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Automatic night lamp

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TO DESIGN THE AUTOMATC NIGHT LAMP USING LOGIC CIRCUIT

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Automatic night lamp

  1. 1. TO DESIGN THE AUTOMATC NIGHT LAMP USING LOGIC CIRCUIT A COMPLETE PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED AS A PART FOR FULFILLMENT OF DIPLOMA ENGINEERING IN 3 YEARS IN ELECTRONICS AND TELECOMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
  2. 2. CONTENTS: 1 Introduction.....................................................................1-2 2 Principle............................................................................3-4 3 Block diagram....................................................................5-6 4 Circuit diagram..................................................................7-8 5 Component Description......................................................9-23 a. LDR b. Transistor BC547 c. Transistor BT136 d. Resistance 10kΩ e. Lamp 230 volt f. 6 volt Battery 6 Component used in Circuit.................................................24-25 7 Practical.............................................................................26-27 8 Working.............................................................................28-29 9 Uses of this project.............................................................30-31 10 Conclusion & scope..........................................................32-34 Application1 Application2 11 Bibliography.......................................................................35-36
  3. 3. 1.INTRODUCTION
  4. 4. Automatic light control system is a simple and powerful concept, which uses transistor as a switch to switch ON and OFF the light automatically. By using this system manual works are removed. It automatically switches ON light when the sunlight goes below the visible region of our eyes. It automatically switches OFF light under illumination by sunlight. This is done by a sensor called Light Dependant Resistor (LDR) which senses the light actually like our eyes. By using this system energy consumption is also reduced because now a-days the manually operated lights are not switched off properly even the sunlight comes and also not switched on erlier before sunset . In sunny and rainy days, ON time and OFF time differ significant which is one of the major disadvantage of using timer circuit or manual operation. This project exploits the working of a transistor in saturation region and cut-off region to switch ON and switched OFF the light at appropriate time with the help of an electromagnetically operated switch. Automatic light needs no manual operation of switching ON and OFF. The system it self detects whether there is need for light or not. When darkness rises to a certain value then automatically light is switched ON and when there is other source of light, the light gets OFF. The extent of darkness at which the light t be switched on can also be tailored using the potentiometer provided in the circuit. Moreover, the circuit is carefully designed to avoid common problems like overload, relay chattering and inductive kick in relay.
  5. 5. 2.Principle:
  6. 6. The automatic light control system operates on 230v AC supply. The automatic light controller has a photoconductive device whose resistance changes proportional to the extent of illumination, which switches ON or OFF the with the use of transistor as a switch. Light dependent resistor, a photoconductive device has been used as the transducer to convert light energy into electrical energy. The central dogma of the circuit is that the change in voltage drop across the light dependent resistor on illumination or darkness switches the transistor between cut-off region or saturation region and switches OFF the light.
  7. 7. 3.Block Diagram
  8. 8. Automatic Night Lamp With Block Diagram
  9. 9. 4.Circuit Diagram
  10. 10. The circuit diagram of automatic light controller is given below:
  11. 11. 5.Component Description
  12. 12. 5.a.Light Dependent resistor (LDR) A light dependent resistor is a resistor whose resistance changes with the intensity of incident light. The working principle of light dependent resistor is photoelectric effect. A light dependent resistor is made of a high resistance semiconductor. If the energy of the incident light is greater than the band gap of the semiconductor, electron-hole pairs are generated .The photo generated electron-hole pair transits the device giving rise to photo conductivity. The essential elements of a photoconductive cell are the ceramic substrate, a layer of photoconductive material, metallic electrodes to connect the device into a circuit and a moisture resistant enclosure. Light sensitive material is arranged in the form of a long strip Zigzagged across a disc shaped base with protective side. For additional protection, a glass or plastic cover may be included. The two ends of the strip are brought out to connecting pins below the base as shown below. The commercial photoconductive materials include cadmium sulfide (Cds), cadmium selenide (Cdse), lead sulfide (Pbs) and Indium antimonide (InSb) etc., There is large change in the resistance of a cadmium selenide cell with changes in ambient temperature, but the resistance of cadmium sulfide remains relatively stable. Moreover, the spectral response of a cadmium sulfide cell closely matches to that of a human eye. Hence, LDR is used in application where human vision is a factor such as street light control or automatic iris control for cameras. The above mentioned features drive us to opt for CdS based LDR in our electronic circuit for automatic controller.
