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Application Report
Shunt Regulator Design Procedures for Secondary
Feedback Loop in Isolated Converter
Dennis Oh
ABSTRACT
ATL43xLI device is a three-terminal adjustable shunt regulator and it consists of a voltage reference and internal
error amplifier. with varying its form, it can be selected in many applications such as Adjustable voltage and
current referencing, Zener diode replacement, Secondary side regulation in ACDC SMPS in closed-loop
configuration and also, can be applicable to open-loop configuration as Comparator with integrated reference,
Voltage monitoring extensions. This application note is to give developers design procedures for secondary
feedback loop application and to definitize operating mechanism in the circuit. TI provides a family of 431
products and 432 as an alternative pin out of the 431. This document applies to a series of 431 products,
including TL431LI, ATL431LI, and TLV431.
Table of Contents
1 Introduction.............................................................................................................................................................................2
1.1 TL431 as a Type-2 Amplifier.............................................................................................................................................. 2
1.2 TL431 Solution with Isolation............................................................................................................................................. 3
2 Design Procedures.................................................................................................................................................................4
2.1 Design Considerations for Optocoupler............................................................................................................................. 4
2.2 Design Considerations for Biasing Circuit..........................................................................................................................6
2.3 Schematic Analysis and Waveforms..................................................................................................................................8
3 Summary............................................................................................................................................................................... 10
4 References.............................................................................................................................................................................11
List of Figures
Figure 1-1. Feedback Loop in Non-Isolated Current-Mode Control Converter............................................................................2
Figure 1-2. TL431 Used As A Type-2 Amplifier .......................................................................................................................... 2
Figure 1-3. Flyback with Optocoupler Isolation with TL431.........................................................................................................3
Figure 1-4. TL431 In Conjunction with Optocoupler for Isolated Feedback.................................................................................3
Figure 2-1. Example of UCC28740 (Low Side Current Sinking) .................................................................................................4
Figure 2-2. Example of UCC25640x (High Side Current Sourcing).............................................................................................5
Figure 2-3. One Example of Biasing Optocoupler ...................................................................................................................... 6
Figure 2-4. Quiescent Current Paths in the Feedback ............................................................................................................... 7
Figure 2-5. ATL431LI Design Review in LLC Schematic.............................................................................................................8
Figure 2-6. No Load, Light Load, and Heavy Load......................................................................................................................9
List of Tables
Table 2-1. Operation of Vout Regulation by Shunt Regulator......................................................................................................9
Trademarks
All trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
www.ti.com Table of Contents
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Shunt Regulator Design Procedures for Secondary Feedback Loop in Isolated
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Copyright © 2021 Texas Instruments Incorporated
1 Introduction
1.1 TL431 as a Type-2 Amplifier
Figure 1-1 is a general current-mode control converter. This type of non-isolated converters integrate the EA
(error amplifier) and Vref as parts of feedback control loop. And Type-2 amplifier network provides optimal
compensation in the loop.
Figure 1-1. Feedback Loop in Non-Isolated Current-Mode Control Converter
On the basis of the composition of TL431, Figure 1-2 shows how it can be used as a standard EA.
Figure 1-2. TL431 Used As A Type-2 Amplifier
The pullup resistor (Rbias) value should be chosen to meet the minimum cathode current requirement, this is to
provide sufficient bias current to TL431 under all circuit conditions.
Introduction www.ti.com
2 Shunt Regulator Design Procedures for Secondary Feedback Loop in Isolated
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1.2 TL431 Solution with Isolation
TL431 has been used widely in isolated power supply applications and it provided design benefits of reducing
the cost of feedback loop, taking up little board space within the performance tradeoff from the standard error
amplifier and a precision reference.
Figure 1-3. Flyback with Optocoupler Isolation with TL431
Further detail from Figure 1-3, we now understand TL431 is powered from output of converter. And the amount
of current flowing through the Rbias and the optocoupler diode to the cathode of TL431 are driving the gain and
operation of the circuit. Figure 1-4 shows typical TL431 in conjunction with optocoupler for isolated feedback
control.
