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The path to 5G mobile networks
An outlook on forthcoming technologies
Authors : Nour El Ansari, Marie Macé, Ouassim Driouchi, and Karol
Abramowicz
February, 2017
© 2017 BearingPoint France SAS 2
Comparison of design targets for 4G and 5G
5G target design is revealing a real gap with the current 4G requirements
IMT = International Mobile Telecommunications.
User Experienced
Data Rate
(Mbit/s)
Spectrum
Efficiency
Mobility
(km/h)
Latency
(ms)
Connection
Density
(devices/km2)
Network Energy
Efficiency
Area Traffic
Capacity
(Mbit/s/m2)
Peak Data Rate
(Gbit/s)
1
500400
3x
100
20
10
100x
106
10x
1
10
350
1x
105
1x
0,1
1
10
IMT-Advanced
(4G)
IMT-2020
(5G)
IMT-Advanced compliant standards:
LTE Advanced
WiMAX (IEEE 802.16m)
3.9G compliant: LTE, WiMAX (R2), Ultra Mobile
Broadband, Flash-OFDM, iBurst & MBWA
IMT-2020 compliant standards:
Conceptual
© 2017 BearingPoint France SAS 3
5G is not just a new dimension of bandwidth for mobile communication – It is a real start for the
worldwide IoT
Why 5G is important?
Gbps peak data
rate (theoretical
maximum)
millisecond
end-to-end round trip
delay (latency)
yearsbattery life for
low power, machine-type devices
% reduction in
network energy usage
% availability
% coverage
Gbpsend user
experienced data rate
million
devices / km2
Mbps/m2
area traffic capacity
km/h
mobility
minutes / days
service deployment time
<
4G
1
10
0,1-1
0.01
1
1
10
0,1
10
90
90
500
350
10-100
0,1
100
99,998
90
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
5G
© 2017 BearingPoint France SAS 4
Example: benefits for the Automobile Industry
Why 5G is important?
Requirement Benefits for automobile industry
Very high bandwidth – up to 10 Gbps • Suitable for high volume car-to-car communication
• Frequent, high volume OtA (over the air) updates for new apps and content
• Additional possibilities for new application
Low costs per Gbyte • Frequent, high volume OtA (over the air) updates for new apps and content
Low latency • Enabler for real-time car-to-car communication (e. g. emergency alerts, rapidly
changing traffic conditions - frog, black ice danger, unexpected panic braking)
Low power consumption • Can make future planed, additional on-board 42V power supply obsolete
• Always on (Current vehicles need some time to wake up electronics)
• A number of communication modules can be built in into vehicle (i. e. engine,
caravan, multiply alarm device to reduce risk of vehicle theft)
• Spontaneous communication between fuel tank and petrol pump
Multicast • Connection between vehicles (platooning), traffic control
High availability • Suitable for critical application
Ability to serve very high number of devices • Suitable for critical application
International standard • Build once – deploy everywhere
© 2017 BearingPoint France SAS 5
2012 2013-2014 2015-2016 2017-2019 2018
Lighthouse
projects
• South Korean SK
Telecom plans to
demo 5G in 2018 at
the Pyeongchang
winter Olympics
• Ericsson and Russian
MNO MTS plan to
demonstrate 5G
before World Cup
2018
• Ericsson and
TeliaSonera plan to
make commercial
service available in
Stockholm and
Tallinn by the end of
2018
Development of
alliances
Asia takes lead
Birth of the
5G idea
• “IMT for 2020 and
beyond” launched
by ITU to set scene
for 5G
• METIS* kicked off
by EU to define 5G
(incl. 29 partners
coordinated by
Ericsson)
• Asia “awakens” and
triggers definition
of 5G requirements
• Huawei, Samsung,
NSN and Ericsson
start developments
• First experimental
trials using higher
frequency bands by
NTT Docomo
(Japan)
• 5G Public Private
Partnership
announced in MWC
(in Barcelona)
• Most active
manufacturer is
Huawei
• First E2E network
slicing with low
latency (<1ms)
shown by Huawei,
DT, Samsung,
Stanford University
at MWC 2015
• All top Telcos &
network supplier act
in various
standardisation and
development
groups
Rise of 5G
• Definition of 5G
requirements and
standard
• Supplier plan to
finalise test
networks
• Development of 5G
products
• Further releases of
LTE (until
Rel. 16)
2020 - 2022
Commercial
Deployments
• 2020: First
comprehensive
commercial
deployments are
expected mainly in
Eastern Asia
• 202X: Further
commercial
deployments are
expected in Europe
5G is still at an early stage but initial steps have been made in Asia and Europe
What has happened by now towards 5G?
