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Earley & Associates, Inc. | Classification: CONFIDENTIAL USE, NO REPRINTS
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Centric Design: How to Leverage Use
Cases and User Scenarios to Design
SharePoint Functionality
SharePoint Tech Con San Francisco
March 4th, 2013
users content
2
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
• Co-author of Practical Knowledge Management from IBM Press
• Editor IEEE Information Professional Magazine
• 18 years experience building content and knowledge
management systems, 20+ years experience in technology
• Former Co-Chair, Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences,
Science and Technology Council Metadata Project Committee
• Founder of the Boston Knowledge Management Forum
• Former adjunct professor at Northeastern University
• Guest speaker for US Strategic Command briefing on knowledge networks
• Currently working with enterprises to develop knowledge and digital asset
management systems, taxonomy and metadata governance strategies
• Founder of Taxonomy Community of Practice – host monthly conference
calls of case studies on taxonomy derivation and application.
http://finance.groups.yahoo.com/group/TaxoCoP
• Founder Information Architecture Experts Group on LinkedIn
Follow on twitter: @sethearley
Connect on LinkedIn: www.linkedin.com/in/sethearley
Seth Earley, CEO, Earley & Associates
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Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Founded - 1994 Headquarters - Boston, MA
What we do – Design and deliver content management and search solutions for
companies and their customers
Our core team – 35 information and system architects, library scientists, process
improvement consultants, project managers and other information management
specialists
Our Unique Offering – Content Choreography™
Retail & Supply Chain
Financial Services & Insurance
High Tech & Manufacturing
Pharmaceuticals & Life Sciences
Media & Entertainment
Our clients include –
Global 2000, major non-
profits and government
entities
Earley & Associates Overview
4
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
• Definitions
• The User-Focused Approach (top down)
• The Data-Focused Approach (bottom up)
Overview
observe summarize conceive develop
identify
audiences
define
tasks
build use
cases
identify
content
organize
content audit taxonomy metadata
content
models
mental models
site maps &
navigation
wireframes
5
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
 the structure and framework for our content-knowledge environment
 approaches for understanding user and business needs, and
developing capabilities to meet those needs using information
 designing user experience by associating structured and unstructured data
with the user’s intent
 about what’s not obvious
Information architecture is…
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Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
• Metadata describe the nature of information, the is-ness and about-ness.
• Taxonomies are the organizing principles behind metadata and metadata values.
• Content models encompass the user’s understanding of something.
• Information architecture is about translating business objectives and user needs
into working systems for content management, search, and collaboration.
Information architecture encourages and
enables both information retrieval and
knowledge discovery.
Taxonomy, Metadata & Information Architecture
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Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Enterprise
Search,
Collaboration
& Portals
Digital Asset
Management
Workflow
Management
Security &
Privacy
Management
Rights
Management
Records
Management
Website
Navigation,
Search &
SEO
Content
Management
Metadata,
Taxonomy,
& Information
Architecture,
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Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Information Architecture Design Methodology
Content Types
& Site Column
Design
Term Store
& Taxonomy
Development
Site Maps
& Wireframe
Design
Use Cases,
Workflow &
Authoring
Solution
Design
Documents
DESIGN
&DEVELOP
Taxonomy
User
Interface
Tagging
Processes
Auto
Categorization
Test Plan
& Execution
TEST
&VALIDATE
Governance
Strategy
& Guidelines
Socialization
Communication
& Adoption
Migration
Strategy
& Approach
Metrics
Development
Governance /
Maintenance
Processes
MAINTAIN
&ENHANCE
Current State
Assessment
Future
State Vision
Gap
Analysis
Heuristic
Evaluation
Strategy,
Roadmap &
Recommendations
STRATEGY
&VISIONN
Content
Analysis
Audience
Analysis
Requirements
Definition
RESEARCH
&DISCOVER
Requirements
& Analysis
Findings
Task
Analysis
This is the challenging part:
getting from requirements to design.
9
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
• Many organizations are trying to “make the information easier to use.”
But what does this mean?
 What information?
 For whom?
 Accomplishing what task?
 With what information?
• Many information management projects fail because they are too broad,
the project scope is ambiguous, and the outcome is not measurable.
• Ambiguous problems can’t be solved.
Information architecture starts with a focus
on problems and processes.
Translating Abstract Concepts into Concrete Design Elements
Earley & Associates, Inc. | Classification: CONFIDENTIAL USE, NO REPRINTS
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Information Architecture Process:
User-Focused Approach
(top down)
11
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
• Observe and gather data points
• Summarize into themes
• Translate themes into conceptual solutions
• Develop scenarios that comprise solutions
• Identify audiences who are impacted by scenarios
• Articulate tasks that audiences execute in scenarios
• Build detailed use cases around tasks and audiences
• Identify content needed by audiences in specific use cases
• Develop organizing principles for content
User-Focused IA (Top Down)
observe
summarize
conceive
develop
identify
audiences
define
tasks
build use
cases
identify
content
organize
12
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
• Identify problems through interviews, surveys, and working sessions.
• In each forum, we are making observations about the current state:
 how people accomplish tasks,
 bottlenecks in processes,
 problems with information access and findability,
 challenges around inaccurate and incomplete information
• User-centric IA requires that we understand the mental model of the user:
the tasks they need to execute, and how they go about accomplishing their work.
Observe and Gather Data Points
observe
summarize
conceive
develop
identify
audiences
define
tasks
build use
cases
identify
content
organize
13
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
• “It is difficult to find and collocate information about a specific subject”
Summarize Observations into Themes
observe
summarize
conceive
develop
identify
audiences
define
tasks
build use
cases
identify
content
organize
14
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Wouldn’t it be great if we could…?
• “…access all policy and prior experience data across multiple systems using a
single search query and return consistent results?”
• Conceptualizing a future world in which these problems “went away”
provides a foundation for all future IA work:
 defining metrics for success, and collecting a baseline measurement
 engaging stakeholders and obtaining management buy-in
 outlining a roadmap for short-term and long-term work
 identifying necessary resources
Translate Themes into Conceptual Solutions
observe
summarize
conceive
develop
identify
audiences
define
tasks
build use
cases
identify
content
organize
15
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
• Scenarios are a fixed set of interactions and events, helpful in expressing
concepts.
• “How do underwriters go about their work in writing policies for specialty and
high risk clients?” Describe a day-in-the-life.
• Examples:
 New Product Introduction
A new category of product is introduced, requiring updates to the print, web, and
e-commerce sales channels.
 Translation of New Product Information
The newly introduced product has all its content and metadata translated into a
second supported language.
Develop Scenarios That Comprise Solutions
observe
summarize
conceive
develop
identify
audiences
define
tasks
build use
cases
identify
content
organize
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Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
• Although some scenarios are simple on their face, a single event can be the first
step in a chain of events.
• “Risk managers, underwriters, sales personnel”
• Example: To Process a Activity Report Delivered by a Service Provider
Possible stakeholders:
 external contact at service organization (to send the report)
 internal liaison to service provider (to confirm receipt of the report)
 compliance supervisor (to verify that the report meets requirements)
 business analyst (to compare long-term performance against benchmarks)
 strategy officer (to align provider performance with corporate goals)
 PR specialist (to highlight notable activities for stockholders)
 marketing and SEO specialists (to relate provider improvement following
marketing initiatives)
 VP of provider services (to remain aware of all provider activities)
• All of these stakeholders need to be engaged.
Identify Audiences Who Are Impacted by Scenarios
observe
summarize
conceive
develop
identify
audiences
define
tasks
build use
cases
identify
content
organize
17
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
• Once the stakeholders are identified (and engaged), collaborate with them to
understand their day-to-day operations. Work to understand their current
processes, current pain points, and idealized future environment.
• “Describe underwriting scenario tasks in detail: research options, review loss
history, locate supporting research, etc.”
• These tasks become steps in use cases and workflows…
Articulate Tasks That Audiences Execute in Scenarios
observe
summarize
conceive
develop
identify
audiences
define
tasks
build use
cases
identify
content
organize
18
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
This is where the top-down approach meets the bottom-up approach.