Figure 1-4. TL431 In Conjunction with Optocoupler for Isolated Feedback
As described, the bias current at both primary and secondary side are controlling the gain and frequency
response of the circuit. However, it is very complicated analysis and even latest controllers have built the primary
side bias, including current source and resistors, inside. Hence, we have options to follow design procedures for
bias circuit of secondary side feedback.
www.ti.com Introduction
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2 Design Procedures
2.1 Design Considerations for Optocoupler
Optocoupler is an electronic component that transfers electrical signals between two isolated circuits by using
light. It is common to find commercial products consist of an infrared emitting diode, optically coupled to a
phototransistor detector. Basically the light from the diode acts like a base current to the transistor and the
amount of light can be controlled by bias current into the diode.
Here we need to note one premise that the phototransistor should work in a linear region for normal condition
wherein there is only a small change in the level of Vout. That means just a few tens of, or hundreds of change of
u-volt or u-Amps in diode side can make the variation to the VCE. Extreme conditions such as high overvoltage,
deep undershoot would require opto to work in saturation or cut-off region but, we assume that controller
protects those extreme situation so no cases to consider into.
Step 1: Check the primary side controller’s FB configuration. Maximum FB current.
Figure 2-1. Example of UCC28740 (Low Side Current Sinking)
Design Procedures www.ti.com
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Figure 2-2. Example of UCC25640x (High Side Current Sourcing)
Step 2: High and Narrow variation CTR is essential.
As we focus on linear operation, a tight CTR will correspond to a smaller variation. Also, for higher design
accuracy, designers should take ambient temperature, life cycle into account. Each vendor provides the
information by the curve such as Relative CTR vs Temp, Operating hour in the data sheet.
Step 3: Users should understand how to bias optocoupler.
There are multiple, widely 4 variations configuration to bias optocoupler. As seen at Step1, we can choose the
way depending on controller’s requirement and should be able to analyze the circuit. We are not going to look
into, but note that it is very easy KVL analysis based on the fact that the base of the photoTR is open (electrically
isolated) and it makes the collector current and emitter current equal. Once we determine VDD, we set a proper
diode current (IF) and can compute corresponding collector current (Ic).
www.ti.com Design Procedures
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Copyright © 2021 Texas Instruments Incorporated
Figure 2-3. One Example of Biasing Optocoupler
2.2 Design Considerations for Biasing Circuit
We now understand how the feedback loop is configured and can categorize the current flow in the loop.
Sufficient bias current would make a system stable but we know there are Standard Energy requirements to
meet, such as DoE level VI in US and CoC tier 2 in EU. It means designers should take the limitations from total
standby power consumption.
Before started, let’s take one premise again that system accuracy by variation factors are fixed. We can find
electrical parameters have error range and it would result in Vout error, current consumption error etc in the
system. Regarding how managing those matters, see the Designing with the Improved TL431LI application note.
Also, advanced product – ATL43xLI can be biased with lower cathode current (IKA) and provide improved
bandwidth compared to TL43x. Regarding the benefits detail, see the Designing with the ATL431LI in Flyback
Converters application note.
Step 1: Check out standby Iq consumption from two paths, at a given power consumption budget.
Design Procedures www.ti.com
6 Shunt Regulator Design Procedures for Secondary Feedback Loop in Isolated
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Figure 2-4. Quiescent Current Paths in the Feedback
Step 2: Compute required Rs. The IKA bias current is limited by the value of Rs.
OUT OPTNL OPTNL
OPTNL
OPTNL
Rs V V 2 V I
V Optocoupler voltage at No Load condition
I Optocoupler voltage at No Load condition
|
-
°
®
°̄ (1)
For further explanation, system designer should set a proper IOPTNL first. We design it close to IKA(min) * 1.5 at
worst case which includes a margin. And then, we can find required VOPTNL from the data sheet of optocoupler
selected. Generally it will be about 1 V. Lastly, the factor of -2 V comes from the overvoltage condition of Vout. In
other words, if we assume a fault situation where VREF much exceed 2.5 V (internal reference) the Vka would
drop low to a minimum of around 2 V. It is to compensate the worst case and allow designers to involve the
margin into calculation. Using the TL431 for Undervoltage and Overvoltage Detection application note discusses
the Vka low.
