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Oracle Real Application Cluster

Satishbabu Gunukula
12+ Years of Experience in Oracle, SQLServer Database Technologies
Oracle Certified Professional Oracle 8i,9i,10g
Oracle Certified Expert Oracle 10g RAC
http://www.oracleracexpert.com
Objective
•   What is Real Application Cluster?
•   Oracle Cluster Benefits & Components
•   Oracle Cluster Ready Services
•   Interconnect & Cache fusion
•   Oracle RAC Database & ASM
•   Transparent Application Failover (TAF)
•   Backup & Recovery
•   New Features in Oracle 11g RAC
What is Real Application Cluster
•   Lower Cost
•   Scalability
•   High Availability
•   Ease Of Administration
•   Transparent to users
•   GRID computing
•   More than one instance per database.
•   Instances are running on different nodes.
•   Instances on different nodes writes to the same physical
    Database
What is Real Application Cluster
• Control file, Data files, Temp Files and Spfiles are on a
  shared storage
• Shared storage may have a Clustered file system or ASM
  or Raw Volumes
• Every Instance will have its own redo log files and Undo
  segments
• Every Instance has its own background process
• All Cache (Data Buffer,Library ,Data Dictionary ) are
  synchronized by Cache Fusion and resources managed
  globally
• Backup and Recovery databases from any instance in the
  Cluster.
What is Real Application Cluster
• Sessions failover using Transparent Application Failover
  (TAF)
• Users can connect to any active instance (load balance)
• Additional waits due to interconnect traffic
     Node1                                           Node2
         Instance 1                                    Instance 2
        Archived Logs                                 Archived Logs
       (Local Storage)                               (Local Storage)

     Undo Tablespace               Data Files       Undo Tables pace
     for Instance 1               Temp Files        for Instance 2
                                  Control Files

      Online Redo log       Flash Recovery AreaFiles Online Redo log
     files for Instance 1       Change Tracking File files for Instance2
                                     Spfile

                              Shared Storage
Shared Storage
Shared store is very critical component in Oracle RAC. Both
SAN/NAS are supported.
• Supported file storage
       - Raw volumes
       - Cluster File system(Oracle ACFS,OCFS,OCFS2)
       - Oracle ASM (Automatic Storage Management)
       - Direct NFS (new feature in 11g)
• Physical Connections to shared storage
       - Fully redundant active –active IO paths
• For iSCSI - Fully redundant IO paths for iSCSI with multiple
  NIC card each server and Gigabit Ethernet switches.
Shared Storage
Oracle Clusterware
• Oracle Clusterware enables servers to communicate
  with each other
• Each server in cluster has addition processes that
  communicate with other servers.
• Oracle clusterware manages the resources, such as
  Virtual IP
  Addresses, Instances, databases, listeners, services..etc.
• You can also use Oracle Clusterware to manage the user
  applications.
Benefits of using Cluster
• Scalability of Applications
• Use of less expensive commodity hardware
• Ability of failover
• Ability to program the startup of applications in planned
  order
• Ability to monitor processes
• Ability to restart the process if they stop
• Ability to increase capacity over time by adding servers
Oracle Clusterware Benefits

• Eliminate unplanned downtime
• Reduce or eliminate planned downtime for maintenance
• Increase throughput by enabling applications to run on
  all the nodes in a cluster
• Increase the throughput on demand for clustware
  applications by adding serves
• Reduce the total cost for infrastructure
Oracle clusterware components
• Software components
    Voting Disk- Oracle clusterware uses this component to
     determine the which nodes are members of a cluster
    Oracle Cluster Registry(OCR) – Oracle clusterware uses OCR to
     sore and mange information about high-availability
     components in the cluster, such as cluster node list, cluster
     database instance to node mapping, VIP address, services and
     applications.
• Both Vote and OCR must reside on shared storage that is
  accessible by all nodes in a cluster
• At least 3 voting disks and maximum of 15 disks
• To ensure high availability multiplex OCR location up to 5
  locations
Oracle clusterware Network Config
• The VIP addresses must be resolved by the clients. The
  (Grid Naming Service) GNS is linked to the corporate
  Domain Name Service (DNS) so that clients can easily
  connect to the cluster and the databases running there
• Single Client Access Name (SCAN) - The SCAN is a single
  name that resolves to three IP addresses in the public
  network. When using GNS and DHCP, Oracle Clusterware
  configures the VIP addresses for the SCAN name that is
  provided during cluster configuration
• Oracle 11g R2 supports the use of DHCP for all private
  interconnect addresses, as well as for most of the VIP
  addresses.
