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TOPIC: AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION (ACP)
(A SUBJECT IN AGRICULTURE FOR EDUCATION COURSE)
LESSON 1
Farm Tools, Implements and Equipment
DEFINITION OF TERMS
 Farm Equipment - These are machineries used in crop production. They are used in land
preparation and in transporting farm inputs and products. This equipment needs a highly skilled
operator to use
 Farm implements - accessories pulled by animals or mounted to machineries to make the work
easier
 Farm tools - objects that are usually light and are used without the help of animals and
machines
 Preventive maintenance - an activity or operation done to prevent malfunction of tools and
equipment and it is done to prolong the useful life of tools and equipment
 Repair - to restore to good condition something broken or damaged
FARM TOOLS
Hand Tools
Hand tools are usually light and are used without the help of animals or machines. They are being used
in performing farm activities which involve small areas like school garden and home garden.
Examples:
 Bolo - is used for cutting tall grasses and weeds and chopping branches of trees.
 Crowbar - is used for digging big holes and for digging out big stones and stumps.
 Pick-mattock - is used for digging canals, breaking hard topsoil and for digging up stones and
tree stumps.
 Grab-hoe - is used for breaking hard topsoil and pulverizing soil.
 Spade - is used for removing trash or soil, digging canals or ditches and mixing soil media.
 Shovel - is used in removing trash, digging loose soil, moving soil from one place to another and
for mixing soil media.
 Rake - is used for cleaning the ground and leveling the topsoil.
 Spading fork - is used for loosening the soil, digging out root crops and turning over the
materials in a compost heap.
 Light hoe - is used for loosening and leveling soil and digging out furrows for planting
TOPIC: AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION (ACP)
(A SUBJECT IN AGRICULTURE FOR EDUCATION COURSE)
 Hand trowel - is used for loosening the soil around the growing plants and putting small amount
of manure fertilizer in the soil.
 Hand cultivator - is used for cultivating the garden plot by loosening the soil and removing
weeds around the plant.
 Hand fork - is used for inter row cultivation.
 Pruning shear - is for cutting branches of planting materials and unnecessary branches of
plants.
 Axe - is for cutting bigger size post.
 Knife - is for cutting planting materials and for performing other operations in horticulture
 Sprinklers - for watering seedlings and young plants
 Water pails - for hauling water, manure and fertilizers
 Sprayers - are for spraying insecticides, foliar fertilizers, fungicides and herbicides
 Wheel barrow - is used for hauling trash, manures, fertilizers, planting materials and other
equipment
 Sickle - is a hand-held agricultural tool with a variously curved blade typically used for cutting
weeds.
FARM IMPLEMENTS
These are accessories which are being pulled by working animals or mounted to machineries (hand
tractor, tractor) which are usually used in the preparation of land. These are usually made of a special
kind of metal.
Examples:
 Plows
─ These are farm implements either pulled by a working animal or a tractor.
─ The plow is specifically used for tilling large areas, making furrows and inter row cultivation.
─ Plows pulled by working animals are made of either a combination of metal and wood or
pure metal.
─ They are used to till areas with a shallower depth than that of the disc plows which are
pulled by tractors.
TOPIC: AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION (ACP)
(A SUBJECT IN AGRICULTURE FOR EDUCATION COURSE)
 Harrow
─ The native wooden harrow is made of wood
─ with a metal tooth and pulled by a carabao while the disc harrow is made of metal mounted
to a tractor.
─ Harrows are used for tilling and pulverizing the soil.
 Rotavator
─ The rotavator is an implement mounted to a tractor used for tilling and pulverizing the soil.
COMMON FARM EQUIPMENT
These are machineries used in crop production. They are used in land preparation and in transporting
farm inputs and products. This equipment needs a highly skilled operator to use.
 Hand tractor - is used to pull a plow and harrow in preparing a large area of land.
 Four-wheel tractor - is used to pull disc plow and disc harrow in preparing much bigger area of
land.
 Water pumps - are used to draw irrigation water from a source.
 Thresher -machine that separates grain from the plants by beating
 Corn Dehusker - multifunctional machine that can peel the skin and remove the corn from the
cob.
 Rice harvester - or rice combine harvester used for harvesting of rice or wheat
 Grass cutter
 Rice seeder
 Miller - grind a grain
TOPIC: AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION (ACP)
(A SUBJECT IN AGRICULTURE FOR EDUCATION COURSE)
LESSON 2
Estimation and Basic Calculation
DEFINITION OF TERMS
 Area - refers to the size of the surface
 Fertilizer - any material added to the soil to support nutrient
 Germination - the development of the seed into a young plant
 Graph - a drawing in which the relationship between two (or more) items of information (e.g.,
Time and plant growth) is shown in a symbolic way
 Volume - the content of a body or object
 Gross Income/Sales- the equivalent value of the product sold
 Interest - the corresponding value that will be added to the principal as payment for using
money of the lender
 Labor - refers to the work performed by farm workers in exchange for salary
 Net Income - the value remains after all the expenses have been deducted from the gross
income or sales
 Principal – refers to the amount you owed
 Volume - the content of a body or object
ACRONYMS
 MAD (Man Animal Day) - refers to the number of day/s the work will be completed by 1 person
and 1 animal.
 MD-(Manday) - refers to the number of day/s the work will be completed by 1 person.
BASIC CALCULATION
─ It is important to be able to measure and calculate surface areas.
─ It might be necessary to calculate, for example, the surface area of the cross-section of a canal
or the surface area of a farm.
─ This section will discuss the calculation of some of the most common surface areas: triangle,
square, rectangle, rhombus, parallelogram, trapezium and circle.
TOPIC: AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION (ACP)
(A SUBJECT IN AGRICULTURE FOR EDUCATION COURSE)
LESSON 3
Farm Plans and Layouts
FARM LABOR
Labor Requirement for Land Preparation
 Plowing using tractor
 Clearing of the land using hoe
 Plowing using animal
 Harrowing using hand tractor
Labor Requirement in Planting
 Pulling of seedlings
 Transplanting of seedling
Labor Requirement for Plant Care
 Fertilizer application
 Pest control
 Irrigation
Harvesting
 Weeding
 Threshing rice
 Threshing corn
 Drying rice
 Storing
TOPIC: AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION (ACP)
(A SUBJECT IN AGRICULTURE FOR EDUCATION COURSE)
Methods of Planting Crops in the Farm
 In general, there are two methods of planting crops: direct seeding and transplanting.
 Direct seeding is either by broadcast, hill or dibble, or by drill method.
 The hill and the drill methods are alternative options in row planting.
 Direct seeding or direct sowing is a method of planting in which seeds are directly planted on
the ground in the farm or any growing surface while transplanting makes use of pre-grown
plants, seedlings or vegetatively propagated clones.
 The term transplanting is also used to refer to the practice of replanting an already established
plant in one location and moving it elsewhere.
 Direct seeding generally applies to large-seeded vegetables as well as in cereals and grain
legumes. Transplanting is most common with small-seeded vegetables, vegetatively
propagated crops, ornamental crops, fruit trees and many perennial crops. The term direct
seeding is also commonly used to refer to the planting of seed pieces or underground
vegetative planting materials directly into the soil.
IRRIGATION SYSTEM PLAN AND DESIGN
─ Water required by crops is supplied by nature in the form of precipitation, but when it becomes
scarce or its distribution does not coincide with demand peaks, it is then necessary to supply it
artificially, by irrigation.
─ Several irrigation methods are available, and the selection of one depends on factors such as
water availability, crop, soil characteristics, land topography, and associated cost.
─ Proper design of an irrigation system requires that the pumping system precisely match to the
irrigation distribution system so that the pressure and flow rate required can be efficiently
provided by the pumping system.
─ The energy required to pump water is determined by the total dynamic head (water lift, pipe
friction, system pressure, etc.), the water flow rate desired and the pumping system's
efficiency.