* METIS: Mobile and wireless Enablers for the Twenty-twenty Information Society 5G
© 2017 BearingPoint France SAS 6
Before 2020, new 4G-related standards and initiatives will enable voice and data enhancement
On the road to 5G, voice will be quickly enhanced, and data capacity will follow
voice data
how?
With VoLTE and VoWifi, voice becomes just
another application enabled by mobile data
LTE-U, LTE-LAA, LTE-LSA, and LTE-M allow
extending LTE to new spectrum bands to extend
capacity and types of devices (IoT)
ready coming
soon
roadmap&maturity
Commercially available in 2-4 years
 LTE-x technologies are still in a trial phase and
will be available in 2018-2019.
 LTE-U : Ericsson & Qualcomm started trials
since 2014. MTN & US operators joined them
in 2016
 LTE –M : after a standardization phase, Sierra
Wireless plans to launch a 1st field prototype
in 2017.
Commercially available
 By 2017, most operators will provide VoLTE &
VoWifi.
 Currently :
 VoLTE & VoWifi are available in US + APAC,
rolling-out in Europe
 VoLTE : launched by 60+ operators in 39
countries
 VoWifi : launched by 100 operators
© 2017 BearingPoint France SAS 7
Both customers and operators will benefit from these 4G enhancements
 LTE-U & LSA will improve the bandwidth for existing
apps without heavy network spendings
 LTE-M will enable new IoT applications
better voice experience due to :
 [VoLTE] lower latency for connection
 [VoX] more stability in data rate (QoS)
 [VoX] ability to use a data connection meanwhile
 [VoWiFi] better indoor coverage
reduced call charges, mainly in roaming situations
Telemedicine, with VoWiFi
patients and doctors can communicate visually and
verbally as they review a patient’s vitals dashboard
in real time
improved bandwidth & latency useful for
gluttonous services :
 video : high quality (4K), live streaming,
videoconferencing…
 live gaming
 telemedicine
energy savings can be made in smart buildings in
which water & electricity consumption are
monitored and adapted to weather conditions
 enabling unified communication services
 increased network capacity with limited
investment
 off-loading mobile networks on local networks
like WiFi
 get more revenues from data OTT services like
streaming & gaming without buying spectrum
 improve market share on the IoT market
without spending on expensive LPWA networks
customers
operators
use case
Smart Buildings, with LTE-M
 VoLTE : a better voice quality for customers, and an
enabler for unified communication services
 VoWifi : roaming savings with better indoor coverage,
and a way to off-load mobile networks
minor
benefits
major
benefits
voice data
© 2017 BearingPoint France SAS 8
The Promise
NFV/SDN increases flexibility and responsiveness for networks operations, and hence brings an
adapted response to customers and operators need for quick network services evolutions
Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) and Software Defined Networks (SDN)
might speed up the integration of these enhancements on operator’s networks
• Rapid service innovation and expansion with less risk
• Elastically scale and utilize network resources more
efficiently
• Lower operating costs through homogenized physical
infrastructure
NFVSDN
• Separation of control and forwarding functions
• Centralization of control
• Ability to program the behavior of the network using
well-defined interfaces
Why is it important ?