Step 3: Set resistor feedback network
R1, R2 set the output voltage whereas it makes continuous leakage path. It’s important to understand allowable
current consumption on this node.
R1 VOUT VREF Iq_FB (2)
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Copyright © 2021 Texas Instruments Incorporated
REF
R2 VREF Iq_FB I
(3)
We might be able to increase the value ratio of R1- R2. However, system designers should consider noise
immunity performance from the change and also, Compensation network will refer R1 into configuration.
Note, we will not discuss setting stability by compensation network. For detail information, see the Compensation
Design with TL431 for UCC28600 application note.
2.3 Schematic Analysis and Waveforms
Figure 2-5. ATL431LI Design Review in LLC Schematic
Figure 2-5 shows a good starting value and it tells how much total power consumption in the feedback loop is
consumed. We see about 1mA from two quiescent current paths. Probably designer would expect <15mW at
beginning. However we still have more room to reduce it based on performance advantages of ATL43xLI. The
optional Rbias also can contribute effort to minimize loss in tune. In case of system standby mode, which lowers
the Vout level, the amount of consumption would decrease more. Let’s define operating behaviors from
measured waveforms.
Design Procedures www.ti.com
8 Shunt Regulator Design Procedures for Secondary Feedback Loop in Isolated
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Figure 2-6. No Load, Light Load, and Heavy Load
Table 2-1 will give designers easy understanding to clarify how the system works. And it would request users to
refer to block-diagram of shunt regulator. One note is that reflected VFB_primary are fully dependent on how
PWM controller handles it. The Vka is an error amplifier signal decided by feedback loop including compensation
network and it also varies in a little change according to optocoupler’s CTR and configuration of primary side.
Table 2-1. Operation of Vout Regulation by Shunt Regulator
Transient NPN I_base NPN I_sink Vka(cathode) Ika I_opto PWM duty
REF > VREF Increased Increased Drop Increased Increased Reduced till VREF > REF
REF < VREF Decreased Decreased Rise Decreased Decreased Expand till REF > VREF
www.ti.com Design Procedures
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3 Summary
We discussed step-by-step design procedures for shunt regulator in isolated converter system. And was able to
review its basic configuration as error amplifier and how it works in actual operating schematic. System
designers should understand Energy regulation requirements of where they release the system to. This
application note is to help the way of biasing circuit, control scenario for Vout regulation, especially for those who
are not familiar with isolated feedback control.
Summary www.ti.com
10 Shunt Regulator Design Procedures for Secondary Feedback Loop in Isolated
Converter
SLVAF37 – JANUARY 2021
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Copyright © 2021 Texas Instruments Incorporated
4 References
• Using the TL431 in a Power Supply, Dr. Ray Ridley, Ridley Engineering.
• Texas Instruments, Designing with the ATL431LI in Flyback Converters application report.
• Texas Instruments, Compensation Design with TL431 for UCC28600 application report.
• Texas Instruments, Setting the Shunt Voltage on an Adjustable Shunt Regulator application report.
• Electronicsbeliever.com design analysis articles.
• Texas Instruments, Designing with the Improved TL431LI application report.
• Texas Instruments, Using the TL431 for Undervoltage and Overvoltage Detection application report.
• Texas Instruments, UCC25640x LLC Resonant Controller with Ultra-Low Audible Noise and Standby Power
data sheet.
• Texas Instruments, UCC28740-Q1 Ultra Low Standby, Flyback Controllerfor Automotive, with Integrated HV
Startup and Optocoupler Feedback data sheet.
www.ti.com References
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Copyright © 2021 Texas Instruments Incorporated
IMPORTANT NOTICE AND DISCLAIMER
TI PROVIDES TECHNICAL AND RELIABILITY DATA (INCLUDING DATA SHEETS), DESIGN RESOURCES (INCLUDING REFERENCE
DESIGNS), APPLICATION OR OTHER DESIGN ADVICE, WEB TOOLS, SAFETY INFORMATION, AND OTHER RESOURCES “AS IS”
AND WITH ALL FAULTS, AND DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS AND IMPLIED, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION ANY
IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR NON-INFRINGEMENT OF THIRD
PARTY INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS.