─ Irrigation water management involves determining when to irrigate, the amount of water to
apply at each irrigation event and during each stage of plant, and operating and maintaining
the irrigation system.
─ The main management objective is to manage the production system for profit without
compromising environment and in agreement with water availability.
─ A major management activity involves irrigation scheduling or determining when and how much
water to apply, considering the irrigation method and other field characteristics.
TOPIC: AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION (ACP)
(A SUBJECT IN AGRICULTURE FOR EDUCATION COURSE)
FUNCTIONS OF FARM IRRIGATION SYSTEMS:
The primary function of farm irrigation systems is to supply crops with irrigation water in the quantities
and at the time it is needed. Specific function includes:
 Diverting water from the water source.
 Conveying it to individual fields within the farm.
 Distributing it within each field.
 Providing a means for measuring and regulating flows.
 Other functions of farm irrigation system include crop and soil cooling, protecting crops from
frost damage, delaying fruit and bud development, and controlling wind erosion, providing water
for seed germination, application of chemicals, and land application of wastes.
REASONS FOR AN IRRIGATION PLAN
 A project plan enables the designer to lay out the irrigation system in the most cost-effective
way.
 The plan is used to generate a material list and to evaluate the anticipated project costs.
 The plan provides step by step information on system installation. Information on crop spacing,
sprinklers, pumping requirements, pipeline sizes and lengths should be included on the plan.
 Pertinent obstructions such as roads, trees, gas, oil, water, telephone or transmission lines
must also be indicated.
 Specification, design standards and work schedules as set out on a plan form the basis of any
contractual agreements between the installation contractor and the farmer.
 The plan provides a record for future reference. It can be used for overall farm planning and
identifies limits of expansion potential.
ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF A PLAN
 Topographic Data - the field shape must be accurately drawn showing pertinent obstructions,
features and elevation details.
 Water Source Capacity - the water supply must be clearly indicated showing location and
available capacity. Depending on the water source, a well log or water license must accompany
the irrigation plan. Irrigation reservoirs also require Water Management Branch licensing.
TOPIC: AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION (ACP)
(A SUBJECT IN AGRICULTURE FOR EDUCATION COURSE)
 Soil and Crop Characteristics - soil and crop limitations must be accounted for to reduce
runoff and deep percolation by mismanagement of the irrigation system.
 Design Parameters - soil water holding capacity, maximum application rate and climatic data
must be used to select the correct irrigation system design.
 Design Data - the nozzle selected, operating pressure, discharge rate and sprinkler spacing
must all be shown on the plan. The irrigation interval, set time, application rate and net amount
applied must also be calculated.
DIFFERENT DESIGNS OF IRRIGATIONSYSTEMS
1. SURFACE IRRIGATION- water is applied to the field in either the controlled or uncontrolled manner.
Surface irrigation consist of:
 Furrow system:
─ Furrow irrigation by cutting the ridge
─ Furrow irrigation with Siphons
The Major Design Considerations in Surface Irrigation Include:
a) Storing the readily available moisture in the root zone, if possible;
b) Obtaining as uniform water application as possible;
c) Minimizing soil erosion by applying non-erosive streams;
d) Minimizing runoff at the end of the furrow by using a re-use system or a cut –back stream;
e) Minimizing labor requirements by having good land preparation,
f) Good design and experienced labor and
g) Facilitating use of machinery for land preparation, cultivation, furrowing, harvesting etc.to
determine.
2. BORDER IRRIGATION SYSTEM
a) In a border irrigation, controlled surface flooding is practiced whereby the field is divided up
into strips by parallel ridges or dikes and each strip is irrigated separately by introducing
water upstream and it progressively covers the entire strip.
b) Border irrigation is suited for crops that can withstand flooding for a short time e.g., wheat.
TOPIC: AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION (ACP)
(A SUBJECT IN AGRICULTURE FOR EDUCATION COURSE)
c) It can be used for all crops provided that the system is designated to provide the needed
water control for irrigation of crops.
d) It is suited to soils between extremely high and very low infiltration rates.
e) In border irrigation, water is applied slowly.
f) The root zone is applied with water gradually down the field.
g) At a time, the application flow is cut-off to reduce water loses.
h) Ideally, there is no runoff and deep percolation.
i) The problem is that the time to cut off the inflow is difficult to determine
Design Parameters of Border Irrigation System
 Strip width: Cross slopes must be eliminated by leveling.
─ Since there are no furrows to restrict lateral movement, any cross slope will make water
move down one side leading to poor application efficiency and possibly erosion.
─ The width of the strip for a given water supply is a function of the length
─ The strip width should be at least bigger than the size of vehicle tract for construction where
applicable.
 Strip Slope:Longitudinal slopes should be almost same as for the furrow irrigation.
 Construction of Levees: Levees should be big enough to withstand erosion, and of sufficient
height to contain the irrigation stream.
─ The stream size available should also be considered in choosing a strip width.
─ The size should be enough to allow complete lateral spreading throughout the length of the
strip.
 Selection of the Advance Stream: The maximum advance stream used should be
non-erosive and therefore depends on the protection afforded by the crop cover. Clay soils are
less susceptible to erosion but suffer surface panning at high water velocities. The Length of
the Strip: The ideal lengths can be obtained by field tests.
TOPIC: AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION (ACP)
(A SUBJECT IN AGRICULTURE FOR EDUCATION COURSE)
3. BASIN IRRIGATION SYSTEM
Characteristics:
 In basin irrigation, water is flooded in wider areas. It is ideal for irrigating rice.
 The area is normally flat.
 In basin irrigation, a very high stream size is introduced into the basin so that rapid movement of
water is obtained.
 Water does not infiltrate a lot initially.
 At the end, close the water inlet to avoid water loss in the pond.
 The opportunity time difference between the upward and the downward ends are reduced.
 The size of basin is related to stream size and soil type.
Note: The size of basin for clay is 10 times that of sand as the infiltration rate for clay is low leading
to higher irrigation time. The size of basin also increases as the flow rate increases. The table is
only a guide and practical values from an area should be relied upon. There is the need for field
evaluation.
4. SPRINKLER IRRIGATION
 The sprinkler system is ideal in areas where water is scarce.
 A Sprinkler system conveys water through pipes and applies it with a minimum amount of
losses.
 Water is applied in form of sprays sometimes simulating natural rainfall.
 The difference is that this rainfall can be controlled in duration and intensity.
 If well planned, designed and operated, it can be used in sloping land to reduce erosion where
other systems are not possible.
5. DRIP OR TRICKLE IRRIGATION
Advantages:
 Water is applied directly to the crop (i.e.). entire field is not wetted.
 Water is conserved
TOPIC: AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION (ACP)
(A SUBJECT IN AGRICULTURE FOR EDUCATION COURSE)
 Weeds are controlled because only the places getting water can grow weeds.
 There is a low-pressure system.
 There is a slow rate of water application somewhat matching the consumptive use. Application
rate can be as low as 1 – 12 l/hr.
 There is reduced evaporation, only potential transpiration is considered.
 There is no need for a drainage system.
LESSON 4
Safety Measures in Farm Operations
DEFINITION OF TERMS
 Cleaning - the act or process of removing dirt from tools, containers and farm facilities.
 Disinfection chemicals -refers to the chemical used in cleaning which has the ability to kill
microorganisms especially pathogens.
 Health -a sound state of the body and mind of the workers that enable him or her to perform the
job normally
 Occupational safety - the practices related to production and work process
 Safety -the physical or environmental conditions of work which comply with the prescribed
Occupational Health Safety (OHS) standards and which allow the workers to perform his or her
job without or within acceptable exposure to hazards
 Sharpening - the process of thinning the edge of the tools like knife, pruning shears, hedge
shears, etc.
APPLY APPROPRIATE SAFETY MEASURES
WHILE WORKING IN FARM
 Many hazards are present in the farm. If the farmers are not aware of these hazards these may
cause injury to their body or may cause diseases and even death.