Interconnects
• Cluster Interconnect is very important private network
  used for communication between all other nodes
• Network pings are performed by Cluster Synchronization
  Services (ocssd.bin)
• Connected via switch to other nodes
• New wait events due to traffic over interconnect
• Enhanced technology has helped Cache Fusion
• You can use OS dependent methods like Bonding on
  Unix and teaming on Windows
• OS independent redundant interconnect available from
  11.2.0.2 onwards (Not on Windows)
Cache Fusion
• Cache coherency is the technique used to keep multiple
  copies of a block consistent between different oracle
  instance.
• GCS implements the cache coherency by using Cache
  fusion algorithm
• GES maintains all non-cache fusion resource operations
• Cache Fusion addresses several types of concurrency as
  below:
   – Concurrent Reads on Multiple Nodes
   – Concurrent Reads and Writes on Different Nodes
   – Concurrent Writes on Different Nodes
• Cache Fusion partially implemented in Oracle 8i OPS
Cache Fusion
• Request a block for a Modification




1. Instance1 submits a request to GCS to modify the block.
2. The GCS transmits the request to the holder, i.e. instance 2
3. Instance 2 receives the request message and the LMS process
   sends the block to instance 1.
4. On receipt of the block, instance 1 informs the GCS that it holds
   the block in exclusive mode
Cache Fusion
• Write a Block to Disk




1.   Instance2 sends a request to GCS to write block to disk
2.   The GCS forwards the request to instance 1
3.   Instance 1 receives the request and writes the block to disk.
4.   Instance 1 notifies the write operation to GCS
5.   After receipt of notification GCS orders PI holders to discard their
     PI’s
Block Access and Buffer states
• To see a buffer's state, query the STATUS column of the
  V$BH dynamic performance view.
• Block access mode - NULL and buffer state name – CR
   – An instance can perform a consistent read of the block. That is, if the instance
     holds an older version of the data.
• Block access mode -S and buffer state name – SCUR
   – An instance has shared access to the block and can only perform
     reads.
• Block access mode - X and buffer state name – XCUR
   – An instance has exclusive access to the block and can modify it.
• Block access mode - NULL and buffer state name is – PI
   – An instance has made changes to the block but retains copies of
     it as past images to record its state before changes.
Block Access and Buffer states
• SCUR and PI buffer states are RAC specific
• There can be only one copy of any one block buffered in the XCUR
  state
• To perform modifications on a block, a process must assign an
  XCUR buffer state to the buffer containing the data block.
Cluster ready services
Below processes must run after CRS installation In order for
Cluster Ready Services to function
• evmd -- Event manager daemon that starts the racgevt
   process to manage callouts.
• ocssd -- Manages cluster node membership and runs as
   oracle user; failure of this process results in cluster
   restart.
• crsd -- Performs high availability recovery and
   management operations such as maintaining the OCR.
   Also manages application resources and runs as root
   user and restarts automatically upon failure.
Oracle Clusterware Stack
Cluster ready service Stack
• Cluster Ready Services (CRS): For managing high
  availability operations in a cluster.
• Cluster Synchronization Services (CSS): Manages the
  cluster configuration by controlling which nodes are
  members of the cluster and by notifying members when
  a node joins or leaves the cluster.
• Automatic Storage Management (ASM): Provides disk
  management for Oracle Clusterware.
• Cluster Time Synchronization Service (CTSS): Provides
  time management in a cluster for Oracle Clusterware.
• Event Management (EVM): A background process that
  publishes events that Oracle Clusterware creates.
Cluster ready service Stack
• Oracle Notification Service (ONS): Publish and
  subscribes service for communicating Fast Application
  Notification (FAN) events.
• Oracle Agent (oraagent): To support Oracle-specific
  requirements and complex resources. Runs server
  callout scripts when FAN events occur. This process was
  known as RACG in Oracle11g R1
• Oracle Root Agent (orarootagent): oraagent process
  that helps crsd to manage resources owned by root,
  such as the network, and the Grid virtual IP address
High Availability Services Stack
• Grid Plug and Play (gpnpd): Provides access to the Grid
  Plug and Play profile, and coordinates updates to the
  profile among the nodes of the cluster to ensure that all
  of the nodes node have the most recent profile.
• Grid Interprocess Communication (GIPC): A helper
  daemon for communications infrastructure. Currently
  has no functionality; to be activated in a later release.
• Multicast Domain Name Service (mDNS): Allows DNS
  requests. The mDNS process is a background process on
  Linux and UNIX, and a service on Windows.
• Oracle Grid Naming Service (GNS): A gateway between
  the cluster mDNS and external DNS servers. The gnsd
  process performs name resolution within the cluster.
RAC Database
• Use DBCA (Database Configuration Assistant) to create
  database and you can also configure listeners and
  Enterprise Manager
• Before you create Database
   – The Oracle Cluster Ready services must be installed and
     configured. Share disk must be in place.
   – If planning to use ASM then ASM resources should be available.
   – Oracle Database software must be installed
• DBCA Automatically recognized the cluster environment
  and will provide the options of configuring the RAC
  environment.