These resources are intended for skilled developers designing with TI products. You are solely responsible for (1) selecting the appropriate
TI products for your application, (2) designing, validating and testing your application, and (3) ensuring your application meets applicable
standards, and any other safety, security, regulatory or other requirements.
These resources are subject to change without notice. TI grants you permission to use these resources only for development of an
application that uses the TI products described in the resource. Other reproduction and display of these resources is prohibited. No license
is granted to any other TI intellectual property right or to any third party intellectual property right. TI disclaims responsibility for, and you
will fully indemnify TI and its representatives against, any claims, damages, costs, losses, and liabilities arising out of your use of these
resources.
TI’s products are provided subject to TI’s Terms of Sale or other applicable terms available either on ti.com or provided in conjunction with
such TI products. TI’s provision of these resources does not expand or otherwise alter TI’s applicable warranties or warranty disclaimers for
TI products.
TI objects to and rejects any additional or different terms you may have proposed. IMPORTANT NOTICE
Mailing Address: Texas Instruments, Post Office Box 655303, Dallas, Texas 75265
Copyright © 2022, Texas Instruments Incorporated

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TL431 - Shunt Regulator Design Procedures for Secondary.pdf

  • 1. Application Report Shunt Regulator Design Procedures for Secondary Feedback Loop in Isolated Converter Dennis Oh ABSTRACT ATL43xLI device is a three-terminal adjustable shunt regulator and it consists of a voltage reference and internal error amplifier. with varying its form, it can be selected in many applications such as Adjustable voltage and current referencing, Zener diode replacement, Secondary side regulation in ACDC SMPS in closed-loop configuration and also, can be applicable to open-loop configuration as Comparator with integrated reference, Voltage monitoring extensions. This application note is to give developers design procedures for secondary feedback loop application and to definitize operating mechanism in the circuit. TI provides a family of 431 products and 432 as an alternative pin out of the 431. This document applies to a series of 431 products, including TL431LI, ATL431LI, and TLV431. Table of Contents 1 Introduction.............................................................................................................................................................................2 1.1 TL431 as a Type-2 Amplifier.............................................................................................................................................. 2 1.2 TL431 Solution with Isolation............................................................................................................................................. 3 2 Design Procedures.................................................................................................................................................................4 2.1 Design Considerations for Optocoupler............................................................................................................................. 4 2.2 Design Considerations for Biasing Circuit..........................................................................................................................6 2.3 Schematic Analysis and Waveforms..................................................................................................................................8 3 Summary............................................................................................................................................................................... 10 4 References.............................................................................................................................................................................11 List of Figures Figure 1-1. Feedback Loop in Non-Isolated Current-Mode Control Converter............................................................................2 Figure 1-2. TL431 Used As A Type-2 Amplifier .......................................................................................................................... 2 Figure 1-3. Flyback with Optocoupler Isolation with TL431.........................................................................................................3 Figure 1-4. TL431 In Conjunction with Optocoupler for Isolated Feedback.................................................................................3 Figure 2-1. Example of UCC28740 (Low Side Current Sinking) .................................................................................................4 Figure 2-2. Example of UCC25640x (High Side Current Sourcing).............................................................................................5 Figure 2-3. One Example of Biasing Optocoupler ...................................................................................................................... 