TOPIC: AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION (ACP)
(A SUBJECT IN AGRICULTURE FOR EDUCATION COURSE)
 Farmer should always apply appropriate safety measures while working in the farm.
 In this lesson the students with the guidance and supervision of their teacher should identify
farm works that involve the use of chemicals and hazardous tools and equipment; determine
the uses of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and determine farm emergency procedures
regarding safety working environment.
HAZARD, RISK AND EXPOSURE IN THE FARM
Agricultural crop production deals with a lot of activities to be done in the different workplace. These
hazards should be the major concern of all who are involved in a certain job or work. It is important to
distinguish hazard, risk and exposure when undertaking risk management.
 Hazard is the potential for harm, or adverse effect on an employee‘s health. Anything which
may cause injury or ill health to anyone at or near a workplace is a hazard.
 Risk is the likelihood that a hazard will cause injury or ill health to anyone at or near a workplace.
The level of risk increases with the severity of the hazard and the duration and frequency of
exposure.
 Exposure occurs when a person comes into contact with a hazard.
Types of Hazards
1) Physical - includes floors, stairs, work platforms, steps, ladders, fire, falling objects, slippery
surfaces, manual handling (lifting, pushing, pulling), excessively loud and prolonged noise,
vibration, heat and cold, radiation, poor lighting, ventilation, quality
2) Mechanical and/or Electrical - includes electricity, machinery, equipment, pressure vessels,
dangerous goods, fork lifts, cranes, hoists
3) Chemical - includes chemical substances such as acids or poisons and those that could lead
to fire or explosion, like pesticides, herbicides, cleaning agents, dusts and fumes from various
processes such as welding
4) Biological - includes bacteria, viruses, mold, mildew, insects, vermin, animals
5) Psycho-social Environment - includes workplace stressors arising from a variety of sources.
TOPIC: AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION (ACP)
(A SUBJECT IN AGRICULTURE FOR EDUCATION COURSE)
FARM EMERGENCY PROCEDURES REGARDING
SAFETY WORKING ENVIRONMENT
1. Identify the potential emergencies.
The emergencies that may occur on a crop production farm could include:
Fire
Flood
Typhoon
machinery entrapment
electrical shock
snake or spider bite
chemical exposure
Injuries
illness and
accidents
2. Provide emergency facilities appropriate for the sorts of emergencies that might occur on the
farm (e.g., deluge showers, eye washes, firefighting equipment, first aid kits).
3. Make sure that the correct equipment is available to contain and handle any chemical or other
dangerous materials spills that might happen.
4. To help minimize the risk of personal injury or property damage in the event of an emergency,
people working on and visiting the farm need to know and understand the emergency
procedures and their responsibilities.
5. Instruct everyone working on the farm in the emergency response procedures
6. Everyone should know the location of fire alarms, fire extinguishers and first aid kits; how and
7. where to contact emergency services; and where to safely assemble in the event of an
emergency.
The following factors may increase risk of injury or illness for farm workers:
 Age – injury rates are highest among children age 15 and under and adults over 65.
 Equipment and Machinery – most farm accidents and fatalities involve machinery. Proper
machine guarding and doing equipment maintenance according to manufacturers
‘recommendations can help prevent accidents.
TOPIC: AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION (ACP)
(A SUBJECT IN AGRICULTURE FOR EDUCATION COURSE)
FARM WORKS THAT INVOLVE USING CHEMICALS
AND HAZARDOUS TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT
1. Spraying Chemicals
Many different chemicals are used on a farm including pesticides. These chemicals are used
to fertilize and control pests such as insects, weeds, mollusk, etc. Most of these
chemicals are applied by spraying
Examples of chemical hazards:
 Spraying in a strong wind and the spray drifting over a dam or the farm house.
 Washing spray equipment and the water running into open drains, collecting in puddles, or
running into stockyards or dams.
 Containers or chemicals left lying around. Empty containers lying in a heap.
Some ways you can reduce the risk of hazards from chemicals are:
 Use personal protective equipment such as respirators, waterproof clothes, rubber gloves
and waterproof footwear.
 Make sure chemicals are safely stored and cupboards locked.
 Never spray chemicals on days when there is a high wind.
 Know first aid procedures.
 Keep a list of all hazardous substances used on the farm.
Safe use of chemicals:
 Consider if a chemical substance is really needed.
 Eliminate a hazardous substance, or if that is not
 possible, substitute it with less hazardous one.
 Safe work practices or personal protective equipment should be used
 Keep records of farm chemicals.
TOPIC: AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION (ACP)
(A SUBJECT IN AGRICULTURE FOR EDUCATION COURSE)
2. Land Preparation Using Tractor
 Victims fall off or are thrown from the tractor
 Run over by either the tractor or an implement being towed, or both.
 Overturn
 Use seat belts when driving tractors. ROPS will protect the operator from serious injuries.
Causes of run over accidents
 Sudden stops
 Driving over holes, stumps and debris, or a sharp turn
How to prevent runover
 Never allow riders on tractors.
 Discuss with family members and farm workers the potential risks of riding tractor.
 It's also helpful to post 'no riders' decals on all tractors to remind others about the policy.
 Use or provide other vehicles that allow passengers, such as trucks or cars, when
transportation is needed to fields or remote work sites.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
 Personal protective equipment (PPE) can reduce the number and severity of farm work related
injuries and illnesses.
 Personal protective equipment not only helps protect people but also improves productivity and
profits.
 Farmers and ranchers can share in these benefits by using the appropriate protective
equipment for themselves, family members and employees when the job and its potential
hazards call for it.
TOPIC: AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION (ACP)
(A SUBJECT IN AGRICULTURE FOR EDUCATION COURSE)
LESSON 5
Farm Wastes
DEFINITION OF TERMS
 Farm waste - is a mixture of animal faeces and urine, plus milk and chemicals such as
pesticides.
 Agricultural waste - is waste produced as a result of various agricultural operations. It includes
manure and other wastes from farms, poultry houses and slaughterhouses; harvest waste;
fertilizer run- off from fields; pesticides that enter into water, air or soils; and salt and silt drained
from fields.
 Slurry - is a type of liquid manure that can be used on fields as fertilizer. Factory farms collect
the animal waste and mix it with water to form slurry
LESSON 6
Nursery Operations
DEFINITION OF TERMS
 Nursery - is a place where plants are grown, nurtured and sold out. Generally, various
commercial crop growers require a good quality saplings or grafts of genuine type.
 Mulching - light mulch to prevent loss of moisture. Mulching also moderates soil temperature.
 Watering - done immediately after planting and thereafter water regularly early in the mornings
and late in the evenings.
 Weed control - to keep the nursery bed completely weed free by uprooting all the weeds.
 Shading - to maintain cool temperatures for proper seedling growth. Light shade to prevent dark
conditions that may encourage etiolating of seedlings.
 Pricking out - crowded seedlings should be removed to a seedling bed at a spacing of 3-4 cm
apart.
 Nursery Bed - is a special piece of land, normally of varying sizes (big or small) prepared for
raising seedlings of certain of crops which normally would not be sown directly into the field
before they are transplanted.
 Nursery practices - refer to all activities carried out when preparing and managing a nursery
bed.
TOPIC: AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION (ACP)
(A SUBJECT IN AGRICULTURE FOR EDUCATION COURSE)
 Seedbed - is a piece of land or field that normally prepared ready to receive planting materials
directly or indirectly from a nursery bed.
 Site - is a place upon which one can produce seedlings of plants.
Types of Nurseries:
Nurseries are categorized in different ways. According to time duration nurseries are classified in
two types:
1. Temporary nursery – This type of nursery is developed only to fulfill the requirement of the
season or a targeted project. The nurseries for production of seedlings of transplanted
vegetables and flower crops are of temporary nature. Likewise temporary arrangement for
growing forest seedlings for planting in particular area can also be done in temporary nursery.