• If database created manually then use srvctl to register
  the database in the OCR
RAC Database
• Use DBCA (Database Configuration Assistant) to create
  database and you can also configure listeners and
  Enterprise Manager
• Before you create Database
   – The Oracle Cluster Ready services must be installed and
     configured. Share disk must be in place.
   – If planning to use ASM then ASM resources should be available.
   – Oracle Database software must be installed
• DBCA Automatically recognized the cluster environment
  and will provide the options of configuring the RAC
  environment.
• If database created manually then use srvctl to register
  the database in the OCR
RAC Specific Background Processes
• LMON: Global Enque Service Monitor
   – Maintains instance membership within Oracle RAC.
   – All non-cache fusion interinstance resource
     operations
   – The process detects instance transitions and
     performs reconfiguration of GES and GCS resources.
• LMD: Global Enque Service Demon
   – Manages incoming enqueue request messages and
     controls access to global enqueues.
   – It also performs distributed deadlock detections
• Global Cache Service and Global enqueue service
  manages Global Resource Directory (GRD)
RAC Specific Background Processes
• LMSx: Global Cache Service Processes, where x can be 0
  to 10
   – Managing the resource requests and cross-instance
     call operation
   – block transfers and other GCS-related messages
• LCKx: Lock processes
   – This process manages the global enqueue requests
     and the cross-instance broadcast
• DIAG : Diagnosability process
   – Monitors the health of the instance and captures the
     data for process failures
Automatic Storage Management(ASM)
 • ASM provides portable and high performance database file
   system and simplifies database administration
 • ASM spread data across the disks and distributes I/O load
   across all available resources to optimize performance
 • ASM provides integrated mirroring across disks
 • Dynamically add the space without shutdown of the
   database
 • It is advised to use separate ORACLE_HOME for ASM install
 • You can configure the ASM using DBCA
 • A separate instance (ASM) starts in order to manage ASM
   disks, resources and connectivity
 • Both ASM and Database instances have access to common
   set of disks called disk groups
ASM background processes
ASM background Process
• ARBn : Performs the actual rebalance data extent movements in an
  Automatic Storage Management instance. More than one process
  can run at a time, named ARB0, ARB1, and so on.
• ASMB : Runs in a database instance that is using an ASM disk group
  and communicates with the ASM instance in managing storage and
  providing statistics.
• GMON: Maintains disk membership in ASM disk groups.
• MARK: This process marks ASM allocation units as stale following a
  missed write to an offline disk. This essentially tracks which extents
  require resync for offline disks.
• RBAL: This process runs in both database and ASM instances. In the
  database instance, it does a global open of ASM disks and in an ASM
  instance, it also coordinates rebalance activity for disk groups
New initialization parameters
Unique parameters in RAC Instance
• instance_name- Specifies the unique name of this instance
• instance_number- Specifies the unique number that maps to
  instance
• thread – Specifies the number of the redo thread used by the
  instance
Non-Unique parameters in RAC Instance
• cluster_database – specifies weather RAC enabled or not
• cluster_database_instance – equal to the number of instances in a
  cluster
• cluster_interconnects – Specifies the additional interconnects
  available for use
• active_instance_count– specifies the number of instances that will
  be active within a cluster
New parameters
• remote_listener -specifies a network name that resolves to an
  address or address list of Oracle Net remote listeners
• local_listener - specifies a network name that resolves to an address
  or address list of Oracle Net local listeners
Parameters in ASM Instance
• instance_type – This parameter must be set to ASM
• asm_diskgroups – lists the name of the disk groups that will be
  mounted by ASM instance
• asm_diskstring – This parameter limits the set of disks that ASM
  consider for discovery
• asm_power_limit – specifies the Maximum power on an ASN
  instance for disk rebalance operations
• asm_preferred_read_failure_groups - specifies the failure groups
  that contain preferred read disks
Transparent Application Failover(TAF)
• Transparent Application Failover (TAF) is a client-side
  feature that allows for clients to reconnect to surviving
  nodes in the event of a failure of an instance.
• The reconnect happens automatically from within the
  OCI (Oracle Call Interface) library. Any uncommitted
  transactions are rolled back and server side program
  variables and session properties will be lost.
• In some case the select statements automatically re-
  executed on the new connection with the cursor
  positioned on the row on which it was positioned prior
  to the failover.
• The failover is configured in tnsnames.ora file, the TAF
  settings are placed in CONNECT_DATA section of the
  tnsnames.ora using FAILOVER_MODES parameters
TAF failover & load balance methods
• Failover modes
  - TYPE: TAF supports three types of failover types
  SESSION: If a user's connection is lost, SESSION failover establishes
  a new session automatically created for the user on the backup
  node. This type of failover does not attempt to recover selects
  SELECT: If the connection is lost, Oracle Net establishes a
  connection to another node and re-executes the SELECT
  statements with cursor positioned on the row on which it was
  positioned prior to the failover
  NONE: This setting is the default and failover functionality is
  provided. Use this setting to prevent failover.