We’re going to race through these three boxes for now,
knowing we’re going to see them again later.
observe
summarize
conceive
develop
identify
audiences
define
tasks
build use
cases
identify
content
organize
19
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
• Use cases describe typical scenarios or interactions that an actor (or group of
actors) has with the system.
• “Step 1: log on to claim system. Step 2: search for history on the coverage type
in geography. Step 3: … “
• Workflows are processes in which a set of tasks intended to be automated are completed.
Most workflow steps are associated with user and system roles responsible for performing
the task.
Build Detailed Use Cases Around Tasks and Audiences
observe
summarize
conceive
develop
identify
audiences
define
tasks
build use
cases
identify
content
organize
Normal Flow
(Team Site Approval)
1. The User navigates to the source location of the content item in the document library on a Team Space (SharePoint
2007). From the Edit Menu, the User selects the option to “Promote to PCL Connects” (Custom) from the dropdown that
appears.
2. The System copies the document from the source library in the team site to a staging library in PCL Connects.
3. The System displays a form (in a new window) containing properties for the document and prompts the User to enter the
following information (unless auto-populated based on pre-defined data): Title of the document; Purpose of the document
(description); …
20
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
• Once the process has been defined, consider the content and metadata that are
required for the processes to be performed correctly.
• “Claims data, policy information, underwriting standards, actuarial tables, fraud
reports, etc.”
• Content needs usually can be determined through interviews, working sessions,
and observation. Card sorts are an easy way to brainstorm critical ideas.
Identify Content Needed by Audiences in Specific Use Cases
observe
summarize
conceive
develop
identify
audiences
define
tasks
build use
cases
identify
content
organize
21
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
• Arrange things that people need according to
process, task, or other organizing principle.
• “Begin with “is-ness.” What is the nature of the information? Then determine
“about-ness,” the additional characteristics of the information. How would you
tell apart 100 documents of that type?”
• These “organizing structures” become the foundation for taxonomy.
Develop Organizing Principles for Content
observe
summarize
conceive
develop
identify
audiences
define
tasks
build use
cases
identify
content
organize
22
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Summary: User-Focused IA Process
observe
summarize
conceive
develop
identify
audiences
define
tasks
build use
cases
identify
content
organize
Process Step Answer the Following Examples
Observe and gather data
(pain) points
What are the specific problems
and challenges that users are
identifying?
“We can’t locate information about policies for specialty coverage.”
“We need to look in multiple systems to find prior experience data
when underwriting new policies in high risk areas.”
“Different terminology is used in different systems, which makes
queries difficult.”
Summarize into themes What are the common elements
to observations? How can
symptoms and pains be classified
according to overarching themes?
inability to locate policy and underwriting information using common
terminology
Translate themes into
conceptual solutions
Wouldn’t it be great if we
could…?
We could access all policy and prior experience data across
multiple systems using a single search query and return consistent
results?
Develop scenarios that
comprise solutions
What would a day in the life of a
user look like if this solution were
in place?
At a high level, describe how underwriters go about their work in
writing policies for specialty and high risk clients. Describe each
potential situation and how they would go about their work
Identify audiences who are
impacted by scenarios
Who are the users that are
impacted?
risk managers, underwriters, sales personnel
Articulate tasks that
audiences execute in
scenarios
What are the tasks that need to
be executed in each scenario?
For a given scenario, articulate tasks (research options, review loss
history, locate supporting research, etc.)
Build detailed use cases
around tasks and audiences
What are the specific steps to
accomplish tasks?
For a single task, list the steps to execute (this level of detail is not
needed in all cases). Step 1: log on to claim system. Step 2: search
for history on the coverage type in geography. Step 3: …
Identify content needed by
audiences in specific use
cases
What content and information is
needed at each step in the
process?
Claims data, policy information, underwriting standards, actuarial
tables, fraud reports, etc.
Develop organizing principles
for content
Arrange the things they need
according to process, task or
other organizing principle
Begin with “is-ness.” What is the nature of the information? Then
determine “about-ness,” the additional characteristics of the
information. How would you tell apart 100 documents of that type?
taxonomy
Earley & Associates, Inc. | Classification: CONFIDENTIAL USE, NO REPRINTS
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Information Architecture Process:
Data-Focused Approach
(bottom up)
24
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
ACME Consulting Enterprises Site Map
What exactly do these represent? Is “Sales” a site collection? A site? A library? A list? A
content type? A metadata field? A value?
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Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Building Taxonomy from Bottom Up
Taxonomy starts as a
collection of terms…
…that becomes translated
into design elements through
a structured process.
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Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
• Audit and inventory existing content
• Build taxonomy by finding patterns in the content
• Figure out the metadata you need
• Develop content models
• Fit metadata models to the users’ mental models
• Build site maps (and site navigation)
• Construct wireframes
Data-Focused IA (Bottom Up)
content
audit
taxonomy
metadata
content
models
mental
models
site maps &
navigation
wireframes
27
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Audit and Inventory Existing Content
content
audit
taxonomy
metadata
content
models
mental
models
site maps &
navigation
wireframes
• Discuss with users
• Brainstorm on locations
• Determine how and where people access content
Initial
determination of
content
• Determine amounts
• Determine types
• Determine condition
• Amount of redundant, outdated and trivial content
Sample content
from across
repositories (audit)
• Use automated processes to itemize all content
• Look for reusable organizing principles
• Look for patterns
• Determine ownership
Inventory all
content in scope
• Remove outdated content
• Determine migration approach
• Identify highest value information
Clean up and
triage
28
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Content Audit Example
content
audit
taxonomy
metadata
content
models
mental
models
site maps &
navigation
wireframes
29
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Finding Patterns in the Content
Determine
Basics
• Locate content: Where is the content now?
• Identify all creators, sources, consumers
• Determine quantities
• Verify importance (quantity and value)
Name, describe
& prioritize
• Name the content type (press release, case file,
product description, etc.)
• Assign an ID
• Deduce any internal structure
Consolidate
across types
• Are the element names and types consistent?
• Are your types mutually exclusive?
• Do they cover the bulk of the content available?
• What is the nature of any exceptions?
content
audit
taxonomy
metadata
content
models
mental
models
site maps &
navigation
wireframes
30
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
• Taxonomy is a system for organizing concepts and categorizing content
 Expresses hierarchical relationships (parent/child)
 Arranged in a tree-like structure, with top level categories that branch out to reveal sub-
categories and terms in varying levels of depth
 Dictionary of preferred terminology
Taxonomy: The Foundation for Information Architecture
Products
Games
Card games
Action
figures
Board games
Brands
Hasbro
Scrabble
Disney
Battleship
content
audit
taxonomy
metadata
content
models
mental
models
site maps &
navigation
wireframes
Sample taxonomy record
Car
SYN: Automobile
Vehicle
fr-CA: Voiture
en-UK: Auto
es-CO: Carro
Synonyms
Translations
and regional
variants
Preferred term
31
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Types of Taxonomy Relationships
Used in thesauri.
Also called
“entry types” of terms.
Synonyms.
Things that are related
conceptually.
Associative relation types
are context and audience
specific.
This is how we might
relate multiple taxonomies.
Purist definition of
a taxonomy –
terms have parent/child
relationship.
Equivalence Hierarchical Associative
Increasing complexity
content
audit
taxonomy
metadata
content
models
mental
models
site maps &
navigation
wireframes
32
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Relationship Types
Types of Taxonomy Relationships (example)
E E
? A
? ?H
H
A
E Equivalence
H Hierarchical
A Associative
Computer
Manufacturers
International
Business
Machines
IBM
Software Group
Big Blue
Hardware Software
content
audit
taxonomy
metadata
content
models
mental
models
site maps &
navigation
wireframes
33
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
What Are Metadata?
Metadata are data that articulate context & meaning
about something.
• Implicit Metadata:
 System generated properties about the piece of content (e.g. file format, file size,
created date, created by, modified date, modified by)
• Explicit Metadata:
 Metadata created to add context to a piece of content and applied through auto-
classification, folksonomy and/or taxonomy. (e.g. subject/topic, document type,
publishing status,
• Metadata is essential for enriching context on unstructured content.