2. Permanent nursery – This type of the nursery is placed permanently so as to produce plants
continuously. These nurseries have all the permanent features. The permanent nursery has
permanent mother plants. The work goes on continuously all the year round in this nursery.
According to type of plants produced nurseries are classified in to following types:
1. Fruit plant Nurseries - In this nursery seedlings and grafts of fruit crops are developed.
2. Vegetable nurseries - In this nursery seedlings of cauliflower, cabbage, brinjal and tomato are
prepared.
3. Flowers plants nurseries - The seedlings of flowering plants like gerbera, carnation, petunia,
salvia, rose, chrysanthemum, coleus, aster, dianthus is developed in this nursery.
4. Forest nurseries - The seedlings of plants useful for forestation like pine, oak, teak, eucalyptus,
casuarinas are prepared and sold.
5. Miscellaneous nurseries - In such type of nurseries plants with great economic value, rare and
medicinal, herbal plants are propagated. In this nursery plants like geranium, rose, calendula,
and marigold are propagated. Planning of nursery One has to decide which type of nursery is to
be started.
At the same time the durations and type of plants propagated should be finalized. Selection of site.
Site is the basic requirement of a nursery. Site is a place upon which one can produce seedlings of
plants.
TOPIC: AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION (ACP)
(A SUBJECT IN AGRICULTURE FOR EDUCATION COURSE)
Qualities of a good site are:
1. Nearness of road
2. Near a habitat
3. Suitable climate
4. Neither shady nor exposed area
5. Sufficient sunlight
6. Good irrigation facilities
7. Good soil condition
8. Good transport facility
Management of Nurseries
This is the major work of management in the nursery which includes all such operations right from
the emergence of young plantlet till they are fully grown-up or are ready for uprooting &
transplanting in the main fields.
1. Potting the seedling - Before planting of sapling in the pots, the pots should be filled up with
proper potting mixture. Now a days different size of earthen pots or plastic containers are used
for propagation. For filling of pots loamy soil, sand and compost can be used in 1:1:1 proportion.
Sprouted cuttings, bulbs, corms or polythene bag grown plants can be transferred in earthen
pots for further growth. All the necessary precautions are taken before filling the pots and
planting of sapling in it.
2. Manuring & Irrigation - Generally sufficient quantity of nutrients is not available in the soil used
for seedbed. Rooted cuttings, layers or grafted plants till they are transferred to the permanent
location, require fertilizers. For potted plants hand watering is done & for beds low pressure
irrigation by hose pipe is usually given. Heavy irrigation should be avoided.
3. Plant protection measures - Adoption of plant protection measures, well in advance and in a
planned manner is necessary for the efficient raising of nursery plants. For better protection
from pest and diseases regular observation is essential.
4. Weed control - Weeds compete with plants for food, space and other essentials. So timely
control of weeds is necessary.
5. Measures against heat and cold - The younger seedling is susceptible to strong sun and low
temperature. For protection from strong sun, shading with the help of timber framework of 1
meter height may be used. Net house and green house structures can also be used.
TOPIC: AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION (ACP)
(A SUBJECT IN AGRICULTURE FOR EDUCATION COURSE)
6. Packing of nursery plants – Packing is the method or way in which the young plants are
tied or kept together till they are transplanted. So, they have to be packed in such a way that
they do not lose their turgidity and are able to establish themselves on the new site.
7. Sale management – In general the main demand for nursery plants is during rainy season.
A proper strategy should be followed for sale of nursery plants. For that advertisement in
local daily newspapers, posters, hand bills, catalogue and appointment of commission
agents can be followed.
8. Management of mother plants - Care of mother plants is necessary so as to get good
quality propagules and scion.
 Labeling and records
 Certification
 Irrigation
 Fertilization
 Pruning
 Protection from pests and diseases Collection and development of new mother plants Fruit
Nurseries
Nursery Practices
 Mulching - light mulch to prevent loss of moisture. Mulching also moderates soil temperature.
 Watering - done immediately after planting and thereafter water regularly early in the mornings
and late in the evenings.
 Weed control - to keep the nursery bed completely weed free by uprooting all the weeds.
 Shading - to maintain cool temperatures for proper seedling growth. Light shade to prevent dark
conditions that may encourage etiolating of seedlings.
 Pricking out - crowded seedlings should be removed to a seedling bed at a spacing of 3-4 cm
apart. The remaining seedling will grow strong and healthy.
 Pest and disease control - control by application of appropriate chemicals. e.g., Furadan.
 Hardening off - its preparing seedlings to adapt to the conditions that exist in the seedbed 1-2
weeks before transplanting.
TOPIC: AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION (ACP)
(A SUBJECT IN AGRICULTURE FOR EDUCATION COURSE)
Importance of a nursery in crop propagation
 Production of many seedlings in a small area.
 Easy management practices in the nursery.
 Best conditions for growth can be provided.
 Facilitates the planting of small seeds easily transplanted.
 Only healthy and vigorously growing seedlings are obtained.
 Mature are seedlings are transplanted therefore any excess seedlings from the nursey bed can
be sold to earn income to the farmer.
LESSON 7
Preparing Land for Agricultural Crop Production
DEFINITION OF TERMS/CONCEPT
 When establishing a new date plantation, certain actions need to be implemented to ensure the
long term success of the plantation.
 The purpose of land preparation is to provide the necessary soil conditions which will enhance
the successful establishment of the young offshoots or the tissue culture plants received from
the nursery.
 The aim is to enable the date grower to plan and structure the implementation process in
advance, ensuring the successful establishment of the date plantation.
Critical factors to consider during this planning exercise are summarized as follows:
 Availability and quality of irrigation water;
 Field selection;
 Mechanical actions to be implemented
 Chemical needs for pre-plant soil improvement
 Tools and equipment needed for date cultivation;
 Labour needs;
 Irrigation design and installation;
 Leaching schedule;
 Hole preparation;
 Financial requirements and
 Time schedule.
TOPIC: AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION (ACP)
(A SUBJECT IN AGRICULTURE FOR EDUCATION COURSE)
Field selection
The area selected for the establishment of the date plantation can influence the cost of land
preparation to the extent that it may not be viable to proceed with the development at all.
 Availability of water
 Soil depth
 Soil salinity or acidity
LESSON 8
Planting Crops
DEFINITION OF TERMS
 Direct seeding - also called direct sowing, is also used to refer to the planting of seed pieces or
underground vegetative planting materials directly into the soil as in potato (Solanum
tuberosum).
 Transplanting - sometimes called replanting, is a method of planting that only requires the use
of pre-grown plants, or seedlings, or vegetatively propagated clones for field planting. It does not
distinguish as to the source of the planting material, that is, whether from seed or from
vegetative parts of plants.
 Crop area is here meant to refer to any space intended for the growing of crops for the purpose
of harvesting some products.
METHODSOF PLANTING CROPS:
 Direct Seeding vs. Transplanting
─ In general, a farmer who intends to raise a crop has to choose between these two methods
of planting: direct seeding and transplanting.
─ To briefly distinguish, direct seeding means planting at the crop area with the use of seed
─ while transplanting is planting with the use of pre-grown seedlings or plants that had been
propagated from seeds.
Crop Examples
Examples of crops that are commonly transplanted are small-seeded vegetables like the
─ solanaceous plants tomato,
TOPIC: AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION (ACP)
(A SUBJECT IN AGRICULTURE FOR EDUCATION COURSE)
─ eggplant and peppers, ornamental crops,
─ fruit trees, and many perennial crops including palms such as coconut and African oil palm
(Elaeis guineensis).
Examples of crops where both direct seeding and transplanting methods of planting are commonly
used are
─ lowland rice and the Cruciferous (Brassica) vegetables cabbage
─ pechay
─ mustard
─ lettuce
─ Although pregrown seedlings are commonly used in the establishment of coconut
plantations, unsprouted seednuts can also be directly planted.
Direct seeding, also called direct sowing, is also used to refer to the planting of seedpieces or
underground vegetative planting materials directly into the soil as in potato (Solanum tuberosum).
