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The terms and

the concepts

behind the

culture of consent
TESK 2022
Faculty of Law, Rijeka (Croatia)
SANDRA CUADRADO AND BÁRBARA MONLLOR
01 SEXUAL CONSENT 2022
“What I most regretted

were my silences... And

there are so many silences

to be broken.”


Audre Lorde
Being a woman and worrying that something might happen to you is

viewed as an inseparable package; a structure that has been imposed on us

and one that patriarchal society has ensured remains in place.


As Alba Alfageme writes in her essay Quan cridem els nostres noms ("When

we shout our names"), the patriarchal system has stolen our lives and our

existence, sacrificing our rights and freedoms. In short, we simply wouldn't

have had to endure certain experiences and situations, were this world not

infected by male chauvinism.


Background to the project
02 SEXUAL CONSENT 2022
stealthing: An act of sexual aggression consisting in condom removal during

intercourse, or just before, without the consent of the other person.


gaslighting: A form of mental abuse in which a person, often the partner, is

manipulated through persistent denial, misdirection, contradiction and lying, with

the aim or effect of confusing them and leading them to question their own memory,

perception and sanity.


sexpreading: The dissemination – usually via the Internet – of photographs or

audiovisual recordings of a sexual or intimate nature without the person's consent.
Terms such as sexting, stealthing, gaslighting,

spreading… are evidence of gender inequality in the

public space
03 SEXUAL CONSENT 2022
Objective 1: To construct a

culture of consent through the

terms and prepare a change of

scene for women: from victim

to survivor.
04 SEXUAL CONSENT 2022
Why is the term
consent key?
"Rape culture asserts that

women’s testimony is worthless,

untrusworthy. These are

assertations that the víctim has

no rights, no value, is not an

equal. Having a voice is crutial."
Rebecca Solnit
05 SEXUAL CONSENT 2022
Having a voice
The term ‘sexual harrassment’ was coined for the first time in 1974 by Mary

Rowe to describe misconduct at Massachusetts Institute of Technology,

followed by a group of women addressing the same problem at Cornell in
1975. Susan Brownmiller stamped the term ‘date rape’ in 1975.


Rebecca Solnit mentioned in her essay The Mother of all Questions (2017) that

what it is unsayable becomes unknowable and vici versa, until something

breaks. New recognitions required new language, and feminism coined a

plethora of terms to describe the individual experiences that the conversations

of the 1960’s and 1970’s were beginning to flush out of hiding.
06 SEXUAL CONSENT 2022
History of terms
Terminology as a tool for

identifying and reporting what

has happened to you.
07 SEXUAL CONSENT 2022
Objective 2
TERMS
SOURCES
EXPERTS
LEGAL ADVICE
ONGOING PROJECT
Objective 3: a pedagogical tool of

social transformation
SEXUAL
CONSENT
2022
08
The project
The project Terminologia del

consentiment sexual is presented as

an open and reviewable project that

can be expanded with the proposals of

users and that aims to focus on the

culture of consent and that at the

same time aims to name the sexual

harrassment against women.
SEXUAL
CONSENT
2022
09
The project
10 SEXUAL CONSENT 2022
SEXUAL
CONSENT
2022
11
Infographics
This infogrdaphic

contains the terms

related to sexual

consensus and consent,

key material for

understanding that only

YES is YES, and that any

sexual practice must be

voluntary, safe, desired,

consensual and free of

male violence.
12 SEXUAL CONSENT 2022
Spanish legal and social

context
Protection of sexual freedom:
consent.
Background: adultery or cohabitation in the previous Criminal Code (194-1978).
13 SEXUAL CONSENT 2022
For the purposes of the
preceding Section, non-
consensual sexual abuse is
deemed to be that perpetrated
on persons who are unconscious,
or whose mental disorder is
taken advantage of, as well as
those committed by overcoming
the will of the victim using
narcotics, drugs or any other
natural or chemical substance
that is appropriate for such
purpose.
Whoever, without violence or
intimidation and without there
being consent, perpetrates acts
against the sexual freedom or
indemnity of another person,
shall be convicted of sexual
abuse, with a sentence of
imprisonment from one to three
years or a fine of eighteen to
twenty- four months.
2
1
Article 181 – Sexual abuse.
14 SEXUAL CONSENT 2022
2
1
When the sexual assault consists
of vaginal, anal or oral
penetration, or inserting body
parts or objects into either of the
former two orifices, the offender
shall be convicted of rape with a
sentence of imprisonment from
six to twelve years.
Article 178 – Sexual assault. Article 179 – Rape.
15 SEXUAL CONSENT 2022
Whoever, without violence or
intimidation and without there
being consent, perpetrates acts
against the sexual freedom or
indemnity of another person,
shall be convicted of sexual
abuse, with a sentence of
imprisonment from one to three
years or a fine of eighteen to
twenty- four months.
"La Manada" Case, Sentence nº 38/2018, March 20th.
16 SEXUAL CONSENT 2022
Spanish progressive legal change
The Spanish Government Project of Law on