6 Figure 2-4. Quiescent Current Paths in the Feedback ............................................................................................................... 7 Figure 2-5. ATL431LI Design Review in LLC Schematic.............................................................................................................8 Figure 2-6. No Load, Light Load, and Heavy Load......................................................................................................................9 List of Tables Table 2-1. Operation of Vout Regulation by Shunt Regulator......................................................................................................9 Trademarks All trademarks are the property of their respective owners. www.ti.com Table of Contents SLVAF37 – JANUARY 2021 Submit Document Feedback Shunt Regulator Design Procedures for Secondary Feedback Loop in Isolated Converter 1 Copyright © 2021 Texas Instruments Incorporated
  • 2. 1 Introduction 1.1 TL431 as a Type-2 Amplifier Figure 1-1 is a general current-mode control converter. This type of non-isolated converters integrate the EA (error amplifier) and Vref as parts of feedback control loop. And Type-2 amplifier network provides optimal compensation in the loop. Figure 1-1. Feedback Loop in Non-Isolated Current-Mode Control Converter On the basis of the composition of TL431, Figure 1-2 shows how it can be used as a standard EA. Figure 1-2. TL431 Used As A Type-2 Amplifier The pullup resistor (Rbias) value should be chosen to meet the minimum cathode current requirement, this is to provide sufficient bias current to TL431 under all circuit conditions. Introduction www.ti.com 2 Shunt Regulator Design Procedures for Secondary Feedback Loop in Isolated Converter SLVAF37 – JANUARY 2021 Submit Document Feedback Copyright © 2021 Texas Instruments Incorporated
  • 3. 1.2 TL431 Solution with Isolation TL431 has been used widely in isolated power supply applications and it provided design benefits of reducing the cost of feedback loop, taking up little board space within the performance tradeoff from the standard error amplifier and a precision reference. Figure 1-3. Flyback with Optocoupler Isolation with TL431 Further detail from Figure 1-3, we now understand TL431 is powered from output of converter. And the amount of current flowing through the Rbias and the optocoupler diode to the cathode of TL431 are driving the gain and operation of the circuit. Figure 1-4 shows typical TL431 in conjunction with optocoupler for isolated feedback control. Figure 1-4. TL431 In Conjunction with Optocoupler for Isolated Feedback As described, the bias current at both primary and secondary side are controlling the gain and frequency response of the circuit. However, it is very complicated analysis and even latest controllers have built the primary side bias, including current source and resistors, inside. Hence, we have options to follow design procedures for bias circuit of secondary side feedback. www.ti.com Introduction SLVAF37 – JANUARY 2021 Submit Document Feedback Shunt Regulator Design Procedures for Secondary Feedback Loop in Isolated Converter 3 Copyright © 2021 Texas Instruments Incorporated
  • 4. 2 Design Procedures 2.1 Design Considerations for Optocoupler Optocoupler is an electronic component that transfers electrical signals between two isolated circuits by using light. It is common to find commercial products consist of an infrared emitting diode, optically coupled to a phototransistor detector. Basically the light from the diode acts like a base current to the transistor and the amount of light can be controlled by bias current into the diode. Here we need to note one premise that the phototransistor should work in a linear region for normal condition wherein there is only a small change in the level of Vout. That means just a few tens of, or hundreds of change of u-volt or u-Amps in diode side can make the variation to the VCE. Extreme conditions such as high overvoltage, deep undershoot would require opto to work in saturation or cut-off region but, we assume that controller protects those extreme situation so no cases to consider into. Step 1: Check the primary side controller’s FB configuration. Maximum FB current. Figure 2-1. Example of UCC28740 (Low Side Current Sinking) Design Procedures www.ti.com 4 Shunt Regulator Design Procedures for Secondary Feedback Loop in Isolated Converter SLVAF37 – JANUARY 2021 Submit Document Feedback Copyright © 2021 Texas Instruments Incorporated