However, direct seeding may not be interpreted literally as “direct” as in corn. In rice, the seeds are
pretreated to break dormancy, soaked in water, and incubated to initiate germination immediately
before drilling or broadcasting on puddled soil.
In contrast, transplanting, sometimes called replanting, is a method of planting that only requires
the use of pre-grown plants, or seedlings, or vegetatively propagated clones for field planting. It
does not distinguish as to the source of the planting material, that is, whether from seed or from
vegetative parts of plants.

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Agriculture Crop Production (ACP)

  • 1. TOPIC: AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION (ACP) (A SUBJECT IN AGRICULTURE FOR EDUCATION COURSE) LESSON 1 Farm Tools, Implements and Equipment DEFINITION OF TERMS  Farm Equipment - These are machineries used in crop production. They are used in land preparation and in transporting farm inputs and products. This equipment needs a highly skilled operator to use  Farm implements - accessories pulled by animals or mounted to machineries to make the work easier  Farm tools - objects that are usually light and are used without the help of animals and machines  Preventive maintenance - an activity or operation done to prevent malfunction of tools and equipment and it is done to prolong the useful life of tools and equipment  Repair - to restore to good condition something broken or damaged FARM TOOLS Hand Tools Hand tools are usually light and are used without the help of animals or machines. They are being used in performing farm activities which involve small areas like school garden and home garden. Examples:  Bolo - is used for cutting tall grasses and weeds and chopping branches of trees.  Crowbar - is used for digging big holes and for digging out big stones and stumps.  Pick-mattock - is used for digging canals, breaking hard topsoil and for digging up stones and tree stumps.  Grab-hoe - is used for breaking hard topsoil and pulverizing soil.  Spade - is used for removing trash or soil, digging canals or ditches and mixing soil media.  Shovel - is used in removing trash, digging loose soil, moving soil from one place to another and for mixing soil media.  Rake - is used for cleaning the ground and leveling the topsoil.  Spading fork - is used for loosening the soil, digging out root crops and turning over the materials in a compost heap.  Light hoe - is used for loosening and leveling soil and digging out furrows for planting
  • 2. TOPIC: AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION (ACP) (A SUBJECT IN AGRICULTURE FOR EDUCATION COURSE)  Hand trowel - is used for loosening the soil around the growing plants and putting small amount of manure fertilizer in the soil.  Hand cultivator - is used for cultivating the garden plot by loosening the soil and removing weeds around the plant.  Hand fork - is used for inter row cultivation.  Pruning shear - is for cutting branches of planting materials and unnecessary branches of plants.  Axe - is for cutting bigger size post.  Knife - is for cutting planting materials and for performing other operations in horticulture  Sprinklers - for watering seedlings and young plants  Water pails - for hauling water, manure and fertilizers  Sprayers - are for spraying insecticides, foliar fertilizers, fungicides and herbicides  Wheel barrow - is used for hauling trash, manures, fertilizers, planting materials and other equipment  Sickle - is a hand-held agricultural tool with a variously curved blade typically used for cutting weeds. FARM IMPLEMENTS These are accessories which are being pulled by working animals or mounted to machineries (hand tractor, tractor) which are usually used in the preparation of land. These are usually made of a special kind of metal. Examples:  Plows ─ These are farm implements either pulled by a working animal or a tractor. ─ The plow is specifically used for tilling large areas, making furrows and inter row cultivation. ─ Plows pulled by working animals are made of either a combination of metal and wood or pure metal. ─ They are used to till areas with a shallower depth than that of the disc plows which are pulled by tractors.
  • 3. TOPIC: AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION (ACP) (A SUBJECT IN AGRICULTURE FOR EDUCATION COURSE)  Harrow ─ The native wooden harrow is made of wood ─ with a metal tooth and pulled by a carabao while the disc harrow is made of metal mounted to a tractor. ─ Harrows are used for tilling and pulverizing the soil.  Rotavator ─ The rotavator is an implement mounted to a tractor used for tilling and pulverizing the soil. COMMON FARM EQUIPMENT These are machineries used in crop production. They are used in land preparation and in transporting farm inputs and products. This equipment needs a highly skilled operator to use.  Hand tractor - is used to pull a plow and harrow in preparing a large area of land.  Four-wheel tractor - is used to pull disc plow and disc harrow in preparing much bigger area of land.  Water pumps - are used to draw irrigation water from a source.  Thresher -machine that separates grain from the plants by beating  Corn Dehusker - multifunctional machine that can peel the skin and remove the corn from the cob.  Rice harvester - or rice combine harvester used for harvesting of rice or wheat  Grass cutter  Rice seeder  Miller - grind a grain
  • 4. TOPIC: AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION (ACP) (A SUBJECT IN AGRICULTURE FOR EDUCATION COURSE) LESSON 2 Estimation and Basic Calculation DEFINITION OF TERMS  Area - refers to the size of the surface  Fertilizer - any material added to the soil to support nutrient  Germination - the development of the seed into a young plant  Graph - a drawing in which the relationship between two (or more) items of information (e.g., Time and plant growth) is shown in a symbolic way  Volume - the content of a body or object  Gross Income/Sales- the equivalent value of the product sold  Interest - the corresponding value that will be added to the principal as payment for using money of the lender  Labor - refers to the work performed by farm workers in exchange for salary  Net Income - the value remains after all the expenses have been deducted from the gross income or sales  Principal – refers to the amount you owed  Volume - the content of a body or object ACRONYMS  MAD (Man Animal Day) - refers to the number of day/s the work will be completed by 1 person and 1 animal.  MD-(Manday) - refers to the number of day/s the work will be completed by 1 person. BASIC CALCULATION ─ It is important to be able to measure and calculate surface areas. ─ It might be necessary to calculate, for example, the surface area of the cross-section of a canal or the surface area of a farm. ─ This section will discuss the calculation of some of the most common surface areas: triangle, square, rectangle, rhombus, parallelogram, trapezium and circle.
  • 5. TOPIC: AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION (ACP) (A SUBJECT IN AGRICULTURE FOR EDUCATION COURSE) LESSON 3 Farm Plans and Layouts FARM LABOR Labor Requirement for Land Preparation  Plowing using tractor  Clearing of the land using hoe  Plowing using animal  Harrowing using hand tractor Labor Requirement in Planting  Pulling of seedlings  Transplanting of seedling Labor Requirement for Plant Care  Fertilizer application  Pest control  Irrigation Harvesting  Weeding  Threshing rice  Threshing corn  Drying rice  Storing
  • 6. TOPIC: AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION (ACP) (A SUBJECT IN AGRICULTURE FOR EDUCATION COURSE) Methods of Planting Crops in the Farm  In general, there are two methods of planting crops: direct seeding and transplanting.  Direct seeding is either by broadcast, hill or dibble, or by drill method.  The hill and the drill methods are alternative options in row planting.  Direct seeding or direct sowing is a method of planting in which seeds are directly planted on the ground in the farm or any growing surface while transplanting makes use of pre-grown plants, seedlings or vegetatively propagated clones.  The term transplanting is also used to refer to the practice of replanting an already established plant in one location and moving it elsewhere.  Direct seeding generally applies to large-seeded vegetables as well as in cereals and grain legumes. Transplanting is most common with small-seeded vegetables, vegetatively propagated crops, ornamental crops, fruit trees and many perennial crops. The term direct seeding is also commonly used to refer to the planting of seed pieces or underground vegetative planting materials directly into the soil. IRRIGATION SYSTEM PLAN AND DESIGN ─ Water required by crops is supplied by nature in the form of precipitation, but when it becomes scarce or its distribution does not coincide with demand peaks, it is then necessary to supply it artificially, by irrigation. ─ Several irrigation methods are available, and the selection of one depends on factors such as water availability, crop, soil characteristics, land topography, and associated cost. ─ Proper design of an irrigation system requires that the pumping system precisely match to the irrigation distribution system so that the pressure and flow rate required can be efficiently provided by the pumping system. ─ The energy required to pump water is determined by the total dynamic head (water lift, pipe friction, system pressure, etc.), the water flow rate desired and the pumping system's efficiency. ─ Irrigation water management involves determining when to irrigate, the amount of water to apply at each irrigation event and during each stage of plant, and operating and maintaining the irrigation system. ─ The main management objective is to manage the production system for profit without compromising environment and in agreement with water availability. ─ A major management activity involves irrigation scheduling or determining when and how much water to apply, considering the irrigation method and other field characteristics.