Sexual Liberty.
Report by the Spanish Supreme Court. Repeal of

'La Manada' judgment.
Feminist movement, new terminology in Case

law.
Catalan law nº5/2008, April 24th, on the

women’s right to eradicate gender violence.
17 SEXUAL CONSENT 2022
European context
Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence (GREVIO)
224. (...) to pursue the amendments to the Criminal Code with
a view to ensuring the existence of an offence of rape
firmly rooted in the lack of consent that is operational in
practice and effectively applied by law-enforcement agencies,
prosecution services and the judiciary.
The aim must be to ensure appropriate sanctions for all acts
of a sexual nature without the consent of the victim, including
in the absence of resistance by the victim and where
the circumstances of the case preclude valid consent.
For this purpose, GREVIO strongly encourages the Spanish
authorities to introduce training and guidelines for all those
in the criminal justice system to ensure an understanding
of rape and sexual violence as offences based on the
absence of consent, not the use of force.
ensuring the existence of an offense of

rape (...) in the lack if consent.
including in the absence of resistance

by the victim and where the

circumstances of the case preclude

valid consent.
training and guidelines (...) to ensure

anunderstanding of rape and sexual

violence as offences based on the

absence of consent, not the use of force
18 SEXUAL CONSENT 2022
80. GREVIO encourages the Spanish authorities to maintain
and develop, where necessary, efforts to engage society at
large, in particular men and boys, through community- based
preventive programmes, campaigns and other measures in
efforts to prevent and combat the different forms of violence
against women, including by developing the notion of
respect for sexual autonomy and consent, awareness of
sexual harassment and technology- facilitated or online
violence against women.
efforts to engage society at large, in

particular men and boys.
preventive programmes, campaigns and

other measures
developing the notion of respect for

sexual autonomy and consent,

awareness of sexual harassment and

technology (...)
19 SEXUAL CONSENT 2022
Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence (GREVIO)
European context
Conclusion
SEXUAL
CONSENT
2022
20
21 SEXUAL CONSENT 2022
Instagram
SOCIAL MEDIA
Facebook Instagram Twitter
22 SEXUAL CONSENT 2022
SOCIAL MEDIA
Thank you!
ONLY YES IS YES
SEXUAL CONSENT 2022

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The terms and the concepts behind the culture of consent. Sandra Cuadrado, Bárbara Monllor