It must have a purpose, and it must be able to be acted upon in order to satisfy
a specific information need.
content
audit
taxonomy
metadata
content
models
mental
models
site maps &
navigation
wireframes
34
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Taxonomy & Metadata
content
audit
taxonomy
metadata
content
models
mental
models
site maps &
navigation
wireframes
Date created
Product SKU
Product category
Metadata fields
(Content Model)
Product name
Asset
Dispatch consoles
May-15-2011
10985702889
DC-100
Metadata
values
Product
categories
Dispatch
Dispatch
consoles
Phones
Logging
recorders
Taxonomy
Product
names
DC Series
DC-100
DR Series
Asset
35
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Example: Metadata Controlled by Taxonomy
NiMH
n/a
n/a
n/a
Nickel Metal Hydrate
n/a
n/a
n/a
NiMh
Battery type
Battery chemistry
Battery
Battery type NiMH NiMH NiMH
afterbefore
content
audit
taxonomy
metadata
content
models
mental
models
site maps &
navigation
wireframes
36
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Three Flavors of Metadata
content
audit
taxonomy
metadata
content
models
mental
models
site maps &
navigation
wireframes
StructuralAdministrativeDescriptive
Explicit Metadata Can Apply in Any Category
Subject
Title
Description
Document_type
Date_created
File_type
Publication_status
Review_type
Is_part_of
Requires
Parent-object
37
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Figure Out the Metadata You Need (and then build taxonomy)
1. Identify a core set of metadata attributes common to all types of content.
These can include Title, Created By Date, Owner, Document Type, etc.
2. Conduct a content audit to understand what various types of content exist.
With each type discovered, note any unique characteristics.
3. Think about different ways to describe each type:
1. Content lifecycle
2. Inherent nature of content itself
3. When used (created or accessed)
4. Audience tasks (when needed)
NOTE: The final step requires stakeholder involvement (both authors & consumers).
content
audit
taxonomy
metadata
content
models
mental
models
site maps &
navigation
wireframes
38
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Content Models (Content Types)
• Content is structured with body information and a wrapper that formats and tags
that information (metadata).
• Metadata are the is-ness and about-ness of a piece of content.
Definitions
• Content object model refers to a specific model for a set of document types.
• Content model is the overall framework that describes content and its
associated properties. (In other words, a content model includes multiple
content object models.)
• Sometimes these terms are used interchangeably.
content
audit
taxonomy
metadata
content
models
mental
models
site maps &
navigation
wireframes
Date created
Product SKU
Product category
Product name
39
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Content Models (Content Types)
content
audit
taxonomy
metadata
content
models
mental
models
site maps &
navigation
wireframes
• Web pages are assembled from items of content types,
which are comprised of metadata elements.
title
author
doc_id
date
doc_type
product name
product features
promotion ID
FAQ
Product
Press release
Specification
Promotion
Taxonomy
Antenna
Bluetooth ®
Camera
GPS
Navigation
Product Page
product category
content ID
promotion type
content ID date
date
related product content ID date
standard header
product content type
promotion content type
related products
content type
40
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Content Models Are Built Upon a Core Content Type
content
audit
taxonomy
metadata
content
models
mental
models
site maps &
navigation
wireframes
41
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Deriving a Content Model
• Determine the means to access content.
• Understand the target process: What capability is being developed?
• Determine information sources and uses for the target process.
• Define content lifecycle for each type of information in your process.
• Identify the structure of each type of information – how will one class of
information differ from another?
• How is content used? Who is using the content?
• Given 1000 documents of the same type of information,
how would you tell them apart?
• How will content review processes differ according to the
needs of the organization?
content
audit
taxonomy
metadata
content
models
mental
models
site maps &
navigation
wireframes
42
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Metadata Models
content
audit
taxonomy
metadata
content
models
mental
models
site maps &
navigation
wireframes
• Knowledge about metadata can be modeled in a spreadsheet.
• This level of detail may be required for implementation.
43
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
This is where the bottom-up approach meets the top-down approach…
Mental modeling includes:
• requirements analysis
• personas
• task analysis
• use cases
• scenarios
• personalization design …and here is where construction begins.
content
audit
taxonomy
metadata
content
models
mental
models
site maps &
navigation
wireframes
44
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
How Well Do the Data Fit the Users’ Mental Model?
• Steps to modeling people and tasks:
 identify audiences (user roles and groups)
 model individual users (personas)
 determine tasks (processes and interactions)
 determine content required to support tasks
• Many different methods for understanding users:
 interviews
 surveys
 working sessions
 observation/shadowing
 search log analysis
 content review
 content/task/audience analysis
content
audit
taxonomy
metadata
content
models
mental
models
site maps &
navigation
wireframes
45
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Requirements Analysis
• Data and observations from multiple sources can be summarized into key
themes.
• AHEM: This should look familiar! See slide “Observe and Gather Data Points.”
With the user-focused approach to IA, we started here!
content
audit
taxonomy
metadata
content
models
mental
models
site maps &
navigation
wireframes
46
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Gap Analysis
content
audit
taxonomy
metadata
content
models
mental
models
site maps &
navigation
wireframes
ContentArchitecture
Desired Capability Gap Current State Assessment Preliminary Gap Closing Actions
27. Information is secure and
only available to people with
authorized access.
Major
Gap
People have access to restricted
information (electronic and paper), access
permissions are not aligned with sensitivity
policies.
Ensure that access control lists and
permissions align with information sensitivity
policies.
28. Trust in the currency and
integrity of a record.
Major
Gap
No consistent processes, methods and
controls for versioning documents,
removing duplicate copies, and managing
document lifecycle state.
Develop clear and effective version control
policies, procedures, and methods, and
document lifecycle metadata. Configure and
utilize ECM version control and lifecycle
mechanisms. Educate employees.
29. Master Data is harmonized
across systems
Gap
No common language or framework for
describing data across various systems to
enable aggregating and analyzing data.
Develop a mapping / ontology of data across
systems that need to be aggregated for
analysis (BI), reporting, dashboards.
30. Documents have the
necessary metadata to
facilitate access control,
retrieval, retention, and
destruction.
Gap Inconsistent definition and use of metadata.
Develop a master metadata schema (mapped
to content types) that can be used for both
physical records and electronic content.
Configure and utilize ECM application (DL,
SharePoint) mechanisms to populate
metadata. Use authoritative sources to
populate metadata.
31. We do not recreate content
for different media or
publications - we create
once and reuse.
Major
Gap
Video and photos are repurposed on an ad
hoc basis. Sites are locally created and
managed.
Implement DAM. Implement Web Content
Management. Redesign content creation
processes to facilitate content reuse. Develop
reuse metrics and monitor performance
32. Able to predict and control
the growth of electronic and
physical storage.
Major
Gap
No measurements or metrics in place.
Develop KPMs for physical and electronic
storage and archive. Identify key areas of
need and develop countermeasures. Target
areas of major growth fn physical storage for
movement to electronic solutions.
Compare user requirements with the
data model to measure current state.
47
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Personas
content
audit
taxonomy
metadata
content
models
mental
models
site maps &
navigation
wireframes
• Personas are representations of users
 Fictitious archetype of a person
 Embodies various characteristic, attitudes and quirks
 Includes lifestyle, education, demographics
 Can have multiple personas for a particular role or user type
• Apply knowledge about personas to the taxonomy:
 differences in terminology and controlled vocabulary
 differences in categorization (within a uniform collection)
 differences in association, relatedness
 differences overall approaches
• Taking the long view:
 multiple audience-driven entry points
 anticipatory navigation, suggestion
 building up the It thinks how I think impression
48
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
• Personal Profile
• Ben Armstrong knows he’s a lucky
guy, since most of his life he’s been
able to get by without a larger “life
plan” in place.
• When it came time to select a college,
Ben chose the arts program at NYU
not because of its reputation, but
because it was relatively close by and
he liked art. He wasn’t sure if he
wanted to make it his career, but he
was willing to give it a shot.
