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The Psychology of Motivation for
Design
Amy Bucher, Ph.D.
amy.bucher@gmail.com
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Self-Determination Theory
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Types of Motivation: Self Determination Theory
AutonomousControlled
More likely to engage in and
sustain behavior change
Adapted from Segar & Hall (2011) Source: Ryan & Deci (2000)
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Self-Determination Theory (SDT):
Antecedents of Motivation
Motivation
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Application of SDT
Adapted from Scott Rigby
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
How vs. What
Perceived Autonomy
Help people feel they have control
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Pandora.comAmy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
WeightWatchers.comAmy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Lunch Builder
Cheat Sheet
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Constrained Choice
Perceived Competence
Help people feel they can do it
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
2xweight loss in people who track food
6+ days per week vs. people who track
less than 11
1. Hollis, J. F. et al. (2008). Weight loss during the intensive intervention phase of the weight-loss maintenance trial. American Journal of
Preventative Medicine, 32(5), 118-126.
2. Kruger, J., Blanck, H. M., & Gillespie, C. (2006). Dietary and physical activity behaviors among adults successful at weight loss maintenance.
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 3.
3. Bravata, D. M., et al. (2007). Using pedometers to increase physical activity and improve health: A systematic review. Journal of the
American Medical Association, 298(19), 2296-2304.
18%of successful dieters kept a calorie
diary, vs. 8% of unsuccessful dieters2
People using pedometers keep their
physical activity at 27%above baseline
levels3
Opower.com
1.4 – 3.3% energy use reduction per household (Alcott, 2011)
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Feedback Granularity
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
You’ve Earned a Badge!
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Yelp
Untappd
Fitocracy
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
$26
Million
in first year1
1. http://news.starbucks.com/article_display.cfm?article_id=598, retrived October 1, 2012
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
J&J Digital Health Scorecard http://www.digitalhealthscorecard.com/?sf7635864=1
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Does it work?
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
http://duolingo.com/#/effectiveness-study
34 Hours of Duolingo 1 University Semester
Perceived Relatedness
Show people they’re connected
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Sometimes the responses
are just
acknowledgements . . .
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Sometimes the
responses are
helpful . . .
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Sometimes the responses
are repetitive . . .
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Sometimes the responses
are to other brands, not
end users . . .
Sometimes the responses
are deliberately funny . . .
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Design that Responds
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Contrast this . . .
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
With this:
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
SDT Applied to Beer
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Additional Resources
Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Glued to Games, by Scott Rigby and Richard Ryan
selfdeterminationtheory.org  links to academic papers, research
Stanford University Persuasive Technology Lab (
http://captology.stanford.edu/)
I also like:
•Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion, by Robert Cialdini
•Willpower, by Roy Baumeister and John Tierney
•The Power of Habit: Why We Do What We Do in Life and in Business, by Charles
Duhigg
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The Psychology of Motivation for Design, UXFest, Fresh Tilled Soil, Amy Bucher, Oct 1 2013

Editor's Notes

  1. Easiest metaphor to understand autonomy is choose your own adventure
  2. Another way to create a sense of ability or competence is through normative feedback—what others like you are doing. Opower launched a normative feedback program for energy consumption. People participating in the program got a neighborhood report showing how much energy others in the area were using. People who participated ended up using significantly less energy than people who didn’t get the comparison report—about 1.4-3.3% less per measurement period. That may not seem like a lot for any one individual, but when you think about the energy savings across a neighborhood or city, it starts to really add up. We also use normative feedback a lot with health related behaviors. For example, did you know that most people who successfully quit smoking have failed about 7 times before? Use of positive/hopeful feedback vs. unrealistic or lofty feedback
  3. Feedback on performance builds competence
  4. The granularity of feedback also matters. Ideally, you want to give a few levels of feedback. Here in Guitar Hero, you see both feedback on each individual action, and cumulative feedback on overall performance over the course of the game
  5. Used in Europe to reduce messes in men’s restrooms
  6. Kip Williams
  7. Amazon—recommends products both based on what you purchased, and on what people like you have bought
  8. Design needs to respond to users, too. When a user does something with the mouse, the site should respond to that.