4G Mobile Network functions, such as Evolved Packet Core (EPC) and
voice over LTE (VoLTE), are now deployable in the cloud.
This will enable an easier upgrade and scalability for Network
functions and applications. Particularly because the services and
functions that relay on the 4G core (optimization, analytics, security,
etc.) are very well suited to virtualization and NFV.
For example, thanks to NFV/SDN:
• a virtualized 4G core network could be deployed on a local server in
a factory, to speed-up network’s response time. At the same time,
for the factory’s IoT needs, it should be possible to support LTE-M
functions from a centrally placed installation.
• CSPs should be able to support “network slicing” to achieve
network behavior differentiation, on-demand, and on a per-
customer or per-application/use case basis.
These types of abilities enabled on 4G networks are some of the guidelines that will be at the heart of 5G.
Specialists foresee that NFV/SDN will play a core role in designing performant and secure 5G networks.
© 2017 BearingPoint France SAS 9
As a conclusion : 5G is highly promising but still far. However, new services can be enabled by
4G evolutions and NFV/SDN to quickly fulfill some “advanced” industrial requirements
Requirement
Client satisfaction level by
LTE as of 2016 Advanced 4G-evols 5G
Very high bandwidth Partially Yes
Low costs per Gbyte Yes Yes
Low latency Partially Yes
Low power consumption Yes Yes
Multicast Yes Yes
High availability Partially Yes
Ability to serve very high number of devices Partially Yes
International standard Yes Yes
1G 2G 3G 4G
4.xG
(VoLTE, VoWifi, LTE-U, LTE-LSA,
LTE-M)
5G
(IMT-2020)
• Basic voice service
• Analog-based
protocols
• Designed for voice
• Improved coverage
and capacity
• First Digital
standards (GSM,
CDMA)
• Designed for voice
with some data
consideration
(multimedia, text,
Internet)
• First mobile
broadband
• Designed primarily
for data
• IP-based protocols
(LTE)
• True mobile
broadband
• Extended to include
« voice as an app »
• Better bandwidth by
extending to new
spectrum bands
• Designed for a wide
range of devices
including IoT with
high performance
(speed, energy)
• Real-time mobile
broadband
2.4 kbps 64 kbps 2 Mbps 100 Mbps 1 Gbps 50 Gbps
An ever-increasing Need For Speed…
The path to 5G mobile networks

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The path to 5G mobile networks

  • 1. The path to 5G mobile networks An outlook on forthcoming technologies Authors : Nour El Ansari, Marie Macé, Ouassim Driouchi, and Karol Abramowicz February, 2017
  • 2. © 2017 BearingPoint France SAS 2 Comparison of design targets for 4G and 5G 5G target design is revealing a real gap with the current 4G requirements IMT = International Mobile Telecommunications. User Experienced Data Rate (Mbit/s) Spectrum Efficiency Mobility (km/h) Latency (ms) Connection Density (devices/km2) Network Energy Efficiency Area Traffic Capacity (Mbit/s/m2) Peak Data Rate (Gbit/s) 1 500400 3x 100 20 10 100x 106 10x 1 10 350 1x 105 1x 0,1 1 10 IMT-Advanced (4G) IMT-2020 (5G) IMT-Advanced compliant standards: LTE Advanced WiMAX (IEEE 802.16m) 3.9G compliant: LTE, WiMAX (R2), Ultra Mobile Broadband, Flash-OFDM, iBurst & MBWA IMT-2020 compliant standards: Conceptual
  • 3. © 2017 BearingPoint France SAS 3 5G is not just a new dimension of bandwidth for mobile communication – It is a real start for the worldwide IoT Why 5G is important? Gbps peak data rate (theoretical maximum) millisecond end-to-end round trip delay (latency) yearsbattery life for low power, machine-type devices % reduction in network energy usage % availability % coverage Gbpsend user experienced data rate million devices / km2 Mbps/m2 area traffic capacity km/h mobility minutes / days service deployment time < 4G 1 10 0,1-1 0.01 1 1 10 0,1 10 90 90 500 350 10-100 0,1 100 99,998 90 n/a n/a n/a n/a 5G