• It was a savvy choice, not for what it
taught him, but for the two people he
met while he was there. The first was
his friend Todd, the other was his
future wife Sandy. Ken realized that
while Todd wasn’t much of a painter,
he had a fantastic eye for emerging
talent. When Todd offered him a
position managing his new gallery,
Ben didn’t even think twice. Turns out
that Todd was right, and the gallery
has been growing increasingly more
successful.
• Despite the gallery’s growing success,
Sandy is definitely the breadwinner of
the Armstrong household. Since she is
usually either involved with her career
or the children, Sandy has ceded
control of the family’s finances to Ben,
which he’s handled capably, if not
entirely intuitively. He’s wary of
overspending, but will occasionally
splurge on “fun” items such as toys for
the kids or a Calphalon pot for the
kitchen.
• Although technologically facile, Ben
only uses the family computer when
he has to. He doesn’t delve very
deeply into search results, preferring
to settle on something that’s “good
enough” to match most of what he’s
looking for.
Ben Armstrong Domestic Consumer
“I want technology to
enhance, not define,
my life.”
background
• 27-year-old, married, man, 2 young children, Democrat
• BFA in Art from NYU. Works as a gallery manager in
Manhattan; owns a 2BR apartment in Hoboken. Does not
own a car.
• Wife works in publishing
• $150K combined income / $160K net worth ($100K in
home equity)
• Hobbies: High-end audio, fan of new music and vinyl
• Favorite Web sites: Salon, Food Network, Yahoo! Ticker,
Gorp.com, Bank of New York. Has a PayPal account.
attributes
• Somewhat afraid of risk; can be impulsive if sure of
something
• Investigates only a few competing web service options
• Prefers human rather than online experiences
site needs
• Values an aesthetic user experience
• Sophisticated back-end functionality that minimizes the
need for further research
• Informative, relevant information that quickly explains
and defines his needs
• Appreciates highly personalized on-line experience
• Unaware of privacy and security issues
• Ability for site to grow as his relationship with it matures
Featured Scenario:
Scenario
Feature
Behavior
Although he’d been trying to avoid it, Ben has come to the realization that he really
needs to research his family’s insurance needs. This is mostly due to the fact that his
friend Todd, the owner of the gallery where Ben works, was shocked when Ben told
him that he didn’t have life insurance. “How can you not have life insurance,” Todd
asked. “You’ve got two kids!” During some downtime in the afternoon, Ben uses the
gallery’s computer to see what he can find out about financial planning in general,
and life insurance in particular.
• Ben does a Google search on “life insurance”
• Among the returned links are insurance information sites and providers; primary
among them is ABC
• He clicks on the link to abc.com
• Ben types “life insurance” in the Search field
• Site presents Ben with life stages information and a “total insurance and financial
plan.” Ben prints these so that he can show Ken.
• On a lark, Ben performs a Google search on “ABC agent” and notes that one has an
e-mail address. He quickly shoots an e-mail to that broker with a request for info.
• Ben runs his info by Todd to validate he is on the right track. He also phones and
picks the brain of the agent he e-mailed, though he has no intention of purchasing
insurance at that time.
• Three months later, while watching Trading Spaces, Ben sees an ABC commercial,
reminds himself of his needs for Insurance, and calls his broker back the next day!
Alternative Scenarios
• Ben decides to get started on a comprehensive financial plan
• Ben, in a follow-up visit to abc.com, is cross-sold homeowners insurance
• Ben is already a customer
• Ben has an auto policy with ABC, and needs to make a claim
“Understand, educate and transact on the customer’s terms”
• Persistent information
• Has own “account,” like he has with his bank
• Audience segmentation, well-managed content
• Easy access to offline resources
• Optimized search
• Value-added calculators & other widgets
Ben finds and uses the abc.com website to
learn about his family insurance needs
Audience: Consumer
Country: USA
Language: English
Personas
49
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Task Analysis
content
audit
taxonomy
metadata
content
models
mental
models
site maps &
navigation
wireframes
• Audiences need content to support their tasks.
50
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Task Analysis
content
audit
taxonomy
metadata
content
models
mental
models
site maps &
navigation
wireframes
Approximately 100 tasks plus
several not covered
51
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Task Analysis
content
audit
taxonomy
metadata
content
models
mental
models
site maps &
navigation
wireframes
52
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Use Cases and User Scenarios
• Users can be identified by their characteristics, tendencies, preferences, and
aptitudes through the development of user profiles and personas.
• A profile is a description of a user role based on their job tasks and objectives.
• A persona is a description of their personality and details of their lifestyle.
• Use cases are specific, step-by-step interactions with a system.
• A scenario is a day-in-the-life, higher-level description of the things that users
need to accomplish.
content
audit
taxonomy
metadata
content
models
mental
models
site maps &
navigation
wireframes
53
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Workflow and Process
• Use cases provide step-by-step instructions. They describe how each type of
user interacts with an application. They are also depicted as diagrams that
visualize the steps and paths needed to complete a task...
• Use cases can be used to test the ability to locate specific content through
labeling, hierarchy, and faceted keyword search.
content
audit
taxonomy
metadata
content
models
mental
models
site maps &
navigation
wireframes
54
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Example Scenario
content
audit
taxonomy
metadata
content
models
mental
models
site maps &
navigation
wireframes
55
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Example Use Case
content
audit
taxonomy
metadata
content
models
mental
models
site maps &
navigation
wireframes
56
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Audience Analysis & Personalization
• Active personalization design (by role):
Pull of content to users based on personal preference
• Passive personalization design (by role):
Push of predefined content targeted to users based on audience
content
audit
taxonomy
metadata
content
models
mental
models
site maps &
navigation
wireframes
Matrix included:
• Role Mapping
• Applicable Systems
• Preferred Content Types
• Topical Interests
• Required Content
• Related Roles
57
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Example of Active Personalization
content
audit
taxonomy
metadata
content
models
mental
models
site maps &
navigation
wireframes
User Selected Preferences
58
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Construction begins.
content
audit
taxonomy
metadata
content
models
mental
models
site maps &
navigation
wireframes
Step Approach Output Design Artifact
1. Arrange and cluster
terms
Post it note exercise, term
generation, card sort and
clustering
Navigational representation of
content
Site map*
2. Contextualize terms Link scenarios to terms Conceptual representation of
terms
Annotated site map
3. Create concept map
around scenarios
Mind mapping Conceptual representation of
themes and attributes
Mind map
4. Translate overarching
theme into design
constructs
Determine central theme
and questions that a user
seeks to answer
Mock up of user interaction
and flow
Storyboard
5. Condense story
boards into wireframes
Arrange themes into
pages and attributes as
search/navigational
elements
Search, Navigation and
Attribute interaction
Wireframe
59
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Term Generation, Clustering and Card Sorting
content
audit
taxonomy
metadata
content
models
mental
models
site maps &
navigation
wireframes
60
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Clustering/Grouping
content
audit
taxonomy
metadata
content
models
mental
models
site maps &
navigation
wireframes
Goal is to have users group like
types of content together in
meaningful ways.
Provide an intuitive,
unambiguous and meaningful
name for the group of content
61
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
• Site maps provide a visual illustration of the logical organization of site content.
• They can also serve as the basis for global navigation (and global context).
Site Map Design & Global Navigation
content
audit
taxonomy
metadata
content
models
mental
models
site maps &
navigation
wireframes
Named Cluster
62
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Wireframes
• Wireframes are a visual representation of how features, functionality, and
content will appear in the user interface.