  • 1. The terms and the concepts behind the culture of consent TESK 2022 Faculty of Law, Rijeka (Croatia) SANDRA CUADRADO AND BÁRBARA MONLLOR
  • 2. 01 SEXUAL CONSENT 2022 “What I most regretted were my silences... And there are so many silences to be broken.” Audre Lorde
  • 3. Being a woman and worrying that something might happen to you is viewed as an inseparable package; a structure that has been imposed on us and one that patriarchal society has ensured remains in place. As Alba Alfageme writes in her essay Quan cridem els nostres noms ("When we shout our names"), the patriarchal system has stolen our lives and our existence, sacrificing our rights and freedoms. In short, we simply wouldn't have had to endure certain experiences and situations, were this world not infected by male chauvinism. Background to the project 02 SEXUAL CONSENT 2022
  • 4. stealthing: An act of sexual aggression consisting in condom removal during intercourse, or just before, without the consent of the other person. gaslighting: A form of mental abuse in which a person, often the partner, is manipulated through persistent denial, misdirection, contradiction and lying, with the aim or effect of confusing them and leading them to question their own memory, perception and sanity. sexpreading: The dissemination – usually via the Internet – of photographs or audiovisual recordings of a sexual or intimate nature without the person's consent. Terms such as sexting, stealthing, gaslighting, spreading… are evidence of gender inequality in the public space 03 SEXUAL CONSENT 2022
  • 5. Objective 1: To construct a culture of consent through the terms and prepare a change of scene for women: from victim to survivor. 04 SEXUAL CONSENT 2022 Why is the term consent key?
  • 6. "Rape culture asserts that women’s testimony is worthless, untrusworthy. These are assertations that the víctim has no rights, no value, is not an equal. Having a voice is crutial." Rebecca Solnit 05 SEXUAL CONSENT 2022 Having a voice
  • 7. The term ‘sexual harrassment’ was coined for the first time in 1974 by Mary Rowe to describe misconduct at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, followed by a group of women addressing the same problem at Cornell in 1975. Susan Brownmiller stamped the term ‘date rape’ in 1975. Rebecca Solnit mentioned in her essay The Mother of all Questions (2017) that what it is unsayable becomes unknowable and vici versa, until something breaks. New recognitions required new language, and feminism coined a plethora of terms to describe the individual experiences that the conversations of the 1960’s and 1970’s were beginning to flush out of hiding. 06 SEXUAL CONSENT 2022 History of terms
  • 8. Terminology as a tool for identifying and reporting what has happened to you. 07 SEXUAL CONSENT 2022 Objective 2
  • 9. TERMS SOURCES EXPERTS LEGAL ADVICE ONGOING PROJECT Objective 3: a pedagogical tool of social transformation SEXUAL CONSENT 2022 08 The project
  • 10. The project Terminologia del consentiment sexual is presented as an open and reviewable project that can be expanded with the proposals of users and that aims to focus on the culture of consent and that at the same time aims to name the sexual harrassment against women. SEXUAL CONSENT 2022 09 The project
  • 12. SEXUAL CONSENT 2022 11 Infographics This infogrdaphic contains the terms related to sexual consensus and consent, key material for understanding that only YES is YES, and that any sexual practice must be voluntary, safe, desired, consensual and free of male violence.
  • 14. Spanish legal and social context Protection of sexual freedom: consent. Background: adultery or cohabitation in the previous Criminal Code (194-1978). 13 SEXUAL CONSENT 2022
  • 15. For the purposes of the preceding Section, non- consensual sexual abuse is deemed to be that perpetrated on persons who are unconscious, or whose mental disorder is taken advantage of, as well as those committed by overcoming the will of the victim using narcotics, drugs or any other natural or chemical substance that is appropriate for such purpose. Whoever, without violence or intimidation and without there being consent, perpetrates acts against the sexual freedom or indemnity of another person, shall be convicted of sexual abuse, with a sentence of imprisonment from one to three years or a fine of eighteen to twenty- four months. 2 1 Article 181 – Sexual abuse. 14 SEXUAL CONSENT 2022
  • 16. 2 1 When the sexual assault consists of vaginal, anal or oral penetration, or inserting body parts or objects into either of the former two orifices, the offender shall be convicted of rape with a sentence of imprisonment from six to twelve years. Article 178 – Sexual assault. Article 179 – Rape. 15 SEXUAL CONSENT 2022 Whoever, without violence or intimidation and without there being consent, perpetrates acts against the sexual freedom or indemnity of another person, shall be convicted of sexual abuse, with a sentence of imprisonment from one to three years or a fine of eighteen to twenty- four months.
  • 17. "La Manada" Case, Sentence nº 38/2018, March 20th. 16 SEXUAL CONSENT 2022
  • 18. Spanish progressive legal change The Spanish Government Project of Law on Sexual Liberty. Report by the Spanish Supreme Court. Repeal of 'La Manada' judgment. Feminist movement, new terminology in Case law. Catalan law nº5/2008, April 24th, on the women’s right to eradicate gender violence. 17 SEXUAL CONSENT 2022
  • 19. European context Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence (GREVIO) 224. (...) to pursue the amendments to the Criminal Code with a view to ensuring the existence of an offence of rape firmly rooted in the lack of consent that is operational in practice and effectively applied by law-enforcement agencies, prosecution services and the judiciary. The aim must be to ensure appropriate sanctions for all acts of a sexual nature without the consent of the victim, including in the absence of resistance by the victim and where the circumstances of the case preclude valid consent. For this purpose, GREVIO strongly encourages the Spanish authorities to introduce training and guidelines for all those in the criminal justice system to ensure an understanding of rape and sexual violence as offences based on the absence of consent, not the use of force. ensuring the existence of an offense of rape (...) in the lack if consent. including in the absence of resistance by the victim and where the circumstances of the case preclude valid consent. training and guidelines (...) to ensure anunderstanding of rape and sexual violence as offences based on the absence of consent, not the use of force 18 SEXUAL CONSENT 2022
  • 20. 80. GREVIO encourages the Spanish authorities to maintain and develop, where necessary, efforts to engage society at large, in particular men and boys, through community- based preventive programmes, campaigns and other measures in efforts to prevent and combat the different forms of violence against women, including by developing the notion of respect for sexual autonomy and consent, awareness of sexual harassment and technology- facilitated or online violence against women. efforts to engage society at large, in particular men and boys. preventive programmes, campaigns and other measures developing the notion of respect for sexual autonomy and consent, awareness of sexual harassment and technology (...) 19 SEXUAL CONSENT 2022 Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence (GREVIO) European context
  • 22. 21 SEXUAL CONSENT 2022 Instagram SOCIAL MEDIA
  • 23. Facebook Instagram Twitter 22 SEXUAL CONSENT 2022 SOCIAL MEDIA
  • 24. Thank you! ONLY YES IS YES SEXUAL CONSENT 2022