  - METHOD: This parameters determines how failover
  occurs from the primary node to the backup node
  BASIC: Use this mode to establish connections at failover time, no
  work on the backup server until failover time
TAF failover & load balance methods
  PRECONNECT: Use this mode to pre-established connections.
  - RETRIES: Use this parameter to specify number of
  times to attempt to connect after a failover
  - DELAY: Use this parameter to Specify the amount of
  time in seconds to wait between connect attempts.
• LOAD_BALANCE:YES,NO,OFF,TRUE
• There are two methods of load balancing
  - Client load balancing - Distributes new connections
  among Oracle RAC nodes so that no one server is
  overloaded with connection requests
  - Server load balancing – Distributes processing
  workload among RAC nodes and new user session
  connection requests to the least loaded listener.
• For failover information query view GV$SESSION –
  failover_type,failover_method,failed_over
OCR & Vote Backup and Recovery
• Oracle recommends that you back up your OCR & voting
  disk after initial cluster creation
• OCR - There are two methods to backup OCR
 1. Automatically generated OCR backup files under
       $CRS_HOME/cdata/crs
 2. OCR export/logical backup
       # ocrconfig -export export_file_name
• Use ocrconfig to restore OCR from backup
  # ocrconfig –restore $CRS_HOME/cdata/crs/day.ocr
  or
  # ocrconfig –import export_file_name
• Vote –Use dd or ocopy command
  Backup - $ dd if=vote_disk_name of=backup_file_name
  Recovery- $ dd if=backup_file_name of=vote_disk_name
RAC Database Backup
• Backup RAC Database from any node in a Cluster
• You can take Full and incremental backup using RMAN
• You can backup to Tape,Disk and Cloud (using Media
  Management Library from Oracle 11g)
• You can use Flash Recovery Area(FRA) for your backups
• As a Best practice, the backup device should be shared
  between the nodes for easy recovery
• Perform backups of your RAC database using Enterprise
  Manager
• Scale up the Backup load onto multiple Instances of RAC
  RMAN> CONFIGURE DEVICE TYPE DISK PARALLELISM 2;
  RMAN> CONFIGURE CHANNEL C1 CONNECT ‘sys/xxxx@inst1’;
  RMAN> CONFIGURE CHANNEL C2 CONNECT ‘sys/xxx@Inst2’;
RAC Database Recovery
• Automatic instance recovery occurs for failed instances
  due to hardware or software problems
   – SMON Determines the block needed for recovery and Global
     Resource Directory (GRD) is forgen
   – GES remasters enqueues and GCS remasters the resources
   – Buffer space for recovery allocated and block not in recovery
     will be accessible, oracle performs roll forward recovery.
• As long as one instance survives, RAC performs instance
  recovery for any other failed instances
• In case of any Media failure recovery the database from
  any instance in the Cluster. After recovery manually start
  the other instance in cluster.
• If using Flashbak Recovery Area then you can SWTICH
  the database, in case of media recovery.
Performance tuning
• ADDM (Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor) is a
  performance monitor tool, which proactively monitors the
  performance and also captures RAC related issues
• The statistical data needed for diagnosis of a problem is
  saved in the Automatic Workload Repository (AWR).
• Oracle Database 10g uses a scheduled job,
  GATHER_STATS_JOB(GATHER_DATABASE_STATS_JOB_PROC
  ) to collect AWR statistics
• The ADDM Analyzed the data in AWR on regular basis to
  find the root cause of performance problems and provides
  recommendations to correct the problems.
• ADDM is enabled by default and is controlled by the
  STATISTICS_LEVEL initialization parameter. This parameter
  should be set to the TYPICAL or ALL to enable the ADDM,
  default setting is TYPICAL.
• For ADDM Analysis you can run addmrpt.sql
Performance tuning
• For AWR reports you can run awrrpt.sql, awrrpti.sql for
  RAC
• ADDM provides the following benefits:
   – Automatic performance diagnostic report every hour by default
   – Problem diagnosis based on decades of tuning expertise
   – Time-based quantification of problem impacts and
     recommendation benefits
   – Identification of root cause, not symptoms
   – Recommendations for treating the root causes of problems
   – Identification of non-problem areas of the system
   – Minimal overhead to the system during the diagnostic process
• The v$cache_transfer and v$file_cache_transfer views
  are used to examine RAC statistics
Performance tuning
•       In RAC, the global services directory processes is the
        most important tuning area. GSD is communicates
        through cluster interconnect. If cluster interconnects
        do not perform properly, the entire RAC will suffer no
        matter how well everything else is tuned.