 Common elements
 Navigation
 Taxonomy integration
 Libraries and views
 Search experience
content
audit
taxonomy
metadata
content
models
mental
models
site maps &
navigation
wireframes
63
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Wireframes
• Wireframes are a visual representation of how features, functionality, and
content will appear in the user interface (e.g., page templates).
 common elements
 navigation
 taxonomy integration
 libraries and views
 search experience
There are many different
ways to create wireframes,
because the primary goal
is idea communication.
content
audit
taxonomy
metadata
content
models
mental
models
site maps &
navigation
wireframes
64
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Concept Modeling
content
audit
taxonomy
metadata
content
models
mental
models
site maps &
navigation
wireframes
65
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Summary
• Taxonomy and metadata provide the foundation for user experience
• User experience is at the intersection of content models and user intent
• Use cases and user scenarios help to define the mental model of our audience
• Site maps are the physical representation of navigation
• Wireframes illustrate where all of the elements come together to present content
in context supporting user tasks
• Starting with the correct foundation will allow for meaningful development of the
user experience
content
audit
taxonomy
metadata
content
models
mental
models
site maps &
navigation
wireframes
66
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
SharePoint Information Architecture Updated for 2013
• The Information Architecture Process
 User Research & Requirements Gathering
 Audience and Process Analysis
 Roles, Responsibilities, Use cases, Personas and
scenario development
• Managed Metadata and the Term Store
 Metadata Schemas and Taxonomy Development
 Creating Managing and Term Sets
 Using the Term Store for Navigation
 Term Driven Pages
• Creating and Leveraging Content Types
 Properties (Site Columns, Workflow, IM Policies)
 Content Modeling
 Document Library Construction
• Wireframes and the User Experience
 Aligning Use Cases with Content
 Developing Wireframes for Navigation and Search
• Designing Search Based Applications
 Result sources, Query rules, Result templates
 Linguistic Processing
 Search Metrics
Location Date
Arlington, VA March 13-15
Boston (Metro) May 8-10
3-Day Hands-on Course
67
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Whitepapers
http://info.earley.com/what-is-the-business-
value-of-taxonomy/
Digital Asset Management
http://info.earley.com/download-whitepaper-
critical-success-for-dam-project/
Information Supply Chain
http://info.earley.com/retail-whitepaper-use-
taxonomy-to-optimize-retail-information-supply-
chain/
Get it here:
Other Whitepaper Topics
The Role of Taxonomy &
Metadata in Search
http://info.earley.com/taxonomy-metadata-
search-whitepaper-request-download/
68
Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Contact
Seth Earley
CEO
_____________________________
EARLEY & ASSOCIATES, Inc.
Cell: 781-820-8080
Email: seth@earley.com
Web: www.earley.com
Follow me on twitter: @sethearley
Connect with me on LinkedIn: www.linkedin.com/in/sethearley

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User-Centric Design: How to Leverage Use Cases and User Scenarios to Design SharePoint Functionality by Seth Earley - SPTechCon

  • 1. Earley & Associates, Inc. | Classification: CONFIDENTIAL USE, NO REPRINTS Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Centric Design: How to Leverage Use Cases and User Scenarios to Design SharePoint Functionality SharePoint Tech Con San Francisco March 4th, 2013 users content
  • 2. 2 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. • Co-author of Practical Knowledge Management from IBM Press • Editor IEEE Information Professional Magazine • 18 years experience building content and knowledge management systems, 20+ years experience in technology • Former Co-Chair, Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, Science and Technology Council Metadata Project Committee • Founder of the Boston Knowledge Management Forum • Former adjunct professor at Northeastern University • Guest speaker for US Strategic Command briefing on knowledge networks • Currently working with enterprises to develop knowledge and digital asset management systems, taxonomy and metadata governance strategies • Founder of Taxonomy Community of Practice – host monthly conference calls of case studies on taxonomy derivation and application. http://finance.groups.yahoo.com/group/TaxoCoP • Founder Information Architecture Experts Group on LinkedIn Follow on twitter: @sethearley Connect on LinkedIn: www.linkedin.com/in/sethearley Seth Earley, CEO, Earley & Associates
  • 3. 3 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Founded - 1994 Headquarters - Boston, MA What we do – Design and deliver content management and search solutions for companies and their customers Our core team – 35 information and system architects, library scientists, process improvement consultants, project managers and other information management specialists Our Unique Offering – Content Choreography™ Retail & Supply Chain Financial Services & Insurance High Tech & Manufacturing Pharmaceuticals & Life Sciences Media & Entertainment Our clients include – Global 2000, major non- profits and government entities Earley & Associates Overview
  • 4. 4 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. • Definitions • The User-Focused Approach (top down) • The Data-Focused Approach (bottom up) Overview observe summarize conceive develop identify audiences define tasks build use cases identify content organize content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes
  • 5. 5 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  the structure and framework for our content-knowledge environment  approaches for understanding user and business needs, and developing capabilities to meet those needs using information  designing user experience by associating structured and unstructured data with the user’s intent  about what’s not obvious Information architecture is…
  • 6. 6 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. • Metadata describe the nature of information, the is-ness and about-ness. • Taxonomies are the organizing principles behind metadata and metadata values. • Content models encompass the user’s understanding of something. • Information architecture is about translating business objectives and user needs into working systems for content management, search, and collaboration. Information architecture encourages and enables both information retrieval and knowledge discovery. Taxonomy, Metadata & Information Architecture
  • 7. 7 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Enterprise Search, Collaboration & Portals Digital Asset Management Workflow Management Security & Privacy Management Rights Management Records Management Website Navigation, Search & SEO Content Management Metadata, Taxonomy, & Information Architecture,
  • 8. 8 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Information Architecture Design Methodology Content Types & Site Column Design Term Store & Taxonomy Development Site Maps & Wireframe Design Use Cases, Workflow & Authoring Solution Design Documents DESIGN &DEVELOP Taxonomy User Interface Tagging Processes Auto Categorization Test Plan & Execution TEST &VALIDATE Governance Strategy & Guidelines Socialization Communication & Adoption Migration Strategy & Approach Metrics Development Governance / Maintenance Processes MAINTAIN &ENHANCE Current State Assessment Future State Vision Gap Analysis Heuristic Evaluation Strategy, Roadmap & Recommendations STRATEGY &VISIONN Content Analysis Audience Analysis Requirements Definition RESEARCH &DISCOVER Requirements & Analysis Findings Task Analysis This is the challenging part: getting from requirements to design.
