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SHA02 – Le REST API
di SharePoint 2013
Giuseppe Marchi
Dev4Side S.r.l. – SharePoint MVP
info@peppedotnet.it - @PeppeDotNet
http://www.peppedotnet.it
http://www.dev4side.com
#CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
Grazie a
Sponsor

#CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
Who I am
•

Co-founder of Dev4Side S.r.l.

•

4 years Microsoft SharePoint MVP

•

Speaker in Microsoft and Community events in Italy

•

MCP, MCPD Web applications, MCTS ASP.NET 4, WSS 3.0, MOSS 2007 and
SharePoint 2010

•

"SharePointer" from 2005

•

Father of www.peppedotnet.it 

•

Author of the book «Pocket C#», Apogeo

•

Active member, speaker and promoter of SharePointCommunity.it

•

First, in Italy, with an App in the Office Store

•

One of the TOP 25 SharePoint Influencers in Europe

#CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
Agenda
•

What’s REST?

•

What’s REST in SharePoint

•

SharePoint 2013 API changes
 What’s new with REST interface

•

New REST APIs syntax

•

Basic operators and actions

•

General tips

•

Known limits

#CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
What’s REST?
•

REST = Representational State Transfer
 It’s an architecture style for designing networked applications
 RESTful applications use HTTP requests to post data (create and/or update),
read data (e.g., make queries), and delete data. Thus, REST uses HTTP for all
four CRUD (Create/Read/Update/Delete) operations.
 REST is a lightweight alternative to Web Services

•

It’s an architectural style, awesome for cross-platform apps

•

Easier and smaller than SOAP

•

Easy to use with Javascript, than C#

#CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
What’s REST in SharePoint?

#CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
What’s REST in SharePoint?
•

It’s another way to consume data, use all the advanced services and
functionalities exposed by SharePoint from your own client applications

•

in a secure way

•

… all done with a simple HTTP request!

#CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
What we had in the past?
•

MOSS 2007
 SOAP Services

•

SharePoint 2010
 SOAP Services
 Client Object Model





Direct access to client.svc service
Request always in XML
Must use a proxy
Supports only .NET, Silverlight and Javascript

 REST Interface (ListData.svc)
 Only for lists!

#CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
What we have now – New REST APIs
•

Direct access to client.svc service (using _api alias)

•

Access HTTP GET, PUT, Merge, POST Requests

•

OData implementation*

•

Atom XML or JSON as data type

•

Supports any application, language or platform that enables you to do a
HTTP request

 You can access to a lot of features of the Client Object Model through an HTTP
request!

#CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
demo
Our first call to SharePoint 2013 REST APIs

#CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
Entry points
REST service includes several access points that enable developers to
navigate to specific functionality of SharePoint 2013. The table below lists
some of these access points.
Feature area

Entry point

Context

http://server/site/_api/contextInfo

Site

http://server/site/_api/site

Web

http://server/site/_api/web

User profile

http://server/site/_api/SP
.UserProfiles.PeopleManager

Search

http://server/site/_api/search

Publishing

http://server/site/_api/publishing

Excel services (new and

http://server/site/_vti_bin/ExcelRest.aspx

only on SharePoint Online)

#CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
URL syntax for REST calls
•

A request to the new REST interface shall use an URL composed in the
following way:
 Part 1 - Service root URI
 Es: http://siteurl/_api/

 Part 2 - Resource path (default entry point + resource)
 Es: web, site collection, list, file, sql table, user, namespace, method, etc…

 Part 3 - Query strings options (OData operators)
 Es: $filter, $select, etc…

Full documentation on MSDN:

http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/office/dn292556.aspx

#CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
Allowed HTTP methods
•

Each REST command is a POST, GET, PUT, MERGE or DELETE HTTP
request (mapping to CRUD) where the specific resource is in the URL
and into request data





READ -> GET HTTP request
CREATE -> HTTP POST request
UPDATE -> HTTP POST PUT or HTTP POST MERGE request
DELETE -> HTTP DELETE request

#CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
demo
Let’s play with _api

#CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
Sample URLs
http://siteurl/_api/web
http://siteurl/_api/web/lists
http://siteurl/_api/web/lists?$filter=BaseTemplate eq 101
http://siteurl/_api/web/lists?$orderby=Title asc
http://siteurl/_api/web/lists?$top=5&$skip=5
http://siteurl/_api/web/lists?$filter=startswith(Title, 'Shared')
http://siteurl/_api/web/lists/getByTitle('Contacts')
http://siteurl/_api/web/lists/getByTitle('Contacts')/items
http://siteurl/_api/web/lists/getByTitle('Contacts')/items(1)
http://siteurl/_api/web/lists/getByTitle('Contacts')/items(1)/Title
http://siteurl/_api/web/lists/getByTitle('Contacts')/items(1)?$select=Title
http://siteurl/_api/web/lists/getbytitle('shared documents')/rootfolder/folders?$select=Name
http://siteurl/_api/web/getFolderByServerRelativeUrl('/Shared documents/Folder1/Folder2')
http://siteurl/_api/web/getFolderByServerRelativeUrl('Shared documents')/Folders/add(url=''New
folder')
http://siteurl/_api/Web/getFolderByServerRelativeUrl('Shared
documents')/Files/add(url='NewFile.txt', overwrite=true)
http://siteurl/_api/web/currentuser/email

#CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
How to find resource path?
•

Start from /_api/web!

•

Client object model reference

•

List of assemblies: 15/config/clientcallable xml files

•

SPRemoteAPIExplorer Visual Studio Extension

•

REST Navigator
(http://sprest.architectingconnectedsystems.com/navigator.aspx)

#CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
How to compone a query
•

In order to use the new REST interface in SharePoint 2013, you have to create
an HTTP request using these parameters:






URL – URI of the resource you want to manage
Request type – GET/POST
Data - parameters for POST queries
ContentType – Content type of Data (XML/JSON), default: XML
Headers





•

Accept – Content type of the response (XML/JSON), default: XML
X-RequestDigest – Security token
X-HTTP-Method – PUT/MERGE/DELETE
IF-MATCH – To manage concurrency

Note: you can do this HTTP request from every platform or programming
language!

#CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
demo
How to compone a query

#CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
Basic operations – Read (Javascript)
$.ajax({
url: '/_api/web/lists/getByTitle('LIST NAME')/items',
type: 'GET',
headers: {
'Accept': 'application/json;odata=verbose',
},
success: function (data) {
$.each(data.d.results, function(index, items) {
//...
}
},
error: function (jqXHR, textStatus, errorThrown) {
//...
}
});

#CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
Basic operations – Read (C#)
//url
string url = "http://sp2013/_api/web/lists?$select=Title";
//credenziali
CredentialCache credentials = new CredentialCache();
credentials.Add(new Uri(url), "NTLM", CredentialCache.DefaultNetworkCredentials);
//richiesta HTTP
HttpWebRequest request = (HttpWebRequest)HttpWebRequest.Create(url);
request.Credentials = credentials;
request.Method = "GET";
request.Accept = "application/atom+xml;odata=verbose";
request.ContentLength = 0;
//lettura risposta HTTP
Stream postStream;
HttpWebResponse response = (HttpWebResponse)request.GetResponse();
string results = GetHTTPResponse(response, out postStream, out results);
XmlDocument doc = new XmlDocument();
doc.LoadXml(results);
XmlNamespaceManager namespaces = new XmlNamespaceManager(new NameTable());
namespaces.AddNamespace("d", "http://schemas.microsoft.com/ado/2007/08/dataservices");
var lists = doc.SelectNodes("//d:Title", namespaces);
foreach (XmlNode list in lists)
Console.WriteLine(list.InnerText);

#CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
Basic operations - Insert
$.ajax({
url: '/_api/web/lists/getByTitle('LIST NAME')/items',
type: 'POST',
data: JSON.stringify(JSON OBJECT),
contentType: 'application/json;odata=verbose',
headers: {
'content-type': 'application/json;odata=verbose',
'Accept': 'application/json;odata=verbose',
'X-RequestDigest': 'DIGEST VALUE'
},
success: function (data) {
//...
},
error: function (jqXHR, textStatus, errorThrown) {
//...
}
});
#CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
Basic operations - Insert
$.ajax({
url: '/_api/web/lists/getByTitle('LIST NAME')/items',
type: 'POST',
data: JSON.stringify(JSON OBJECT),
contentType: 'application/json;odata=verbose',
headers: {
'content-type': 'application/json;odata=verbose',
'Accept': 'application/json;odata=verbose',
'X-RequestDigest': 'DIGEST VALUE' //??????????????
},
success: function (data) {
//...
},
error: function (jqXHR, textStatus, errorThrown) {
//...
}
});
#CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
The digest
•

It’s a token that enables SharePoint to validate current user session

•

It’s required for every POST call to REST APIs in which you change data
(INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE) and shall be the value of the HTTP header:
 X-RequestDigest

•

Where we can find this value?

#CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
The digest – How to find it?
OPTION 1

var formDigest = '';
$.ajax({
url: http://siteurl/_api/contextinfo
type: 'POST',
contentType: 'application/json;odata=verbose',
headers: { 'Accept': 'application/json;odata=verbose'},
success: function (data) {
formDigest = data.d.GetContextWebInformation.FormDigestValue;
},
error: function (jqXHR, textStatus, errorThrown) {
alert(errorThrown);
},
async: false
});
OPTION 2
var formDigest = $('__REQUESTDIGEST').val();
#CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
Basic operations - Update

Note: For MERGE requests,
setting properties is
optional; any properties
that you do not explicitly
set retain their current
property. For PUT
requests, if you do not
specify all required
properties in object
updates, the REST service
returns an exception.

#CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
Basic operations - Delete

#CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
General tips
•

Limit response length!
 Request only data that you want to use, with the $select parameter
 Paginate response where you can
 Use JSON (you get a smaller payload)

•

Limit the number of requests
 Remember that you are a client and that the request comes from a server

•

Request data in async way

•

Take care of concurrency (using IF-MATCH header)

#CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
Known limits
•

Operations are a subset of the Client Object Model
 Client Object Model is a subset of the Server Object Model…

•

No request batching

•

No elevation of privilegies

•

OData is not fully implemented

•

256 characters for URLs

•

Items pagination with $top and $skip it’s bugged

#CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
BELLA! 
www.peppedotnet.it
www.dev4side.com

#CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
Do you SharePoint?
•

SharePoint & Office Conference 2014
 27-28 Maggio 2014

•

http://www.sharepointconference.it/

•

Perché non puoi mancare





•

I migliori speaker italiani ed internazionali
30 sessioni tecniche + video registrati
Roundtable
Ask the Expert

Super Early Bird fino al 28 Marzo 2014!

#CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
Q&A
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#CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014