  • 7. TOPIC: AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION (ACP) (A SUBJECT IN AGRICULTURE FOR EDUCATION COURSE) FUNCTIONS OF FARM IRRIGATION SYSTEMS: The primary function of farm irrigation systems is to supply crops with irrigation water in the quantities and at the time it is needed. Specific function includes:  Diverting water from the water source.  Conveying it to individual fields within the farm.  Distributing it within each field.  Providing a means for measuring and regulating flows.  Other functions of farm irrigation system include crop and soil cooling, protecting crops from frost damage, delaying fruit and bud development, and controlling wind erosion, providing water for seed germination, application of chemicals, and land application of wastes. REASONS FOR AN IRRIGATION PLAN  A project plan enables the designer to lay out the irrigation system in the most cost-effective way.  The plan is used to generate a material list and to evaluate the anticipated project costs.  The plan provides step by step information on system installation. Information on crop spacing, sprinklers, pumping requirements, pipeline sizes and lengths should be included on the plan.  Pertinent obstructions such as roads, trees, gas, oil, water, telephone or transmission lines must also be indicated.  Specification, design standards and work schedules as set out on a plan form the basis of any contractual agreements between the installation contractor and the farmer.  The plan provides a record for future reference. It can be used for overall farm planning and identifies limits of expansion potential. ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF A PLAN  Topographic Data - the field shape must be accurately drawn showing pertinent obstructions, features and elevation details.  Water Source Capacity - the water supply must be clearly indicated showing location and available capacity. Depending on the water source, a well log or water license must accompany the irrigation plan. Irrigation reservoirs also require Water Management Branch licensing.
  • 8. TOPIC: AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION (ACP) (A SUBJECT IN AGRICULTURE FOR EDUCATION COURSE)  Soil and Crop Characteristics - soil and crop limitations must be accounted for to reduce runoff and deep percolation by mismanagement of the irrigation system.  Design Parameters - soil water holding capacity, maximum application rate and climatic data must be used to select the correct irrigation system design.  Design Data - the nozzle selected, operating pressure, discharge rate and sprinkler spacing must all be shown on the plan. The irrigation interval, set time, application rate and net amount applied must also be calculated. DIFFERENT DESIGNS OF IRRIGATIONSYSTEMS 1. SURFACE IRRIGATION- water is applied to the field in either the controlled or uncontrolled manner. Surface irrigation consist of:  Furrow system: ─ Furrow irrigation by cutting the ridge ─ Furrow irrigation with Siphons The Major Design Considerations in Surface Irrigation Include: a) Storing the readily available moisture in the root zone, if possible; b) Obtaining as uniform water application as possible; c) Minimizing soil erosion by applying non-erosive streams; d) Minimizing runoff at the end of the furrow by using a re-use system or a cut –back stream; e) Minimizing labor requirements by having good land preparation, f) Good design and experienced labor and g) Facilitating use of machinery for land preparation, cultivation, furrowing, harvesting etc.to determine. 2. BORDER IRRIGATION SYSTEM a) In a border irrigation, controlled surface flooding is practiced whereby the field is divided up into strips by parallel ridges or dikes and each strip is irrigated separately by introducing water upstream and it progressively covers the entire strip. b) Border irrigation is suited for crops that can withstand flooding for a short time e.g., wheat.
  • 9. TOPIC: AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION (ACP) (A SUBJECT IN AGRICULTURE FOR EDUCATION COURSE) c) It can be used for all crops provided that the system is designated to provide the needed water control for irrigation of crops. d) It is suited to soils between extremely high and very low infiltration rates. e) In border irrigation, water is applied slowly. f) The root zone is applied with water gradually down the field. g) At a time, the application flow is cut-off to reduce water loses. h) Ideally, there is no runoff and deep percolation. i) The problem is that the time to cut off the inflow is difficult to determine Design Parameters of Border Irrigation System  Strip width: Cross slopes must be eliminated by leveling. ─ Since there are no furrows to restrict lateral movement, any cross slope will make water move down one side leading to poor application efficiency and possibly erosion. ─ The width of the strip for a given water supply is a function of the length ─ The strip width should be at least bigger than the size of vehicle tract for construction where applicable.  Strip Slope:Longitudinal slopes should be almost same as for the furrow irrigation.  Construction of Levees: Levees should be big enough to withstand erosion, and of sufficient height to contain the irrigation stream. ─ The stream size available should also be considered in choosing a strip width. ─ The size should be enough to allow complete lateral spreading throughout the length of the strip.  Selection of the Advance Stream: The maximum advance stream used should be non-erosive and therefore depends on the protection afforded by the crop cover. Clay soils are less susceptible to erosion but suffer surface panning at high water velocities. The Length of the Strip: The ideal lengths can be obtained by field tests.
  • 10. TOPIC: AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION (ACP) (A SUBJECT IN AGRICULTURE FOR EDUCATION COURSE) 3. BASIN IRRIGATION SYSTEM Characteristics:  In basin irrigation, water is flooded in wider areas. It is ideal for irrigating rice.  The area is normally flat.  In basin irrigation, a very high stream size is introduced into the basin so that rapid movement of water is obtained.  Water does not infiltrate a lot initially.  At the end, close the water inlet to avoid water loss in the pond.  The opportunity time difference between the upward and the downward ends are reduced.  The size of basin is related to stream size and soil type. Note: The size of basin for clay is 10 times that of sand as the infiltration rate for clay is low leading to higher irrigation time. The size of basin also increases as the flow rate increases. The table is only a guide and practical values from an area should be relied upon. There is the need for field evaluation. 4. SPRINKLER IRRIGATION  The sprinkler system is ideal in areas where water is scarce.  A Sprinkler system conveys water through pipes and applies it with a minimum amount of losses.  Water is applied in form of sprays sometimes simulating natural rainfall.  The difference is that this rainfall can be controlled in duration and intensity.  If well planned, designed and operated, it can be used in sloping land to reduce erosion where other systems are not possible. 5. DRIP OR TRICKLE IRRIGATION Advantages:  Water is applied directly to the crop (i.e.). entire field is not wetted.  Water is conserved
  • 11. TOPIC: AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION (ACP) (A SUBJECT IN AGRICULTURE FOR EDUCATION COURSE)  Weeds are controlled because only the places getting water can grow weeds.  There is a low-pressure system.  There is a slow rate of water application somewhat matching the consumptive use. Application rate can be as low as 1 – 12 l/hr.  There is reduced evaporation, only potential transpiration is considered.  There is no need for a drainage system. LESSON 4 Safety Measures in Farm Operations DEFINITION OF TERMS  Cleaning - the act or process of removing dirt from tools, containers and farm facilities.  Disinfection chemicals -refers to the chemical used in cleaning which has the ability to kill microorganisms especially pathogens.  Health -a sound state of the body and mind of the workers that enable him or her to perform the job normally  Occupational safety - the practices related to production and work process  Safety -the physical or environmental conditions of work which comply with the prescribed Occupational Health Safety (OHS) standards and which allow the workers to perform his or her job without or within acceptable exposure to hazards  Sharpening - the process of thinning the edge of the tools like knife, pruning shears, hedge shears, etc. APPLY APPROPRIATE SAFETY MEASURES WHILE WORKING IN FARM  Many hazards are present in the farm. If the farmers are not aware of these hazards these may cause injury to their body or may cause diseases and even death.