  • 4. © 2017 BearingPoint France SAS 4 Example: benefits for the Automobile Industry Why 5G is important? Requirement Benefits for automobile industry Very high bandwidth – up to 10 Gbps • Suitable for high volume car-to-car communication • Frequent, high volume OtA (over the air) updates for new apps and content • Additional possibilities for new application Low costs per Gbyte • Frequent, high volume OtA (over the air) updates for new apps and content Low latency • Enabler for real-time car-to-car communication (e. g. emergency alerts, rapidly changing traffic conditions - frog, black ice danger, unexpected panic braking) Low power consumption • Can make future planed, additional on-board 42V power supply obsolete • Always on (Current vehicles need some time to wake up electronics) • A number of communication modules can be built in into vehicle (i. e. engine, caravan, multiply alarm device to reduce risk of vehicle theft) • Spontaneous communication between fuel tank and petrol pump Multicast • Connection between vehicles (platooning), traffic control High availability • Suitable for critical application Ability to serve very high number of devices • Suitable for critical application International standard • Build once – deploy everywhere
  • 5. © 2017 BearingPoint France SAS 5 2012 2013-2014 2015-2016 2017-2019 2018 Lighthouse projects • South Korean SK Telecom plans to demo 5G in 2018 at the Pyeongchang winter Olympics • Ericsson and Russian MNO MTS plan to demonstrate 5G before World Cup 2018 • Ericsson and TeliaSonera plan to make commercial service available in Stockholm and Tallinn by the end of 2018 Development of alliances Asia takes lead Birth of the 5G idea • “IMT for 2020 and beyond” launched by ITU to set scene for 5G • METIS* kicked off by EU to define 5G (incl. 29 partners coordinated by Ericsson) • Asia “awakens” and triggers definition of 5G requirements • Huawei, Samsung, NSN and Ericsson start developments • First experimental trials using higher frequency bands by NTT Docomo (Japan) • 5G Public Private Partnership announced in MWC (in Barcelona) • Most active manufacturer is Huawei • First E2E network slicing with low latency (<1ms) shown by Huawei, DT, Samsung, Stanford University at MWC 2015 • All top Telcos & network supplier act in various standardisation and development groups Rise of 5G • Definition of 5G requirements and standard • Supplier plan to finalise test networks • Development of 5G products • Further releases of LTE (until Rel. 16) 2020 - 2022 Commercial Deployments • 2020: First comprehensive commercial deployments are expected mainly in Eastern Asia • 202X: Further commercial deployments are expected in Europe 5G is still at an early stage but initial steps have been made in Asia and Europe What has happened by now towards 5G? * METIS: Mobile and wireless Enablers for the Twenty-twenty Information Society 5G
  • 6. © 2017 BearingPoint France SAS 6 Before 2020, new 4G-related standards and initiatives will enable voice and data enhancement On the road to 5G, voice will be quickly enhanced, and data capacity will follow voice data how? With VoLTE and VoWifi, voice becomes just another application enabled by mobile data LTE-U, LTE-LAA, LTE-LSA, and LTE-M allow extending LTE to new spectrum bands to extend capacity and types of devices (IoT) ready coming soon roadmap&maturity Commercially available in 2-4 years  LTE-x technologies are still in a trial phase and will be available in 2018-2019.  LTE-U : Ericsson & Qualcomm started trials since 2014. MTN & US operators joined them in 2016  LTE –M : after a standardization phase, Sierra Wireless plans to launch a 1st field prototype in 2017. Commercially available  By 2017, most operators will provide VoLTE & VoWifi.  Currently :  VoLTE & VoWifi are available in US + APAC, rolling-out in Europe  VoLTE : launched by 60+ operators in 39 countries  VoWifi : launched by 100 operators