  13. 13. LDR
  14. 14. 5.b.Transistors BC547
  15. 15. NPN Exitaxial silicon Transistor Symbol Parameter Value Unit VCBO CollectorBase Voltage :BC547 50 V VCEO CollectorEmitterVoltage :BC547 45 V VEBO EmitterBase Voltage :BC547 6 V IC CollectorCurrent(DC) 100 mA PC CollectorPowerDissiption 500 mW TJ JunctionTemperature 150 O C TSTG Stronge Temperature ~65~150 O C Transistor are three terminal active device made from different semiconductor materials that can act as either an insulator or a conductor by the application of a small signal voltage. The transistor’s ability to change between these two states enables it to have two basic functions: switching or amplification. Then bipolar transistors have the ability to operate within three different regions:  Active region – The transistor operates as an amplifier and IC=βIB  Saturation – the transistor is fully-ON operating as a switch IC=Isaturation  Cut of transistor is “fully-OFF” operating as a switch and IC= 0 The word Transistor is an acronym, and is a combination of words transfer Resister used to describe their mode of operation way back in there early day of development. There are two basic type of bipolar transistor construction, NPN and PNP, which basically describes the physical arrangement of the P-type and N-type semiconductor materials from which they are made. A transistor is made of a solid piece of semiconductor material, with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. The bipolar junction. Transistor basic construction consists of two PN-junctions producing three connecting terminal with each terminal being given a name to identify it from the other two. These three terminals are known and labelled as the Emitter (E), the base (B) and the collector (C) respectively. Bipolar transistors are current regulating devices that control the amount of current flowing through them in proportion to the amount of biasing voltage applied to their base terminal acting like a current- controlled switch. The principle of operation of the two transistor types NPN and PNP, is exactly the same the only difference being in their biasing and the polarity of the power supply for each type.
  16. 16. Bipolar Junction Transistor Configurations Since bipolar junction transistor is a three terminal device, there are basically three possible ways to connect it within an electronic circuit with one terminal being common to both the input and output. Each method of connection responding differently to its input signal within a circuit as the static characteristics of the transistor varies with each circuit arrangement.  Common base configuration – has Voltage gain but no current gain.  Common Emitter configuration– has both current and voltage gain.  Common collector configuration – has current gain but no voltage gain
  17. 17. NPN transistor configuration The construction and terminal voltages for an NPN transistor are shown above. The voltage between the base and emitter (VBE) is positive at the base and negative at the emitter because for an NPN transistor, the base terminal is alwys positive with respect to the t5or emitter. Also the collector supply voltage is positive with respect to the Emitter (VCE). For an NPN transistor to conduct, the Collector is always more positive with respect to both the base and the Emitter. The voltage sources will be connected to an NPN transistor as shown above. The collector is connected to the supply volotage VCC via the load resistor, RL which also acts to limit the maximum current flowing through the device. The Base suppy voltage VB is collected to the Base resistor RB, which again is used to limit the maximum Base current.
  18. 18. Typical Characteristics
  19. 19. 5.c.TRANSISTOR BT 136 General Description Glass passivity triacs in a plastic envelop, intended for use in applications requiring high bidirectional transient and blocking voltage capability and high terminal cycling performance. Typical applications include motor control, industrial and domestic lighting, heating and static switching. Syambal Parameter Max Max Max Unit BT136- 500 600 800 BT136- 500F 600F 800F BT136- 500G 600G 800G VDRM Repetive peakoff-statevoltage 500 600 800 V I T(RMS) RMS on-state current 4 4 4 A ITSM Non-repetitive peakon-statecurrent 25 25 25 A
  20. 20. 5.d.RESISTANCE 10KΩ Resistors are the most common passive electronic component (one that does not require power to operate). They are used to control voltage and currents. While a resistor is a very basic component, there are many ways to manufacture them. Each style has its own characteristics that make it desirable in certain types of application. Choosing the right type of resistor is important to making high-performance or precision circuits work well. All resistors are basically just a piece of conducting material with a specific value of resistance. For that piece of conducting material to be made into a practical resistor, a pair of electrodes and leads are attached so current can flow. The resistor is then coated with an insulating material to protect the conducting material from the surrounding environment and vice versa. There are several different resistor construction methods and body styles (or package) that are designed for a certain range of applied voltage, power dissipation, or other considerations. The construction of the resistor can affect its performance at high frequencies where it may act like a small inductor or capacitor has been added, called parasitic inductance or capacitance.