  • 12. TOPIC: AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION (ACP) (A SUBJECT IN AGRICULTURE FOR EDUCATION COURSE)  Farmer should always apply appropriate safety measures while working in the farm.  In this lesson the students with the guidance and supervision of their teacher should identify farm works that involve the use of chemicals and hazardous tools and equipment; determine the uses of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and determine farm emergency procedures regarding safety working environment. HAZARD, RISK AND EXPOSURE IN THE FARM Agricultural crop production deals with a lot of activities to be done in the different workplace. These hazards should be the major concern of all who are involved in a certain job or work. It is important to distinguish hazard, risk and exposure when undertaking risk management.  Hazard is the potential for harm, or adverse effect on an employee‘s health. Anything which may cause injury or ill health to anyone at or near a workplace is a hazard.  Risk is the likelihood that a hazard will cause injury or ill health to anyone at or near a workplace. The level of risk increases with the severity of the hazard and the duration and frequency of exposure.  Exposure occurs when a person comes into contact with a hazard. Types of Hazards 1) Physical - includes floors, stairs, work platforms, steps, ladders, fire, falling objects, slippery surfaces, manual handling (lifting, pushing, pulling), excessively loud and prolonged noise, vibration, heat and cold, radiation, poor lighting, ventilation, quality 2) Mechanical and/or Electrical - includes electricity, machinery, equipment, pressure vessels, dangerous goods, fork lifts, cranes, hoists 3) Chemical - includes chemical substances such as acids or poisons and those that could lead to fire or explosion, like pesticides, herbicides, cleaning agents, dusts and fumes from various processes such as welding 4) Biological - includes bacteria, viruses, mold, mildew, insects, vermin, animals 5) Psycho-social Environment - includes workplace stressors arising from a variety of sources.
  • 13. TOPIC: AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION (ACP) (A SUBJECT IN AGRICULTURE FOR EDUCATION COURSE) FARM EMERGENCY PROCEDURES REGARDING SAFETY WORKING ENVIRONMENT 1. Identify the potential emergencies. The emergencies that may occur on a crop production farm could include: Fire Flood Typhoon machinery entrapment electrical shock snake or spider bite chemical exposure Injuries illness and accidents 2. Provide emergency facilities appropriate for the sorts of emergencies that might occur on the farm (e.g., deluge showers, eye washes, firefighting equipment, first aid kits). 3. Make sure that the correct equipment is available to contain and handle any chemical or other dangerous materials spills that might happen. 4. To help minimize the risk of personal injury or property damage in the event of an emergency, people working on and visiting the farm need to know and understand the emergency procedures and their responsibilities. 5. Instruct everyone working on the farm in the emergency response procedures 6. Everyone should know the location of fire alarms, fire extinguishers and first aid kits; how and 7. where to contact emergency services; and where to safely assemble in the event of an emergency. The following factors may increase risk of injury or illness for farm workers:  Age – injury rates are highest among children age 15 and under and adults over 65.  Equipment and Machinery – most farm accidents and fatalities involve machinery. Proper machine guarding and doing equipment maintenance according to manufacturers ‘recommendations can help prevent accidents.
  • 14. TOPIC: AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION (ACP) (A SUBJECT IN AGRICULTURE FOR EDUCATION COURSE) FARM WORKS THAT INVOLVE USING CHEMICALS AND HAZARDOUS TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT 1. Spraying Chemicals Many different chemicals are used on a farm including pesticides. These chemicals are used to fertilize and control pests such as insects, weeds, mollusk, etc. Most of these chemicals are applied by spraying Examples of chemical hazards:  Spraying in a strong wind and the spray drifting over a dam or the farm house.  Washing spray equipment and the water running into open drains, collecting in puddles, or running into stockyards or dams.  Containers or chemicals left lying around. Empty containers lying in a heap. Some ways you can reduce the risk of hazards from chemicals are:  Use personal protective equipment such as respirators, waterproof clothes, rubber gloves and waterproof footwear.  Make sure chemicals are safely stored and cupboards locked.  Never spray chemicals on days when there is a high wind.  Know first aid procedures.  Keep a list of all hazardous substances used on the farm. Safe use of chemicals:  Consider if a chemical substance is really needed.  Eliminate a hazardous substance, or if that is not  possible, substitute it with less hazardous one.  Safe work practices or personal protective equipment should be used  Keep records of farm chemicals.
  • 15. TOPIC: AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION (ACP) (A SUBJECT IN AGRICULTURE FOR EDUCATION COURSE) 2. Land Preparation Using Tractor  Victims fall off or are thrown from the tractor  Run over by either the tractor or an implement being towed, or both.  Overturn  Use seat belts when driving tractors. ROPS will protect the operator from serious injuries. Causes of run over accidents  Sudden stops  Driving over holes, stumps and debris, or a sharp turn How to prevent runover  Never allow riders on tractors.  Discuss with family members and farm workers the potential risks of riding tractor.  It's also helpful to post 'no riders' decals on all tractors to remind others about the policy.  Use or provide other vehicles that allow passengers, such as trucks or cars, when transportation is needed to fields or remote work sites. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)  Personal protective equipment (PPE) can reduce the number and severity of farm work related injuries and illnesses.  Personal protective equipment not only helps protect people but also improves productivity and profits.  Farmers and ranchers can share in these benefits by using the appropriate protective equipment for themselves, family members and employees when the job and its potential hazards call for it.
  • 16. TOPIC: AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION (ACP) (A SUBJECT IN AGRICULTURE FOR EDUCATION COURSE) LESSON 5 Farm Wastes DEFINITION OF TERMS  Farm waste - is a mixture of animal faeces and urine, plus milk and chemicals such as pesticides.  Agricultural waste - is waste produced as a result of various agricultural operations. It includes manure and other wastes from farms, poultry houses and slaughterhouses; harvest waste; fertilizer run- off from fields; pesticides that enter into water, air or soils; and salt and silt drained from fields.  Slurry - is a type of liquid manure that can be used on fields as fertilizer. Factory farms collect the animal waste and mix it with water to form slurry LESSON 6 Nursery Operations DEFINITION OF TERMS  Nursery - is a place where plants are grown, nurtured and sold out. Generally, various commercial crop growers require a good quality saplings or grafts of genuine type.  Mulching - light mulch to prevent loss of moisture. Mulching also moderates soil temperature.  Watering - done immediately after planting and thereafter water regularly early in the mornings and late in the evenings.  Weed control - to keep the nursery bed completely weed free by uprooting all the weeds.  Shading - to maintain cool temperatures for proper seedling growth. Light shade to prevent dark conditions that may encourage etiolating of seedlings.  Pricking out - crowded seedlings should be removed to a seedling bed at a spacing of 3-4 cm apart.  Nursery Bed - is a special piece of land, normally of varying sizes (big or small) prepared for raising seedlings of certain of crops which normally would not be sown directly into the field before they are transplanted.  Nursery practices - refer to all activities carried out when preparing and managing a nursery bed.
  • 17. TOPIC: AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION (ACP) (A SUBJECT IN AGRICULTURE FOR EDUCATION COURSE)  Seedbed - is a piece of land or field that normally prepared ready to receive planting materials directly or indirectly from a nursery bed.  Site - is a place upon which one can produce seedlings of plants. Types of Nurseries: Nurseries are categorized in different ways. According to time duration nurseries are classified in two types: 1. Temporary nursery – This type of nursery is developed only to fulfill the requirement of the season or a targeted project. The nurseries for production of seedlings of transplanted vegetables and flower crops are of temporary nature. Likewise temporary arrangement for growing forest seedlings for planting in particular area can also be done in temporary nursery. 2. Permanent nursery – This type of the nursery is placed permanently so as to produce plants continuously. These nurseries have all the permanent features. The permanent nursery has permanent mother plants. The work goes on continuously all the year round in this nursery. According to type of plants produced nurseries are classified in to following types: 1. Fruit plant Nurseries - In this nursery seedlings and grafts of fruit crops are developed. 2. Vegetable nurseries - In this nursery seedlings of cauliflower, cabbage, brinjal and tomato are prepared. 3. Flowers plants nurseries - The seedlings of flowering plants like gerbera, carnation, petunia, salvia, rose, chrysanthemum, coleus, aster, dianthus is developed in this nursery. 4. Forest nurseries - The seedlings of plants useful for forestation like pine, oak, teak, eucalyptus, casuarinas are prepared and sold. 5. Miscellaneous nurseries - In such type of nurseries plants with great economic value, rare and medicinal, herbal plants are propagated. In this nursery plants like geranium, rose, calendula, and marigold are propagated. Planning of nursery One has to decide which type of nursery is to be started. At the same time the durations and type of plants propagated should be finalized. Selection of site. Site is the basic requirement of a nursery. Site is a place upon which one can produce seedlings of plants.