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SharePoint 2013 REST APIs

  • 1. SHA02 – Le REST API di SharePoint 2013 Giuseppe Marchi Dev4Side S.r.l. – SharePoint MVP info@peppedotnet.it - @PeppeDotNet http://www.peppedotnet.it http://www.dev4side.com #CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
  • 2. Grazie a Sponsor #CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
  • 3. Who I am • Co-founder of Dev4Side S.r.l. • 4 years Microsoft SharePoint MVP • Speaker in Microsoft and Community events in Italy • MCP, MCPD Web applications, MCTS ASP.NET 4, WSS 3.0, MOSS 2007 and SharePoint 2010 • "SharePointer" from 2005 • Father of www.peppedotnet.it  • Author of the book «Pocket C#», Apogeo • Active member, speaker and promoter of SharePointCommunity.it • First, in Italy, with an App in the Office Store • One of the TOP 25 SharePoint Influencers in Europe #CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
  • 4. Agenda • What’s REST? • What’s REST in SharePoint • SharePoint 2013 API changes  What’s new with REST interface • New REST APIs syntax • Basic operators and actions • General tips • Known limits #CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
  • 5. What’s REST? • REST = Representational State Transfer  It’s an architecture style for designing networked applications  RESTful applications use HTTP requests to post data (create and/or update), read data (e.g., make queries), and delete data. Thus, REST uses HTTP for all four CRUD (Create/Read/Update/Delete) operations.  REST is a lightweight alternative to Web Services • It’s an architectural style, awesome for cross-platform apps • Easier and smaller than SOAP • Easy to use with Javascript, than C# #CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
  • 6. What’s REST in SharePoint? #CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
  • 7. What’s REST in SharePoint? • It’s another way to consume data, use all the advanced services and functionalities exposed by SharePoint from your own client applications • in a secure way • … all done with a simple HTTP request! #CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
  • 8. What we had in the past? • MOSS 2007  SOAP Services • SharePoint 2010  SOAP Services  Client Object Model     Direct access to client.svc service Request always in XML Must use a proxy Supports only .NET, Silverlight and Javascript  REST Interface (ListData.svc)  Only for lists! #CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
  • 9. What we have now – New REST APIs • Direct access to client.svc service (using _api alias) • Access HTTP GET, PUT, Merge, POST Requests • OData implementation* • Atom XML or JSON as data type • Supports any application, language or platform that enables you to do a HTTP request  You can access to a lot of features of the Client Object Model through an HTTP request! #CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
  • 10. demo Our first call to SharePoint 2013 REST APIs #CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
  • 11. Entry points REST service includes several access points that enable developers to navigate to specific functionality of SharePoint 2013. The table below lists some of these access points. Feature area Entry point Context http://server/site/_api/contextInfo Site http://server/site/_api/site Web http://server/site/_api/web User profile http://server/site/_api/SP .UserProfiles.PeopleManager Search http://server/site/_api/search Publishing http://server/site/_api/publishing Excel services (new and http://server/site/_vti_bin/ExcelRest.aspx only on SharePoint Online) #CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
  • 12. URL syntax for REST calls • A request to the new REST interface shall use an URL composed in the following way:  Part 1 - Service root URI  Es: http://siteurl/_api/  Part 2 - Resource path (default entry point + resource)  Es: web, site collection, list, file, sql table, user, namespace, method, etc…  Part 3 - Query strings options (OData operators)  Es: $filter, $select, etc… Full documentation on MSDN: http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/office/dn292556.aspx #CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
  • 13. Allowed HTTP methods • Each REST command is a POST, GET, PUT, MERGE or DELETE HTTP request (mapping to CRUD) where the specific resource is in the URL and into request data     READ -> GET HTTP request CREATE -> HTTP POST request UPDATE -> HTTP POST PUT or HTTP POST MERGE request DELETE -> HTTP DELETE request #CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
  • 14. demo Let’s play with _api #CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
  • 15. Sample URLs http://siteurl/_api/web http://siteurl/_api/web/lists http://siteurl/_api/web/lists?$filter=BaseTemplate eq 101 http://siteurl/_api/web/lists?$orderby=Title asc http://siteurl/_api/web/lists?$top=5&$skip=5 http://siteurl/_api/web/lists?$filter=startswith(Title, 'Shared') http://siteurl/_api/web/lists/getByTitle('Contacts') http://siteurl/_api/web/lists/getByTitle('Contacts')/items http://siteurl/_api/web/lists/getByTitle('Contacts')/items(1) http://siteurl/_api/web/lists/getByTitle('Contacts')/items(1)/Title http://siteurl/_api/web/lists/getByTitle('Contacts')/items(1)?$select=Title http://siteurl/_api/web/lists/getbytitle('shared documents')/rootfolder/folders?$select=Name http://siteurl/_api/web/getFolderByServerRelativeUrl('/Shared documents/Folder1/Folder2') http://siteurl/_api/web/getFolderByServerRelativeUrl('Shared documents')/Folders/add(url=''New folder') http://siteurl/_api/Web/getFolderByServerRelativeUrl('Shared documents')/Files/add(url='NewFile.txt', overwrite=true) http://siteurl/_api/web/currentuser/email #CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