  • 5. Figure 2-2. Example of UCC25640x (High Side Current Sourcing) Step 2: High and Narrow variation CTR is essential. As we focus on linear operation, a tight CTR will correspond to a smaller variation. Also, for higher design accuracy, designers should take ambient temperature, life cycle into account. Each vendor provides the information by the curve such as Relative CTR vs Temp, Operating hour in the data sheet. Step 3: Users should understand how to bias optocoupler. There are multiple, widely 4 variations configuration to bias optocoupler. As seen at Step1, we can choose the way depending on controller’s requirement and should be able to analyze the circuit. We are not going to look into, but note that it is very easy KVL analysis based on the fact that the base of the photoTR is open (electrically isolated) and it makes the collector current and emitter current equal. Once we determine VDD, we set a proper diode current (IF) and can compute corresponding collector current (Ic). www.ti.com Design Procedures SLVAF37 – JANUARY 2021 Submit Document Feedback Shunt Regulator Design Procedures for Secondary Feedback Loop in Isolated Converter 5 Copyright © 2021 Texas Instruments Incorporated
  • 6. Figure 2-3. One Example of Biasing Optocoupler 2.2 Design Considerations for Biasing Circuit We now understand how the feedback loop is configured and can categorize the current flow in the loop. Sufficient bias current would make a system stable but we know there are Standard Energy requirements to meet, such as DoE level VI in US and CoC tier 2 in EU. It means designers should take the limitations from total standby power consumption. Before started, let’s take one premise again that system accuracy by variation factors are fixed. We can find electrical parameters have error range and it would result in Vout error, current consumption error etc in the system. Regarding how managing those matters, see the Designing with the Improved TL431LI application note. Also, advanced product – ATL43xLI can be biased with lower cathode current (IKA) and provide improved bandwidth compared to TL43x. Regarding the benefits detail, see the Designing with the ATL431LI in Flyback Converters application note. Step 1: Check out standby Iq consumption from two paths, at a given power consumption budget. Design Procedures www.ti.com 6 Shunt Regulator Design Procedures for Secondary Feedback Loop in Isolated Converter SLVAF37 – JANUARY 2021 Submit Document Feedback Copyright © 2021 Texas Instruments Incorporated
  • 7. Figure 2-4. Quiescent Current Paths in the Feedback Step 2: Compute required Rs. The IKA bias current is limited by the value of Rs. OUT OPTNL OPTNL OPTNL OPTNL Rs V V 2 V I V Optocoupler voltage at No Load condition I Optocoupler voltage at No Load condition | - ° ® °̄ (1) For further explanation, system designer should set a proper IOPTNL first. We design it close to IKA(min) * 1.5 at worst case which includes a margin. And then, we can find required VOPTNL from the data sheet of optocoupler selected. Generally it will be about 1 V. Lastly, the factor of -2 V comes from the overvoltage condition of Vout. In other words, if we assume a fault situation where VREF much exceed 2.5 V (internal reference) the Vka would drop low to a minimum of around 2 V. It is to compensate the worst case and allow designers to involve the margin into calculation. Using the TL431 for Undervoltage and Overvoltage Detection application note discusses the Vka low. Step 3: Set resistor feedback network R1, R2 set the output voltage whereas it makes continuous leakage path. It’s important to understand allowable current consumption on this node. R1 VOUT VREF Iq_FB (2) www.ti.com Design Procedures SLVAF37 – JANUARY 2021 Submit Document Feedback Shunt Regulator Design Procedures for Secondary Feedback Loop in Isolated Converter 7 Copyright © 2021 Texas Instruments Incorporated
  • 8. REF R2 VREF Iq_FB I (3) We might be able to increase the value ratio of R1- R2. However, system designers should consider noise immunity performance from the change and also, Compensation network will refer R1 into configuration. Note, we will not discuss setting stability by compensation network. For detail information, see the Compensation Design with TL431 for UCC28600 application note. 2.3 Schematic Analysis and Waveforms Figure 2-5. ATL431LI Design Review in LLC Schematic Figure 2-5 shows a good starting value and it tells how much total power consumption in the feedback loop is consumed. We see about 1mA from two quiescent current paths. Probably designer would expect <15mW at beginning. However we still have more room to reduce it based on performance advantages of ATL43xLI. The optional Rbias also can contribute effort to minimize loss in tune. In case of system standby mode, which lowers the Vout level, the amount of consumption would decrease more. Let’s define operating behaviors from measured waveforms. Design Procedures www.ti.com 8 Shunt Regulator Design Procedures for Secondary Feedback Loop in Isolated Converter SLVAF37 – JANUARY 2021 Submit Document Feedback Copyright © 2021 Texas Instruments Incorporated