  21. 21. 5.e.Lamp 230 Volt
  22. 22. 5.f.Battery 6Volt Battery 6 volt external using circuit because circuit positive and negative 6 volt urgent.
  23. 23. 6.Component used in Circuit
  24. 24. S.NO COMPONENT NAME NOS RATING 1 LDR 1 NO RATING 2 TRANSISTOR 1 BC547 3 TRANSISTOR 1 BT136 4 RESISTANCE 1 10KΩ 5 LAMP 1 230VOLT 6 6 BATTERY 1 6 VOLT
  25. 25. 7.Practical Circuit
  26. 26. At first LDR Open no light fire. Next Time LDR Cover light fire PCB standards for circuit board. It is a type of connecting system through which we can give a compact look of our project. The board covered with copper strip. This design depend upon the user.
  27. 27. 8.Working
  28. 28. The alternating current voltage (220 V) is stepped down to (6V) using. The stepped down AC voltage is to obtain a constant ripple-free DC voltage, is used across the circuit. In dark, the resistance of light dependent resistor is high. So, the voltage drop across the light dependent resistor is also high. Now the output of the NAND gate N1 is low since both the input signals are high, which makes the switch SW1 to remain open and now the output from NAND gate N2 becomes high since both the input signals are low. The high output signal from the N2 terminal device transistor to the saturation region, which makes the collector current IC very high. Finally, the high collector current flowing through. When a light of suitable intensity is incident on the light dependent resistor, the resistance decrease and the voltage drop across the light dependent resistor is low. Now the output of the NAND gate N1 is high since one of the input signal is low and the other one is high, which makes to close and now the output from NAND gate N2 becomes low since both the input signals are high. The low output signal from the N. Terminal device transistor to the cut-off region. In this case, the collector current is not high enough to make the Lamp glow, since other circuit elements such, Lamp and resistor are connected in parallel to each other. Thus, the toggling the transistor between cut-off region and saturation region it is possible to switch OFF or switch ON the Lamp. In this circuit, BC547 transistor is employed to increase the collector current The extent of darkness or the intensity of light at which the light should switch ON or OFF can be turned by adjustint.
  29. 29. 9.Uses of this project
  30. 30. By employing this circuit energy consumption can be reduce considerably as the switches ON or OFF automatically in appropriate time. Moreover, errors which occur due to manual operation also can be eliminated completely. The Automatic street light controller unit fabrication is cost-effective with good sensitivity and high reproducibility. Moreover, the construction of the circuit is also simple so that it can be done easily as it involves locally available component. The circuits designed in such a way that the extent of darkness at which the light has to switch ON or OFF also can be tailored whenever it is needed. It can be used for other purposes like garden lighting balcony lighting etc.
  31. 31. 10.Conclusion & scope
  32. 32. Application1: The above circuit can be powered from a battery, which can be charged during day time by harvesting the solar energy through solar cell as shown below:
  33. 33. Application 2: The solar energy harvested from sunlight can be stored, inverted from DC voltage to AC voltage using sun tie converted. The AC voltage can be stepped up and given to The Electric grid. The AC voltage Form The electric Grid can be stepped down, rectified and used for powering the circuit. Meanwhile, the street can also be powered by the AC voltage, which is controlled by a relay switch connected to the switching part of the circuit. The above mentioned strategy will be enabling us to harvest solar energy in an effective way for the operation of the circuit and for powering the street light also.
  34. 34. 11.Bibliography
  35. 35. Here are some various sites from where we collect some of important information related. Project are 1) www.ieee.org/about/reserch/2010_project cts. html 2) www.wikipedia.org 3) www.tutorialpoint.com 4) www.made-in-china.com 5) www.globalmaret.com 6) www.red100.org 7) www.alibaba.com 8) www.electronicforyou.com 9) www.electronics-tutorials.com 10)www.circuitstoday.com

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