  • 9. 9 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. • Many organizations are trying to “make the information easier to use.” But what does this mean?  What information?  For whom?  Accomplishing what task?  With what information? • Many information management projects fail because they are too broad, the project scope is ambiguous, and the outcome is not measurable. • Ambiguous problems can’t be solved. Information architecture starts with a focus on problems and processes. Translating Abstract Concepts into Concrete Design Elements
  • 10. Earley & Associates, Inc. | Classification: CONFIDENTIAL USE, NO REPRINTS Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Information Architecture Process: User-Focused Approach (top down)
  • 11. 11 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. • Observe and gather data points • Summarize into themes • Translate themes into conceptual solutions • Develop scenarios that comprise solutions • Identify audiences who are impacted by scenarios • Articulate tasks that audiences execute in scenarios • Build detailed use cases around tasks and audiences • Identify content needed by audiences in specific use cases • Develop organizing principles for content User-Focused IA (Top Down) observe summarize conceive develop identify audiences define tasks build use cases identify content organize
  • 12. 12 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. • Identify problems through interviews, surveys, and working sessions. • In each forum, we are making observations about the current state:  how people accomplish tasks,  bottlenecks in processes,  problems with information access and findability,  challenges around inaccurate and incomplete information • User-centric IA requires that we understand the mental model of the user: the tasks they need to execute, and how they go about accomplishing their work. Observe and Gather Data Points observe summarize conceive develop identify audiences define tasks build use cases identify content organize
  • 13. 13 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. • “It is difficult to find and collocate information about a specific subject” Summarize Observations into Themes observe summarize conceive develop identify audiences define tasks build use cases identify content organize
  • 14. 14 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Wouldn’t it be great if we could…? • “…access all policy and prior experience data across multiple systems using a single search query and return consistent results?” • Conceptualizing a future world in which these problems “went away” provides a foundation for all future IA work:  defining metrics for success, and collecting a baseline measurement  engaging stakeholders and obtaining management buy-in  outlining a roadmap for short-term and long-term work  identifying necessary resources Translate Themes into Conceptual Solutions observe summarize conceive develop identify audiences define tasks build use cases identify content organize
  • 15. 15 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. • Scenarios are a fixed set of interactions and events, helpful in expressing concepts. • “How do underwriters go about their work in writing policies for specialty and high risk clients?” Describe a day-in-the-life. • Examples:  New Product Introduction A new category of product is introduced, requiring updates to the print, web, and e-commerce sales channels.  Translation of New Product Information The newly introduced product has all its content and metadata translated into a second supported language. Develop Scenarios That Comprise Solutions observe summarize conceive develop identify audiences define tasks build use cases identify content organize
  • 16. 16 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. • Although some scenarios are simple on their face, a single event can be the first step in a chain of events. • “Risk managers, underwriters, sales personnel” • Example: To Process a Activity Report Delivered by a Service Provider Possible stakeholders:  external contact at service organization (to send the report)  internal liaison to service provider (to confirm receipt of the report)  compliance supervisor (to verify that the report meets requirements)  business analyst (to compare long-term performance against benchmarks)  strategy officer (to align provider performance with corporate goals)  PR specialist (to highlight notable activities for stockholders)  marketing and SEO specialists (to relate provider improvement following marketing initiatives)  VP of provider services (to remain aware of all provider activities) • All of these stakeholders need to be engaged. Identify Audiences Who Are Impacted by Scenarios observe summarize conceive develop identify audiences define tasks build use cases identify content organize
  • 17. 17 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. • Once the stakeholders are identified (and engaged), collaborate with them to understand their day-to-day operations. Work to understand their current processes, current pain points, and idealized future environment. • “Describe underwriting scenario tasks in detail: research options, review loss history, locate supporting research, etc.” • These tasks become steps in use cases and workflows… Articulate Tasks That Audiences Execute in Scenarios observe summarize conceive develop identify audiences define tasks build use cases identify content organize
  • 18. 18 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. This is where the top-down approach meets the bottom-up approach. We’re going to race through these three boxes for now, knowing we’re going to see them again later. observe summarize conceive develop identify audiences define tasks build use cases identify content organize
  • 19. 19 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. • Use cases describe typical scenarios or interactions that an actor (or group of actors) has with the system. • “Step 1: log on to claim system. Step 2: search for history on the coverage type in geography. Step 3: … “ • Workflows are processes in which a set of tasks intended to be automated are completed. Most workflow steps are associated with user and system roles responsible for performing the task. Build Detailed Use Cases Around Tasks and Audiences observe summarize conceive develop identify audiences define tasks build use cases identify content organize Normal Flow (Team Site Approval) 1. The User navigates to the source location of the content item in the document library on a Team Space (SharePoint 2007). From the Edit Menu, the User selects the option to “Promote to PCL Connects” (Custom) from the dropdown that appears. 2. The System copies the document from the source library in the team site to a staging library in PCL Connects. 3. The System displays a form (in a new window) containing properties for the document and prompts the User to enter the following information (unless auto-populated based on pre-defined data): Title of the document; Purpose of the document (description); …
  • 20. 20 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. • Once the process has been defined, consider the content and metadata that are required for the processes to be performed correctly. • “Claims data, policy information, underwriting standards, actuarial tables, fraud reports, etc.” • Content needs usually can be determined through interviews, working sessions, and observation. Card sorts are an easy way to brainstorm critical ideas. Identify Content Needed by Audiences in Specific Use Cases observe summarize conceive develop identify audiences define tasks build use cases identify content organize
  • 21. 21 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. • Arrange things that people need according to process, task, or other organizing principle. • “Begin with “is-ness.” What is the nature of the information? Then determine “about-ness,” the additional characteristics of the information. How would you tell apart 100 documents of that type?” • These “organizing structures” become the foundation for taxonomy. Develop Organizing Principles for Content observe summarize conceive develop identify audiences define tasks build use cases identify content organize
  • 22. 22 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Summary: User-Focused IA Process observe summarize conceive develop identify audiences define tasks build use cases identify content organize Process Step Answer the Following Examples Observe and gather data (pain) points What are the specific problems and challenges that users are identifying? “We can’t locate information about policies for specialty coverage.” “We need to look in multiple systems to find prior experience data when underwriting new policies in high risk areas.” “Different terminology is used in different systems, which makes queries difficult.” Summarize into themes What are the common elements to observations? How can symptoms and pains be classified according to overarching themes? inability to locate policy and underwriting information using common terminology Translate themes into conceptual solutions Wouldn’t it be great if we could…? We could access all policy and prior experience data across multiple systems using a single search query and return consistent results? Develop scenarios that comprise solutions What would a day in the life of a user look like if this solution were in place? At a high level, describe how underwriters go about their work in writing policies for specialty and high risk clients. Describe each potential situation and how they would go about their work Identify audiences who are impacted by scenarios Who are the users that are impacted? risk managers, underwriters, sales personnel Articulate tasks that audiences execute in scenarios What are the tasks that need to be executed in each scenario? For a given scenario, articulate tasks (research options, review loss history, locate supporting research, etc.) Build detailed use cases around tasks and audiences What are the specific steps to accomplish tasks? For a single task, list the steps to execute (this level of detail is not needed in all cases). Step 1: log on to claim system. Step 2: search for history on the coverage type in geography. Step 3: … Identify content needed by audiences in specific use cases What content and information is needed at each step in the process? Claims data, policy information, underwriting standards, actuarial tables, fraud reports, etc. Develop organizing principles for content Arrange the things they need according to process, task or other organizing principle Begin with “is-ness.” What is the nature of the information? Then determine “about-ness,” the additional characteristics of the information. How would you tell apart 100 documents of that type? taxonomy
  • 23. Earley & Associates, Inc. | Classification: CONFIDENTIAL USE, NO REPRINTS Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Information Architecture Process: Data-Focused Approach (bottom up)
  • 24. 24 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. ACME Consulting Enterprises Site Map What exactly do these represent? Is “Sales” a site collection? A site? A library? A list? A content type? A metadata field? A value?
  • 25. 25 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Building Taxonomy from Bottom Up Taxonomy starts as a collection of terms… …that becomes translated into design elements through a structured process.