  • 7. © 2017 BearingPoint France SAS 7 Both customers and operators will benefit from these 4G enhancements  LTE-U & LSA will improve the bandwidth for existing apps without heavy network spendings  LTE-M will enable new IoT applications better voice experience due to :  [VoLTE] lower latency for connection  [VoX] more stability in data rate (QoS)  [VoX] ability to use a data connection meanwhile  [VoWiFi] better indoor coverage reduced call charges, mainly in roaming situations Telemedicine, with VoWiFi patients and doctors can communicate visually and verbally as they review a patient’s vitals dashboard in real time improved bandwidth & latency useful for gluttonous services :  video : high quality (4K), live streaming, videoconferencing…  live gaming  telemedicine energy savings can be made in smart buildings in which water & electricity consumption are monitored and adapted to weather conditions  enabling unified communication services  increased network capacity with limited investment  off-loading mobile networks on local networks like WiFi  get more revenues from data OTT services like streaming & gaming without buying spectrum  improve market share on the IoT market without spending on expensive LPWA networks customers operators use case Smart Buildings, with LTE-M  VoLTE : a better voice quality for customers, and an enabler for unified communication services  VoWifi : roaming savings with better indoor coverage, and a way to off-load mobile networks minor benefits major benefits voice data
  • 8. © 2017 BearingPoint France SAS 8 The Promise NFV/SDN increases flexibility and responsiveness for networks operations, and hence brings an adapted response to customers and operators need for quick network services evolutions Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) and Software Defined Networks (SDN) might speed up the integration of these enhancements on operator’s networks • Rapid service innovation and expansion with less risk • Elastically scale and utilize network resources more efficiently • Lower operating costs through homogenized physical infrastructure NFVSDN • Separation of control and forwarding functions • Centralization of control • Ability to program the behavior of the network using well-defined interfaces Why is it important ? 4G Mobile Network functions, such as Evolved Packet Core (EPC) and voice over LTE (VoLTE), are now deployable in the cloud. This will enable an easier upgrade and scalability for Network functions and applications. Particularly because the services and functions that relay on the 4G core (optimization, analytics, security, etc.) are very well suited to virtualization and NFV. For example, thanks to NFV/SDN: • a virtualized 4G core network could be deployed on a local server in a factory, to speed-up network’s response time. At the same time, for the factory’s IoT needs, it should be possible to support LTE-M functions from a centrally placed installation. • CSPs should be able to support “network slicing” to achieve network behavior differentiation, on-demand, and on a per- customer or per-application/use case basis. These types of abilities enabled on 4G networks are some of the guidelines that will be at the heart of 5G. Specialists foresee that NFV/SDN will play a core role in designing performant and secure 5G networks.
  • 9. © 2017 BearingPoint France SAS 9 As a conclusion : 5G is highly promising but still far. However, new services can be enabled by 4G evolutions and NFV/SDN to quickly fulfill some “advanced” industrial requirements Requirement Client satisfaction level by LTE as of 2016 Advanced 4G-evols 5G Very high bandwidth Partially Yes Low costs per Gbyte Yes Yes Low latency Partially Yes Low power consumption Yes Yes Multicast Yes Yes High availability Partially Yes Ability to serve very high number of devices Partially Yes International standard Yes Yes 1G 2G 3G 4G 4.xG (VoLTE, VoWifi, LTE-U, LTE-LSA, LTE-M) 5G (IMT-2020) • Basic voice service • Analog-based protocols • Designed for voice • Improved coverage and capacity • First Digital standards (GSM, CDMA) • Designed for voice with some data consideration (multimedia, text, Internet) • First mobile broadband • Designed primarily for data • IP-based protocols (LTE) • True mobile broadband • Extended to include « voice as an app » • Better bandwidth by extending to new spectrum bands • Designed for a wide range of devices including IoT with high performance (speed, energy) • Real-time mobile broadband 2.4 kbps 64 kbps 2 Mbps 100 Mbps 1 Gbps 50 Gbps An ever-increasing Need For Speed…