•       The Global Enqueue Services (GES) and Global Cache
        Services (GCS) are the main process
•       Wait events can be divided as three categories
    –      1.Time-based event
    –      2.System-wide event
    –      3.Session wait
•       The major wait events in Oracle RAC are:
    –      gc cr request
    –      gc buffer busy
Performance tuning
•       The most important wait events for RAC include
        various categories, such as:
•       Block-oriented
    –     gc current block 2-way
    –     gc current block 3-way
    –     gc cr block 2-way
    –     gc cr block 3-way
•       Message-oriented
    –     gc current grant 2-way
    –     gc cr grant 2-way
•       Contention-oriented
    –     gc current block busy
    –     gc cr block busy
    –     gc current buffer busy
Performance tuning
•       Load-oriented
    –     gc current block congested
    –     gc cr block congested
Questions & Answers

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Understand oracle real application cluster

  • 1. Oracle Real Application Cluster Satishbabu Gunukula 12+ Years of Experience in Oracle, SQLServer Database Technologies Oracle Certified Professional Oracle 8i,9i,10g Oracle Certified Expert Oracle 10g RAC http://www.oracleracexpert.com
  • 2. Objective • What is Real Application Cluster? • Oracle Cluster Benefits & Components • Oracle Cluster Ready Services • Interconnect & Cache fusion • Oracle RAC Database & ASM • Transparent Application Failover (TAF) • Backup & Recovery • New Features in Oracle 11g RAC
  • 3. What is Real Application Cluster • Lower Cost • Scalability • High Availability • Ease Of Administration • Transparent to users • GRID computing • More than one instance per database. • Instances are running on different nodes. • Instances on different nodes writes to the same physical Database
  • 4. What is Real Application Cluster • Control file, Data files, Temp Files and Spfiles are on a shared storage • Shared storage may have a Clustered file system or ASM or Raw Volumes • Every Instance will have its own redo log files and Undo segments • Every Instance has its own background process • All Cache (Data Buffer,Library ,Data Dictionary ) are synchronized by Cache Fusion and resources managed globally • Backup and Recovery databases from any instance in the Cluster.
  • 5. What is Real Application Cluster • Sessions failover using Transparent Application Failover (TAF) • Users can connect to any active instance (load balance) • Additional waits due to interconnect traffic Node1 Node2 Instance 1 Instance 2 Archived Logs Archived Logs (Local Storage) (Local Storage) Undo Tablespace Data Files Undo Tables pace for Instance 1 Temp Files for Instance 2 Control Files Online Redo log Flash Recovery AreaFiles Online Redo log files for Instance 1 Change Tracking File files for Instance2 Spfile Shared Storage
  • 6. Shared Storage Shared store is very critical component in Oracle RAC. Both SAN/NAS are supported. • Supported file storage - Raw volumes - Cluster File system(Oracle ACFS,OCFS,OCFS2) - Oracle ASM (Automatic Storage Management) - Direct NFS (new feature in 11g) • Physical Connections to shared storage - Fully redundant active –active IO paths • For iSCSI - Fully redundant IO paths for iSCSI with multiple NIC card each server and Gigabit Ethernet switches.
  • 8. Oracle Clusterware • Oracle Clusterware enables servers to communicate with each other • Each server in cluster has addition processes that communicate with other servers. • Oracle clusterware manages the resources, such as Virtual IP Addresses, Instances, databases, listeners, services..etc. • You can also use Oracle Clusterware to manage the user applications.
  • 9. Benefits of using Cluster • Scalability of Applications • Use of less expensive commodity hardware • Ability of failover • Ability to program the startup of applications in planned order • Ability to monitor processes • Ability to restart the process if they stop • Ability to increase capacity over time by adding servers
  • 10. Oracle Clusterware Benefits • Eliminate unplanned downtime • Reduce or eliminate planned downtime for maintenance • Increase throughput by enabling applications to run on all the nodes in a cluster • Increase the throughput on demand for clustware applications by adding serves • Reduce the total cost for infrastructure
  • 11. Oracle clusterware components • Software components  Voting Disk- Oracle clusterware uses this component to determine the which nodes are members of a cluster  Oracle Cluster Registry(OCR) – Oracle clusterware uses OCR to sore and mange information about high-availability components in the cluster, such as cluster node list, cluster database instance to node mapping, VIP address, services and applications. • Both Vote and OCR must reside on shared storage that is accessible by all nodes in a cluster • At least 3 voting disks and maximum of 15 disks • To ensure high availability multiplex OCR location up to 5 locations
  • 12. Oracle clusterware Network Config • The VIP addresses must be resolved by the clients. The (Grid Naming Service) GNS is linked to the corporate Domain Name Service (DNS) so that clients can easily connect to the cluster and the databases running there • Single Client Access Name (SCAN) - The SCAN is a single name that resolves to three IP addresses in the public network. When using GNS and DHCP, Oracle Clusterware configures the VIP addresses for the SCAN name that is provided during cluster configuration • Oracle 11g R2 supports the use of DHCP for all private interconnect addresses, as well as for most of the VIP addresses.