  • 26. 26 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. • Audit and inventory existing content • Build taxonomy by finding patterns in the content • Figure out the metadata you need • Develop content models • Fit metadata models to the users’ mental models • Build site maps (and site navigation) • Construct wireframes Data-Focused IA (Bottom Up) content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes
  • 27. 27 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Audit and Inventory Existing Content content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes • Discuss with users • Brainstorm on locations • Determine how and where people access content Initial determination of content • Determine amounts • Determine types • Determine condition • Amount of redundant, outdated and trivial content Sample content from across repositories (audit) • Use automated processes to itemize all content • Look for reusable organizing principles • Look for patterns • Determine ownership Inventory all content in scope • Remove outdated content • Determine migration approach • Identify highest value information Clean up and triage
  • 28. 28 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Content Audit Example content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes
  • 29. 29 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Finding Patterns in the Content Determine Basics • Locate content: Where is the content now? • Identify all creators, sources, consumers • Determine quantities • Verify importance (quantity and value) Name, describe & prioritize • Name the content type (press release, case file, product description, etc.) • Assign an ID • Deduce any internal structure Consolidate across types • Are the element names and types consistent? • Are your types mutually exclusive? • Do they cover the bulk of the content available? • What is the nature of any exceptions? content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes
  • 30. 30 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. • Taxonomy is a system for organizing concepts and categorizing content  Expresses hierarchical relationships (parent/child)  Arranged in a tree-like structure, with top level categories that branch out to reveal sub- categories and terms in varying levels of depth  Dictionary of preferred terminology Taxonomy: The Foundation for Information Architecture Products Games Card games Action figures Board games Brands Hasbro Scrabble Disney Battleship content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes Sample taxonomy record Car SYN: Automobile Vehicle fr-CA: Voiture en-UK: Auto es-CO: Carro Synonyms Translations and regional variants Preferred term
  • 31. 31 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Types of Taxonomy Relationships Used in thesauri. Also called “entry types” of terms. Synonyms. Things that are related conceptually. Associative relation types are context and audience specific. This is how we might relate multiple taxonomies. Purist definition of a taxonomy – terms have parent/child relationship. Equivalence Hierarchical Associative Increasing complexity content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes
  • 32. 32 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Relationship Types Types of Taxonomy Relationships (example) E E ? A ? ?H H A E Equivalence H Hierarchical A Associative Computer Manufacturers International Business Machines IBM Software Group Big Blue Hardware Software content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes
  • 33. 33 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. What Are Metadata? Metadata are data that articulate context & meaning about something. • Implicit Metadata:  System generated properties about the piece of content (e.g. file format, file size, created date, created by, modified date, modified by) • Explicit Metadata:  Metadata created to add context to a piece of content and applied through auto- classification, folksonomy and/or taxonomy. (e.g. subject/topic, document type, publishing status, • Metadata is essential for enriching context on unstructured content. It must have a purpose, and it must be able to be acted upon in order to satisfy a specific information need. content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes
  • 34. 34 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Taxonomy & Metadata content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes Date created Product SKU Product category Metadata fields (Content Model) Product name Asset Dispatch consoles May-15-2011 10985702889 DC-100 Metadata values Product categories Dispatch Dispatch consoles Phones Logging recorders Taxonomy Product names DC Series DC-100 DR Series Asset
  • 35. 35 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Example: Metadata Controlled by Taxonomy NiMH n/a n/a n/a Nickel Metal Hydrate n/a n/a n/a NiMh Battery type Battery chemistry Battery Battery type NiMH NiMH NiMH afterbefore content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes
  • 36. 36 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Three Flavors of Metadata content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes StructuralAdministrativeDescriptive Explicit Metadata Can Apply in Any Category Subject Title Description Document_type Date_created File_type Publication_status Review_type Is_part_of Requires Parent-object
  • 37. 37 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Figure Out the Metadata You Need (and then build taxonomy) 1. Identify a core set of metadata attributes common to all types of content. These can include Title, Created By Date, Owner, Document Type, etc. 2. Conduct a content audit to understand what various types of content exist. With each type discovered, note any unique characteristics. 3. Think about different ways to describe each type: 1. Content lifecycle 2. Inherent nature of content itself 3. When used (created or accessed) 4. Audience tasks (when needed) NOTE: The final step requires stakeholder involvement (both authors & consumers). content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes
  • 38. 38 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Content Models (Content Types) • Content is structured with body information and a wrapper that formats and tags that information (metadata). • Metadata are the is-ness and about-ness of a piece of content. Definitions • Content object model refers to a specific model for a set of document types. • Content model is the overall framework that describes content and its associated properties. (In other words, a content model includes multiple content object models.) • Sometimes these terms are used interchangeably. content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes Date created Product SKU Product category Product name
  • 39. 39 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Content Models (Content Types) content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes • Web pages are assembled from items of content types, which are comprised of metadata elements. title author doc_id date doc_type product name product features promotion ID FAQ Product Press release Specification Promotion Taxonomy Antenna Bluetooth ® Camera GPS Navigation Product Page product category content ID promotion type content ID date date related product content ID date standard header product content type promotion content type related products content type
  • 40. 40 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Content Models Are Built Upon a Core Content Type content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes
  • 41. 41 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Deriving a Content Model • Determine the means to access content. • Understand the target process: What capability is being developed? • Determine information sources and uses for the target process. • Define content lifecycle for each type of information in your process. • Identify the structure of each type of information – how will one class of information differ from another? • How is content used? Who is using the content? • Given 1000 documents of the same type of information, how would you tell them apart? • How will content review processes differ according to the needs of the organization? content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes
  • 42. 42 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Metadata Models content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes • Knowledge about metadata can be modeled in a spreadsheet. • This level of detail may be required for implementation.
  • 43. 43 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. This is where the bottom-up approach meets the top-down approach… Mental modeling includes: • requirements analysis • personas • task analysis • use cases • scenarios • personalization design …and here is where construction begins. content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes
  • 44. 44 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. How Well Do the Data Fit the Users’ Mental Model? • Steps to modeling people and tasks:  identify audiences (user roles and groups)  model individual users (personas)  determine tasks (processes and interactions)  determine content required to support tasks • Many different methods for understanding users:  interviews  surveys  working sessions  observation/shadowing  search log analysis  content review  content/task/audience analysis content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes
  • 45. 45 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Requirements Analysis • Data and observations from multiple sources can be summarized into key themes. • AHEM: This should look familiar! See slide “Observe and Gather Data Points.” With the user-focused approach to IA, we started here! content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes
  • 46. 46 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Gap Analysis content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes ContentArchitecture Desired Capability Gap Current State Assessment Preliminary Gap Closing Actions 27. Information is secure and only available to people with authorized access. Major Gap People have access to restricted information (electronic and paper), access permissions are not aligned with sensitivity policies. Ensure that access control lists and permissions align with information sensitivity policies. 28. Trust in the currency and integrity of a record. Major Gap No consistent processes, methods and controls for versioning documents, removing duplicate copies, and managing document lifecycle state. Develop clear and effective version control policies, procedures, and methods, and document lifecycle metadata. Configure and utilize ECM version control and lifecycle mechanisms. Educate employees. 29. Master Data is harmonized across systems Gap No common language or framework for describing data across various systems to enable aggregating and analyzing data. Develop a mapping / ontology of data across systems that need to be aggregated for analysis (BI), reporting, dashboards. 30. Documents have the necessary metadata to facilitate access control, retrieval, retention, and destruction. Gap Inconsistent definition and use of metadata. Develop a master metadata schema (mapped to content types) that can be used for both physical records and electronic content. Configure and utilize ECM application (DL, SharePoint) mechanisms to populate metadata. Use authoritative sources to populate metadata. 31. We do not recreate content for different media or publications - we create once and reuse. Major Gap Video and photos are repurposed on an ad hoc basis. Sites are locally created and managed. Implement DAM. Implement Web Content Management. Redesign content creation processes to facilitate content reuse. Develop reuse metrics and monitor performance 32. Able to predict and control the growth of electronic and physical storage. Major Gap No measurements or metrics in place. Develop KPMs for physical and electronic storage and archive. Identify key areas of need and develop countermeasures. Target areas of major growth fn physical storage for movement to electronic solutions. Compare user requirements with the data model to measure current state.