  • 9. Figure 2-6. No Load, Light Load, and Heavy Load Table 2-1 will give designers easy understanding to clarify how the system works. And it would request users to refer to block-diagram of shunt regulator. One note is that reflected VFB_primary are fully dependent on how PWM controller handles it. The Vka is an error amplifier signal decided by feedback loop including compensation network and it also varies in a little change according to optocoupler’s CTR and configuration of primary side. Table 2-1. Operation of Vout Regulation by Shunt Regulator Transient NPN I_base NPN I_sink Vka(cathode) Ika I_opto PWM duty REF > VREF Increased Increased Drop Increased Increased Reduced till VREF > REF REF < VREF Decreased Decreased Rise Decreased Decreased Expand till REF > VREF www.ti.com Design Procedures SLVAF37 – JANUARY 2021 Submit Document Feedback Shunt Regulator Design Procedures for Secondary Feedback Loop in Isolated Converter 9 Copyright © 2021 Texas Instruments Incorporated
  • 10. 3 Summary We discussed step-by-step design procedures for shunt regulator in isolated converter system. And was able to review its basic configuration as error amplifier and how it works in actual operating schematic. System designers should understand Energy regulation requirements of where they release the system to. This application note is to help the way of biasing circuit, control scenario for Vout regulation, especially for those who are not familiar with isolated feedback control. Summary www.ti.com 10 Shunt Regulator Design Procedures for Secondary Feedback Loop in Isolated Converter SLVAF37 – JANUARY 2021 Submit Document Feedback Copyright © 2021 Texas Instruments Incorporated
  • 11. 4 References • Using the TL431 in a Power Supply, Dr. Ray Ridley, Ridley Engineering. • Texas Instruments, Designing with the ATL431LI in Flyback Converters application report. • Texas Instruments, Compensation Design with TL431 for UCC28600 application report. • Texas Instruments, Setting the Shunt Voltage on an Adjustable Shunt Regulator application report. • Electronicsbeliever.com design analysis articles. • Texas Instruments, Designing with the Improved TL431LI application report. • Texas Instruments, Using the TL431 for Undervoltage and Overvoltage Detection application report. • Texas Instruments, UCC25640x LLC Resonant Controller with Ultra-Low Audible Noise and Standby Power data sheet. • Texas Instruments, UCC28740-Q1 Ultra Low Standby, Flyback Controllerfor Automotive, with Integrated HV Startup and Optocoupler Feedback data sheet. www.ti.com References SLVAF37 – JANUARY 2021 Submit Document Feedback Shunt Regulator Design Procedures for Secondary Feedback Loop in Isolated Converter 11 Copyright © 2021 Texas Instruments Incorporated
  • 12. IMPORTANT NOTICE AND DISCLAIMER TI PROVIDES TECHNICAL AND RELIABILITY DATA (INCLUDING DATA SHEETS), DESIGN RESOURCES (INCLUDING REFERENCE DESIGNS), APPLICATION OR OTHER DESIGN ADVICE, WEB TOOLS, SAFETY INFORMATION, AND OTHER RESOURCES “AS IS” AND WITH ALL FAULTS, AND DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS AND IMPLIED, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR NON-INFRINGEMENT OF THIRD PARTY INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS. These resources are intended for skilled developers designing with TI products. You are solely responsible for (1) selecting the appropriate TI products for your application, (2) designing, validating and testing your application, and (3) ensuring your application meets applicable standards, and any other safety, security, regulatory or other requirements. These resources are subject to change without notice. TI grants you permission to use these resources only for development of an application that uses the TI products described in the resource. Other reproduction and display of these resources is prohibited. No license is granted to any other TI intellectual property right or to any third party intellectual property right. TI disclaims responsibility for, and you will fully indemnify TI and its representatives against, any claims, damages, costs, losses, and liabilities arising out of your use of these resources. TI’s products are provided subject to TI’s Terms of Sale or other applicable terms available either on ti.com or provided in conjunction with such TI products. TI’s provision of these resources does not expand or otherwise alter TI’s applicable warranties or warranty disclaimers for TI products. TI objects to and rejects any additional or different terms you may have proposed. IMPORTANT NOTICE Mailing Address: Texas Instruments, Post Office Box 655303, Dallas, Texas 75265 Copyright © 2022, Texas Instruments Incorporated