  • 13. Interconnects • Cluster Interconnect is very important private network used for communication between all other nodes • Network pings are performed by Cluster Synchronization Services (ocssd.bin) • Connected via switch to other nodes • New wait events due to traffic over interconnect • Enhanced technology has helped Cache Fusion • You can use OS dependent methods like Bonding on Unix and teaming on Windows • OS independent redundant interconnect available from 11.2.0.2 onwards (Not on Windows)
  • 14. Cache Fusion • Cache coherency is the technique used to keep multiple copies of a block consistent between different oracle instance. • GCS implements the cache coherency by using Cache fusion algorithm • GES maintains all non-cache fusion resource operations • Cache Fusion addresses several types of concurrency as below: – Concurrent Reads on Multiple Nodes – Concurrent Reads and Writes on Different Nodes – Concurrent Writes on Different Nodes • Cache Fusion partially implemented in Oracle 8i OPS
  • 15. Cache Fusion • Request a block for a Modification 1. Instance1 submits a request to GCS to modify the block. 2. The GCS transmits the request to the holder, i.e. instance 2 3. Instance 2 receives the request message and the LMS process sends the block to instance 1. 4. On receipt of the block, instance 1 informs the GCS that it holds the block in exclusive mode
  • 16. Cache Fusion • Write a Block to Disk 1. Instance2 sends a request to GCS to write block to disk 2. The GCS forwards the request to instance 1 3. Instance 1 receives the request and writes the block to disk. 4. Instance 1 notifies the write operation to GCS 5. After receipt of notification GCS orders PI holders to discard their PI’s
  • 17. Block Access and Buffer states • To see a buffer's state, query the STATUS column of the V$BH dynamic performance view. • Block access mode - NULL and buffer state name – CR – An instance can perform a consistent read of the block. That is, if the instance holds an older version of the data. • Block access mode -S and buffer state name – SCUR – An instance has shared access to the block and can only perform reads. • Block access mode - X and buffer state name – XCUR – An instance has exclusive access to the block and can modify it. • Block access mode - NULL and buffer state name is – PI – An instance has made changes to the block but retains copies of it as past images to record its state before changes.
  • 18. Block Access and Buffer states • SCUR and PI buffer states are RAC specific • There can be only one copy of any one block buffered in the XCUR state • To perform modifications on a block, a process must assign an XCUR buffer state to the buffer containing the data block.
  • 19. Cluster ready services Below processes must run after CRS installation In order for Cluster Ready Services to function • evmd -- Event manager daemon that starts the racgevt process to manage callouts. • ocssd -- Manages cluster node membership and runs as oracle user; failure of this process results in cluster restart. • crsd -- Performs high availability recovery and management operations such as maintaining the OCR. Also manages application resources and runs as root user and restarts automatically upon failure.
  • 21. Cluster ready service Stack • Cluster Ready Services (CRS): For managing high availability operations in a cluster. • Cluster Synchronization Services (CSS): Manages the cluster configuration by controlling which nodes are members of the cluster and by notifying members when a node joins or leaves the cluster. • Automatic Storage Management (ASM): Provides disk management for Oracle Clusterware. • Cluster Time Synchronization Service (CTSS): Provides time management in a cluster for Oracle Clusterware. • Event Management (EVM): A background process that publishes events that Oracle Clusterware creates.
  • 22. Cluster ready service Stack • Oracle Notification Service (ONS): Publish and subscribes service for communicating Fast Application Notification (FAN) events. • Oracle Agent (oraagent): To support Oracle-specific requirements and complex resources. Runs server callout scripts when FAN events occur. This process was known as RACG in Oracle11g R1 • Oracle Root Agent (orarootagent): oraagent process that helps crsd to manage resources owned by root, such as the network, and the Grid virtual IP address
  • 23. High Availability Services Stack • Grid Plug and Play (gpnpd): Provides access to the Grid Plug and Play profile, and coordinates updates to the profile among the nodes of the cluster to ensure that all of the nodes node have the most recent profile. • Grid Interprocess Communication (GIPC): A helper daemon for communications infrastructure. Currently has no functionality; to be activated in a later release. • Multicast Domain Name Service (mDNS): Allows DNS requests. The mDNS process is a background process on Linux and UNIX, and a service on Windows. • Oracle Grid Naming Service (GNS): A gateway between the cluster mDNS and external DNS servers. The gnsd process performs name resolution within the cluster.