  • 47. 47 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Personas content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes • Personas are representations of users  Fictitious archetype of a person  Embodies various characteristic, attitudes and quirks  Includes lifestyle, education, demographics  Can have multiple personas for a particular role or user type • Apply knowledge about personas to the taxonomy:  differences in terminology and controlled vocabulary  differences in categorization (within a uniform collection)  differences in association, relatedness  differences overall approaches • Taking the long view:  multiple audience-driven entry points  anticipatory navigation, suggestion  building up the It thinks how I think impression
  • 48. 48 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. • Personal Profile • Ben Armstrong knows he’s a lucky guy, since most of his life he’s been able to get by without a larger “life plan” in place. • When it came time to select a college, Ben chose the arts program at NYU not because of its reputation, but because it was relatively close by and he liked art. He wasn’t sure if he wanted to make it his career, but he was willing to give it a shot. • It was a savvy choice, not for what it taught him, but for the two people he met while he was there. The first was his friend Todd, the other was his future wife Sandy. Ken realized that while Todd wasn’t much of a painter, he had a fantastic eye for emerging talent. When Todd offered him a position managing his new gallery, Ben didn’t even think twice. Turns out that Todd was right, and the gallery has been growing increasingly more successful. • Despite the gallery’s growing success, Sandy is definitely the breadwinner of the Armstrong household. Since she is usually either involved with her career or the children, Sandy has ceded control of the family’s finances to Ben, which he’s handled capably, if not entirely intuitively. He’s wary of overspending, but will occasionally splurge on “fun” items such as toys for the kids or a Calphalon pot for the kitchen. • Although technologically facile, Ben only uses the family computer when he has to. He doesn’t delve very deeply into search results, preferring to settle on something that’s “good enough” to match most of what he’s looking for. Ben Armstrong Domestic Consumer “I want technology to enhance, not define, my life.” background • 27-year-old, married, man, 2 young children, Democrat • BFA in Art from NYU. Works as a gallery manager in Manhattan; owns a 2BR apartment in Hoboken. Does not own a car. • Wife works in publishing • $150K combined income / $160K net worth ($100K in home equity) • Hobbies: High-end audio, fan of new music and vinyl • Favorite Web sites: Salon, Food Network, Yahoo! Ticker, Gorp.com, Bank of New York. Has a PayPal account. attributes • Somewhat afraid of risk; can be impulsive if sure of something • Investigates only a few competing web service options • Prefers human rather than online experiences site needs • Values an aesthetic user experience • Sophisticated back-end functionality that minimizes the need for further research • Informative, relevant information that quickly explains and defines his needs • Appreciates highly personalized on-line experience • Unaware of privacy and security issues • Ability for site to grow as his relationship with it matures Featured Scenario: Scenario Feature Behavior Although he’d been trying to avoid it, Ben has come to the realization that he really needs to research his family’s insurance needs. This is mostly due to the fact that his friend Todd, the owner of the gallery where Ben works, was shocked when Ben told him that he didn’t have life insurance. “How can you not have life insurance,” Todd asked. “You’ve got two kids!” During some downtime in the afternoon, Ben uses the gallery’s computer to see what he can find out about financial planning in general, and life insurance in particular. • Ben does a Google search on “life insurance” • Among the returned links are insurance information sites and providers; primary among them is ABC • He clicks on the link to abc.com • Ben types “life insurance” in the Search field • Site presents Ben with life stages information and a “total insurance and financial plan.” Ben prints these so that he can show Ken. • On a lark, Ben performs a Google search on “ABC agent” and notes that one has an e-mail address. He quickly shoots an e-mail to that broker with a request for info. • Ben runs his info by Todd to validate he is on the right track. He also phones and picks the brain of the agent he e-mailed, though he has no intention of purchasing insurance at that time. • Three months later, while watching Trading Spaces, Ben sees an ABC commercial, reminds himself of his needs for Insurance, and calls his broker back the next day! Alternative Scenarios • Ben decides to get started on a comprehensive financial plan • Ben, in a follow-up visit to abc.com, is cross-sold homeowners insurance • Ben is already a customer • Ben has an auto policy with ABC, and needs to make a claim “Understand, educate and transact on the customer’s terms” • Persistent information • Has own “account,” like he has with his bank • Audience segmentation, well-managed content • Easy access to offline resources • Optimized search • Value-added calculators & other widgets Ben finds and uses the abc.com website to learn about his family insurance needs Audience: Consumer Country: USA Language: English Personas
  • 49. 49 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Task Analysis content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes • Audiences need content to support their tasks.
  • 50. 50 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Task Analysis content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes Approximately 100 tasks plus several not covered
  • 51. 51 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Task Analysis content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes
  • 52. 52 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Use Cases and User Scenarios • Users can be identified by their characteristics, tendencies, preferences, and aptitudes through the development of user profiles and personas. • A profile is a description of a user role based on their job tasks and objectives. • A persona is a description of their personality and details of their lifestyle. • Use cases are specific, step-by-step interactions with a system. • A scenario is a day-in-the-life, higher-level description of the things that users need to accomplish. content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes
  • 53. 53 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Workflow and Process • Use cases provide step-by-step instructions. They describe how each type of user interacts with an application. They are also depicted as diagrams that visualize the steps and paths needed to complete a task... • Use cases can be used to test the ability to locate specific content through labeling, hierarchy, and faceted keyword search. content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes
  • 54. 54 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Example Scenario content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes
  • 55. 55 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Example Use Case content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes
  • 56. 56 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Audience Analysis & Personalization • Active personalization design (by role): Pull of content to users based on personal preference • Passive personalization design (by role): Push of predefined content targeted to users based on audience content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes Matrix included: • Role Mapping • Applicable Systems • Preferred Content Types • Topical Interests • Required Content • Related Roles
  • 57. 57 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Example of Active Personalization content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes User Selected Preferences
  • 58. 58 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Construction begins. content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes Step Approach Output Design Artifact 1. Arrange and cluster terms Post it note exercise, term generation, card sort and clustering Navigational representation of content Site map* 2. Contextualize terms Link scenarios to terms Conceptual representation of terms Annotated site map 3. Create concept map around scenarios Mind mapping Conceptual representation of themes and attributes Mind map 4. Translate overarching theme into design constructs Determine central theme and questions that a user seeks to answer Mock up of user interaction and flow Storyboard 5. Condense story boards into wireframes Arrange themes into pages and attributes as search/navigational elements Search, Navigation and Attribute interaction Wireframe
  • 59. 59 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Term Generation, Clustering and Card Sorting content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes
  • 60. 60 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Clustering/Grouping content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes Goal is to have users group like types of content together in meaningful ways. Provide an intuitive, unambiguous and meaningful name for the group of content
  • 61. 61 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. • Site maps provide a visual illustration of the logical organization of site content. • They can also serve as the basis for global navigation (and global context). Site Map Design & Global Navigation content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes Named Cluster
  • 62. 62 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Wireframes • Wireframes are a visual representation of how features, functionality, and content will appear in the user interface.  Common elements  Navigation  Taxonomy integration  Libraries and views  Search experience content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes
  • 63. 63 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Wireframes • Wireframes are a visual representation of how features, functionality, and content will appear in the user interface (e.g., page templates).  common elements  navigation  taxonomy integration  libraries and views  search experience There are many different ways to create wireframes, because the primary goal is idea communication. content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes
  • 64. 64 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Concept Modeling content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes
  • 65. 65 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Summary • Taxonomy and metadata provide the foundation for user experience • User experience is at the intersection of content models and user intent • Use cases and user scenarios help to define the mental model of our audience • Site maps are the physical representation of navigation • Wireframes illustrate where all of the elements come together to present content in context supporting user tasks • Starting with the correct foundation will allow for meaningful development of the user experience content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes
  • 66. 66 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. SharePoint Information Architecture Updated for 2013 • The Information Architecture Process  User Research & Requirements Gathering  Audience and Process Analysis  Roles, Responsibilities, Use cases, Personas and scenario development • Managed Metadata and the Term Store  Metadata Schemas and Taxonomy Development  Creating Managing and Term Sets  Using the Term Store for Navigation  Term Driven Pages • Creating and Leveraging Content Types  Properties (Site Columns, Workflow, IM Policies)  Content Modeling  Document Library Construction • Wireframes and the User Experience  Aligning Use Cases with Content  Developing Wireframes for Navigation and Search • Designing Search Based Applications  Result sources, Query rules, Result templates  Linguistic Processing  Search Metrics Location Date Arlington, VA March 13-15 Boston (Metro) May 8-10 3-Day Hands-on Course
  • 67. 67 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Whitepapers http://info.earley.com/what-is-the-business- value-of-taxonomy/ Digital Asset Management http://info.earley.com/download-whitepaper- critical-success-for-dam-project/ Information Supply Chain http://info.earley.com/retail-whitepaper-use- taxonomy-to-optimize-retail-information-supply- chain/ Get it here: Other Whitepaper Topics The Role of Taxonomy & Metadata in Search http://info.earley.com/taxonomy-metadata- search-whitepaper-request-download/
  • 68. 68 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Contact Seth Earley CEO _____________________________ EARLEY & ASSOCIATES, Inc. Cell: 781-820-8080 Email: seth@earley.com Web: www.earley.com Follow me on twitter: @sethearley Connect with me on LinkedIn: www.linkedin.com/in/sethearley

Editor's Notes

  1. Content Choreography: Speak to definition on Slide 2 – other points are background for Q&A onlyDefinition: Earley & Associate’s proprietary methodology for dynamic web content presentation and search result relevancyBusiness Value: Provides a repeatable set of processes and frameworks for ensuring that retrieved content is relevant, fresh, and interesting without requiring custom crafting and manual maintenance of web pagesKey Enablers: Taxonomy, metadata, semantic search, business logic, auto-classification