article_id=598, retrived October 1, 2012
  • 32. Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com) J&J Digital Health Scorecard http://www.digitalhealthscorecard.com/?sf7635864=1
  • 33. Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
  • 34. Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
  • 35. Does it work? Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com) http://duolingo.com/#/effectiveness-study 34 Hours of Duolingo 1 University Semester
  • 36. Perceived Relatedness Show people they’re connected Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
  • 37. Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
  • 38. Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
  • 39. Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com) Sometimes the responses are just acknowledgements . . .
  • 40. Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com) Sometimes the responses are helpful . . .
  • 41. Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com) Sometimes the responses are repetitive . . .
  • 42. Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com) Sometimes the responses are to other brands, not end users . . .
  • 43. Sometimes the responses are deliberately funny . . .
  • 44. Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
  • 45. ELIZA Human: My boyfriend made me come here. ELIZA: Your boyfriend made you come here? Human: He says I’m depressed. ELIZA: I’m sorry to hear you are depressed. Human: It’s true. I’m unhappy. ELIZA: Do you think talking to me will help you not be unhappy? Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com) Weizenbaum, J. (1966). ELIZA—A computer program for the study of natural language communication between man and machine. Communications of the ACM, 9(1), 36-45.
  • 46. Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
  • 47. Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
  • 48. Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
  • 49. Design that Responds Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
  • 50. Contrast this . . . Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
  • 51. With this: Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
  • 52. SDT Applied to Beer Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
  • 53. Additional Resources Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com) Glued to Games, by Scott Rigby and Richard Ryan selfdeterminationtheory.org  links to academic papers, research Stanford University Persuasive Technology Lab ( http://captology.stanford.edu/) I also like: •Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion, by Robert Cialdini •Willpower, by Roy Baumeister and John Tierney •The Power of Habit: Why We Do What We Do in Life and in Business, by Charles Duhigg From this presentation:
  • 54. Questions & Discussion Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com) Amy Bucher, Ph.D. amy.bucher@gmail.com @ab_phd

Editor's Notes

  1. Easiest metaphor to understand autonomy is choose your own adventure
  2. Here’s an example from Mindbloom—users can determine at the outset what parts of their well-being they’d like to work on. And they can change their minds at any point in the program.
  3. What does ability really mean? Sometimes it’s truly having the skills, knowledge, or tools; other times, it’s having a resource such as time, patience, or desire. Fogg definition of ability Willpower
  4. Another way to create a sense of ability or competence is through normative feedback—what others like you are doing. Opower launched a normative feedback program for energy consumption. People participating in the program got a neighborhood report showing how much energy others in the area were using. People who participated ended up using significantly less energy than people who didn’t get the comparison report—about 1.4-3.3% less per measurement period. That may not seem like a lot for any one individual, but when you think about the energy savings across a neighborhood or city, it starts to really add up. We also use normative feedback a lot with health related behaviors. For example, did you know that most people who successfully quit smoking have failed about 7 times before? Use of positive/hopeful feedback vs. unrealistic or lofty feedback
  5. Feedback on performance builds competence
  6. The granularity of feedback also matters. Ideally, you want to give a few levels of feedback. Here in Guitar Hero, you see both feedback on each individual action, and cumulative feedback on overall performance over the course of the game
  7. Used in Europe to reduce messes in men’s restrooms
  8. Kip Williams
  9. Amazon—recommends products both based on what you purchased, and on what people like you have bought
  10. Design needs to respond to users, too. When a user does something with the mouse, the site should respond to that.