  • 24. RAC Database • Use DBCA (Database Configuration Assistant) to create database and you can also configure listeners and Enterprise Manager • Before you create Database – The Oracle Cluster Ready services must be installed and configured. Share disk must be in place. – If planning to use ASM then ASM resources should be available. – Oracle Database software must be installed • DBCA Automatically recognized the cluster environment and will provide the options of configuring the RAC environment. • If database created manually then use srvctl to register the database in the OCR
  • 25. RAC Database • Use DBCA (Database Configuration Assistant) to create database and you can also configure listeners and Enterprise Manager • Before you create Database – The Oracle Cluster Ready services must be installed and configured. Share disk must be in place. – If planning to use ASM then ASM resources should be available. – Oracle Database software must be installed • DBCA Automatically recognized the cluster environment and will provide the options of configuring the RAC environment. • If database created manually then use srvctl to register the database in the OCR
  • 26. RAC Specific Background Processes • LMON: Global Enque Service Monitor – Maintains instance membership within Oracle RAC. – All non-cache fusion interinstance resource operations – The process detects instance transitions and performs reconfiguration of GES and GCS resources. • LMD: Global Enque Service Demon – Manages incoming enqueue request messages and controls access to global enqueues. – It also performs distributed deadlock detections • Global Cache Service and Global enqueue service manages Global Resource Directory (GRD)
  • 27. RAC Specific Background Processes • LMSx: Global Cache Service Processes, where x can be 0 to 10 – Managing the resource requests and cross-instance call operation – block transfers and other GCS-related messages • LCKx: Lock processes – This process manages the global enqueue requests and the cross-instance broadcast • DIAG : Diagnosability process – Monitors the health of the instance and captures the data for process failures
  • 28. Automatic Storage Management(ASM) • ASM provides portable and high performance database file system and simplifies database administration • ASM spread data across the disks and distributes I/O load across all available resources to optimize performance • ASM provides integrated mirroring across disks • Dynamically add the space without shutdown of the database • It is advised to use separate ORACLE_HOME for ASM install • You can configure the ASM using DBCA • A separate instance (ASM) starts in order to manage ASM disks, resources and connectivity • Both ASM and Database instances have access to common set of disks called disk groups
  • 29. ASM background processes ASM background Process • ARBn : Performs the actual rebalance data extent movements in an Automatic Storage Management instance. More than one process can run at a time, named ARB0, ARB1, and so on. • ASMB : Runs in a database instance that is using an ASM disk group and communicates with the ASM instance in managing storage and providing statistics. • GMON: Maintains disk membership in ASM disk groups. • MARK: This process marks ASM allocation units as stale following a missed write to an offline disk. This essentially tracks which extents require resync for offline disks. • RBAL: This process runs in both database and ASM instances. In the database instance, it does a global open of ASM disks and in an ASM instance, it also coordinates rebalance activity for disk groups
  • 30. New initialization parameters Unique parameters in RAC Instance • instance_name- Specifies the unique name of this instance • instance_number- Specifies the unique number that maps to instance • thread – Specifies the number of the redo thread used by the instance Non-Unique parameters in RAC Instance • cluster_database – specifies weather RAC enabled or not • cluster_database_instance – equal to the number of instances in a cluster • cluster_interconnects – Specifies the additional interconnects available for use • active_instance_count– specifies the number of instances that will be active within a cluster
  • 31. New parameters • remote_listener -specifies a network name that resolves to an address or address list of Oracle Net remote listeners • local_listener - specifies a network name that resolves to an address or address list of Oracle Net local listeners Parameters in ASM Instance • instance_type – This parameter must be set to ASM • asm_diskgroups – lists the name of the disk groups that will be mounted by ASM instance • asm_diskstring – This parameter limits the set of disks that ASM consider for discovery • asm_power_limit – specifies the Maximum power on an ASN instance for disk rebalance operations • asm_preferred_read_failure_groups - specifies the failure groups that contain preferred read disks
  • 32. Transparent Application Failover(TAF) • Transparent Application Failover (TAF) is a client-side feature that allows for clients to reconnect to surviving nodes in the event of a failure of an instance. • The reconnect happens automatically from within the OCI (Oracle Call Interface) library. Any uncommitted transactions are rolled back and server side program variables and session properties will be lost. • In some case the select statements automatically re- executed on the new connection with the cursor positioned on the row on which it was positioned prior to the failover. • The failover is configured in tnsnames.ora file, the TAF settings are placed in CONNECT_DATA section of the tnsnames.ora using FAILOVER_MODES parameters