  • 18. TOPIC: AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION (ACP) (A SUBJECT IN AGRICULTURE FOR EDUCATION COURSE) Qualities of a good site are: 1. Nearness of road 2. Near a habitat 3. Suitable climate 4. Neither shady nor exposed area 5. Sufficient sunlight 6. Good irrigation facilities 7. Good soil condition 8. Good transport facility Management of Nurseries This is the major work of management in the nursery which includes all such operations right from the emergence of young plantlet till they are fully grown-up or are ready for uprooting & transplanting in the main fields. 1. Potting the seedling - Before planting of sapling in the pots, the pots should be filled up with proper potting mixture. Now a days different size of earthen pots or plastic containers are used for propagation. For filling of pots loamy soil, sand and compost can be used in 1:1:1 proportion. Sprouted cuttings, bulbs, corms or polythene bag grown plants can be transferred in earthen pots for further growth. All the necessary precautions are taken before filling the pots and planting of sapling in it. 2. Manuring & Irrigation - Generally sufficient quantity of nutrients is not available in the soil used for seedbed. Rooted cuttings, layers or grafted plants till they are transferred to the permanent location, require fertilizers. For potted plants hand watering is done & for beds low pressure irrigation by hose pipe is usually given. Heavy irrigation should be avoided. 3. Plant protection measures - Adoption of plant protection measures, well in advance and in a planned manner is necessary for the efficient raising of nursery plants. For better protection from pest and diseases regular observation is essential. 4. Weed control - Weeds compete with plants for food, space and other essentials. So timely control of weeds is necessary. 5. Measures against heat and cold - The younger seedling is susceptible to strong sun and low temperature. For protection from strong sun, shading with the help of timber framework of 1 meter height may be used. Net house and green house structures can also be used.
  • 19. TOPIC: AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION (ACP) (A SUBJECT IN AGRICULTURE FOR EDUCATION COURSE) 6. Packing of nursery plants – Packing is the method or way in which the young plants are tied or kept together till they are transplanted. So, they have to be packed in such a way that they do not lose their turgidity and are able to establish themselves on the new site. 7. Sale management – In general the main demand for nursery plants is during rainy season. A proper strategy should be followed for sale of nursery plants. For that advertisement in local daily newspapers, posters, hand bills, catalogue and appointment of commission agents can be followed. 8. Management of mother plants - Care of mother plants is necessary so as to get good quality propagules and scion.  Labeling and records  Certification  Irrigation  Fertilization  Pruning  Protection from pests and diseases Collection and development of new mother plants Fruit Nurseries Nursery Practices  Mulching - light mulch to prevent loss of moisture. Mulching also moderates soil temperature.  Watering - done immediately after planting and thereafter water regularly early in the mornings and late in the evenings.  Weed control - to keep the nursery bed completely weed free by uprooting all the weeds.  Shading - to maintain cool temperatures for proper seedling growth. Light shade to prevent dark conditions that may encourage etiolating of seedlings.  Pricking out - crowded seedlings should be removed to a seedling bed at a spacing of 3-4 cm apart. The remaining seedling will grow strong and healthy.  Pest and disease control - control by application of appropriate chemicals. e.g., Furadan.  Hardening off - its preparing seedlings to adapt to the conditions that exist in the seedbed 1-2 weeks before transplanting.
  • 20. TOPIC: AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION (ACP) (A SUBJECT IN AGRICULTURE FOR EDUCATION COURSE) Importance of a nursery in crop propagation  Production of many seedlings in a small area.  Easy management practices in the nursery.  Best conditions for growth can be provided.  Facilitates the planting of small seeds easily transplanted.  Only healthy and vigorously growing seedlings are obtained.  Mature are seedlings are transplanted therefore any excess seedlings from the nursey bed can be sold to earn income to the farmer. LESSON 7 Preparing Land for Agricultural Crop Production DEFINITION OF TERMS/CONCEPT  When establishing a new date plantation, certain actions need to be implemented to ensure the long term success of the plantation.  The purpose of land preparation is to provide the necessary soil conditions which will enhance the successful establishment of the young offshoots or the tissue culture plants received from the nursery.  The aim is to enable the date grower to plan and structure the implementation process in advance, ensuring the successful establishment of the date plantation. Critical factors to consider during this planning exercise are summarized as follows:  Availability and quality of irrigation water;  Field selection;  Mechanical actions to be implemented  Chemical needs for pre-plant soil improvement  Tools and equipment needed for date cultivation;  Labour needs;  Irrigation design and installation;  Leaching schedule;  Hole preparation;  Financial requirements and  Time schedule.
  • 21. TOPIC: AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION (ACP) (A SUBJECT IN AGRICULTURE FOR EDUCATION COURSE) Field selection The area selected for the establishment of the date plantation can influence the cost of land preparation to the extent that it may not be viable to proceed with the development at all.  Availability of water  Soil depth  Soil salinity or acidity LESSON 8 Planting Crops DEFINITION OF TERMS  Direct seeding - also called direct sowing, is also used to refer to the planting of seed pieces or underground vegetative planting materials directly into the soil as in potato (Solanum tuberosum).  Transplanting - sometimes called replanting, is a method of planting that only requires the use of pre-grown plants, or seedlings, or vegetatively propagated clones for field planting. It does not distinguish as to the source of the planting material, that is, whether from seed or from vegetative parts of plants.  Crop area is here meant to refer to any space intended for the growing of crops for the purpose of harvesting some products. METHODSOF PLANTING CROPS:  Direct Seeding vs. Transplanting ─ In general, a farmer who intends to raise a crop has to choose between these two methods of planting: direct seeding and transplanting. ─ To briefly distinguish, direct seeding means planting at the crop area with the use of seed ─ while transplanting is planting with the use of pre-grown seedlings or plants that had been propagated from seeds. Crop Examples Examples of crops that are commonly transplanted are small-seeded vegetables like the ─ solanaceous plants tomato,
  • 22. TOPIC: AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION (ACP) (A SUBJECT IN AGRICULTURE FOR EDUCATION COURSE) ─ eggplant and peppers, ornamental crops, ─ fruit trees, and many perennial crops including palms such as coconut and African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Examples of crops where both direct seeding and transplanting methods of planting are commonly used are ─ lowland rice and the Cruciferous (Brassica) vegetables cabbage ─ pechay ─ mustard ─ lettuce ─ Although pregrown seedlings are commonly used in the establishment of coconut plantations, unsprouted seednuts can also be directly planted. Direct seeding, also called direct sowing, is also used to refer to the planting of seedpieces or underground vegetative planting materials directly into the soil as in potato (Solanum tuberosum). However, direct seeding may not be interpreted literally as “direct” as in corn. In rice, the seeds are pretreated to break dormancy, soaked in water, and incubated to initiate germination immediately before drilling or broadcasting on puddled soil. In contrast, transplanting, sometimes called replanting, is a method of planting that only requires the use of pre-grown plants, or seedlings, or vegetatively propagated clones for field planting. It does not distinguish as to the source of the planting material, that is, whether from seed or from vegetative parts of plants.