  • 33. TAF failover & load balance methods • Failover modes - TYPE: TAF supports three types of failover types SESSION: If a user's connection is lost, SESSION failover establishes a new session automatically created for the user on the backup node. This type of failover does not attempt to recover selects SELECT: If the connection is lost, Oracle Net establishes a connection to another node and re-executes the SELECT statements with cursor positioned on the row on which it was positioned prior to the failover NONE: This setting is the default and failover functionality is provided. Use this setting to prevent failover. - METHOD: This parameters determines how failover occurs from the primary node to the backup node BASIC: Use this mode to establish connections at failover time, no work on the backup server until failover time
  • 34. TAF failover & load balance methods PRECONNECT: Use this mode to pre-established connections. - RETRIES: Use this parameter to specify number of times to attempt to connect after a failover - DELAY: Use this parameter to Specify the amount of time in seconds to wait between connect attempts. • LOAD_BALANCE:YES,NO,OFF,TRUE • There are two methods of load balancing - Client load balancing - Distributes new connections among Oracle RAC nodes so that no one server is overloaded with connection requests - Server load balancing – Distributes processing workload among RAC nodes and new user session connection requests to the least loaded listener. • For failover information query view GV$SESSION – failover_type,failover_method,failed_over
  • 35. OCR & Vote Backup and Recovery • Oracle recommends that you back up your OCR & voting disk after initial cluster creation • OCR - There are two methods to backup OCR 1. Automatically generated OCR backup files under $CRS_HOME/cdata/crs 2. OCR export/logical backup # ocrconfig -export export_file_name • Use ocrconfig to restore OCR from backup # ocrconfig –restore $CRS_HOME/cdata/crs/day.ocr or # ocrconfig –import export_file_name • Vote –Use dd or ocopy command Backup - $ dd if=vote_disk_name of=backup_file_name Recovery- $ dd if=backup_file_name of=vote_disk_name
  • 36. RAC Database Backup • Backup RAC Database from any node in a Cluster • You can take Full and incremental backup using RMAN • You can backup to Tape,Disk and Cloud (using Media Management Library from Oracle 11g) • You can use Flash Recovery Area(FRA) for your backups • As a Best practice, the backup device should be shared between the nodes for easy recovery • Perform backups of your RAC database using Enterprise Manager • Scale up the Backup load onto multiple Instances of RAC RMAN> CONFIGURE DEVICE TYPE DISK PARALLELISM 2; RMAN> CONFIGURE CHANNEL C1 CONNECT ‘sys/xxxx@inst1’; RMAN> CONFIGURE CHANNEL C2 CONNECT ‘sys/xxx@Inst2’;
  • 37. RAC Database Recovery • Automatic instance recovery occurs for failed instances due to hardware or software problems – SMON Determines the block needed for recovery and Global Resource Directory (GRD) is forgen – GES remasters enqueues and GCS remasters the resources – Buffer space for recovery allocated and block not in recovery will be accessible, oracle performs roll forward recovery. • As long as one instance survives, RAC performs instance recovery for any other failed instances • In case of any Media failure recovery the database from any instance in the Cluster. After recovery manually start the other instance in cluster. • If using Flashbak Recovery Area then you can SWTICH the database, in case of media recovery.
  • 38. Performance tuning • ADDM (Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor) is a performance monitor tool, which proactively monitors the performance and also captures RAC related issues • The statistical data needed for diagnosis of a problem is saved in the Automatic Workload Repository (AWR). • Oracle Database 10g uses a scheduled job, GATHER_STATS_JOB(GATHER_DATABASE_STATS_JOB_PROC ) to collect AWR statistics • The ADDM Analyzed the data in AWR on regular basis to find the root cause of performance problems and provides recommendations to correct the problems. • ADDM is enabled by default and is controlled by the STATISTICS_LEVEL initialization parameter. This parameter should be set to the TYPICAL or ALL to enable the ADDM, default setting is TYPICAL. • For ADDM Analysis you can run addmrpt.sql
  • 39. Performance tuning • For AWR reports you can run awrrpt.sql, awrrpti.sql for RAC • ADDM provides the following benefits: – Automatic performance diagnostic report every hour by default – Problem diagnosis based on decades of tuning expertise – Time-based quantification of problem impacts and recommendation benefits – Identification of root cause, not symptoms – Recommendations for treating the root causes of problems – Identification of non-problem areas of the system – Minimal overhead to the system during the diagnostic process • The v$cache_transfer and v$file_cache_transfer views are used to examine RAC statistics
  • 40. Performance tuning • In RAC, the global services directory processes is the most important tuning area. GSD is communicates through cluster interconnect. If cluster interconnects do not perform properly, the entire RAC will suffer no matter how well everything else is tuned. • The Global Enqueue Services (GES) and Global Cache Services (GCS) are the main process • Wait events can be divided as three categories – 1.Time-based event – 2.System-wide event – 3.Session wait • The major wait events in Oracle RAC are: – gc cr request – gc buffer busy
  • 41. Performance tuning • The most important wait events for RAC include various categories, such as: • Block-oriented – gc current block 2-way – gc current block 3-way – gc cr block 2-way – gc cr block 3-way • Message-oriented – gc current grant 2-way – gc cr grant 2-way • Contention-oriented – gc current block busy – gc cr block busy – gc current buffer busy
  • 42. Performance tuning • Load-oriented – gc current block congested – gc cr block congested

Editor's Notes

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