  • 16. How to find resource path? • Start from /_api/web! • Client object model reference • List of assemblies: 15/config/clientcallable xml files • SPRemoteAPIExplorer Visual Studio Extension • REST Navigator (http://sprest.architectingconnectedsystems.com/navigator.aspx) #CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
  • 17. How to compone a query • In order to use the new REST interface in SharePoint 2013, you have to create an HTTP request using these parameters:      URL – URI of the resource you want to manage Request type – GET/POST Data - parameters for POST queries ContentType – Content type of Data (XML/JSON), default: XML Headers     • Accept – Content type of the response (XML/JSON), default: XML X-RequestDigest – Security token X-HTTP-Method – PUT/MERGE/DELETE IF-MATCH – To manage concurrency Note: you can do this HTTP request from every platform or programming language! #CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
  • 18. demo How to compone a query #CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
  • 19. Basic operations – Read (Javascript) $.ajax({ url: '/_api/web/lists/getByTitle('LIST NAME')/items', type: 'GET', headers: { 'Accept': 'application/json;odata=verbose', }, success: function (data) { $.each(data.d.results, function(index, items) { //... } }, error: function (jqXHR, textStatus, errorThrown) { //... } }); #CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
  • 20. Basic operations – Read (C#) //url string url = "http://sp2013/_api/web/lists?$select=Title"; //credenziali CredentialCache credentials = new CredentialCache(); credentials.Add(new Uri(url), "NTLM", CredentialCache.DefaultNetworkCredentials); //richiesta HTTP HttpWebRequest request = (HttpWebRequest)HttpWebRequest.Create(url); request.Credentials = credentials; request.Method = "GET"; request.Accept = "application/atom+xml;odata=verbose"; request.ContentLength = 0; //lettura risposta HTTP Stream postStream; HttpWebResponse response = (HttpWebResponse)request.GetResponse(); string results = GetHTTPResponse(response, out postStream, out results); XmlDocument doc = new XmlDocument(); doc.LoadXml(results); XmlNamespaceManager namespaces = new XmlNamespaceManager(new NameTable()); namespaces.AddNamespace("d", "http://schemas.microsoft.com/ado/2007/08/dataservices"); var lists = doc.SelectNodes("//d:Title", namespaces); foreach (XmlNode list in lists) Console.WriteLine(list.InnerText); #CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
  • 21. Basic operations - Insert $.ajax({ url: '/_api/web/lists/getByTitle('LIST NAME')/items', type: 'POST', data: JSON.stringify(JSON OBJECT), contentType: 'application/json;odata=verbose', headers: { 'content-type': 'application/json;odata=verbose', 'Accept': 'application/json;odata=verbose', 'X-RequestDigest': 'DIGEST VALUE' }, success: function (data) { //... }, error: function (jqXHR, textStatus, errorThrown) { //... } }); #CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
  • 22. Basic operations - Insert $.ajax({ url: '/_api/web/lists/getByTitle('LIST NAME')/items', type: 'POST', data: JSON.stringify(JSON OBJECT), contentType: 'application/json;odata=verbose', headers: { 'content-type': 'application/json;odata=verbose', 'Accept': 'application/json;odata=verbose', 'X-RequestDigest': 'DIGEST VALUE' //?????????????? }, success: function (data) { //... }, error: function (jqXHR, textStatus, errorThrown) { //... } }); #CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
  • 23. The digest • It’s a token that enables SharePoint to validate current user session • It’s required for every POST call to REST APIs in which you change data (INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE) and shall be the value of the HTTP header:  X-RequestDigest • Where we can find this value? #CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
  • 24. The digest – How to find it? OPTION 1 var formDigest = ''; $.ajax({ url: http://siteurl/_api/contextinfo type: 'POST', contentType: 'application/json;odata=verbose', headers: { 'Accept': 'application/json;odata=verbose'}, success: function (data) { formDigest = data.d.GetContextWebInformation.FormDigestValue; }, error: function (jqXHR, textStatus, errorThrown) { alert(errorThrown); }, async: false }); OPTION 2 var formDigest = $('__REQUESTDIGEST').val(); #CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
  • 25. Basic operations - Update Note: For MERGE requests, setting properties is optional; any properties that you do not explicitly set retain their current property. For PUT requests, if you do not specify all required properties in object updates, the REST service returns an exception. #CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
  • 26. Basic operations - Delete #CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
  • 27. General tips • Limit response length!  Request only data that you want to use, with the $select parameter  Paginate response where you can  Use JSON (you get a smaller payload) • Limit the number of requests  Remember that you are a client and that the request comes from a server • Request data in async way • Take care of concurrency (using IF-MATCH header) #CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
  • 28. Known limits • Operations are a subset of the Client Object Model  Client Object Model is a subset of the Server Object Model… • No request batching • No elevation of privilegies • OData is not fully implemented • 256 characters for URLs • Items pagination with $top and $skip it’s bugged #CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
  • 30. Do you SharePoint? • SharePoint & Office Conference 2014  27-28 Maggio 2014 • http://www.sharepointconference.it/ • Perché non puoi mancare     • I migliori speaker italiani ed internazionali 30 sessioni tecniche + video registrati Roundtable Ask the Expert Super Early Bird fino al 28 Marzo 2014! #CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014
  • 31. Q&A Tutto il materiale di questa sessione su http://www.communitydays.it/ Lascia il feedback su questa sessione, potrai essere estratto per i nostri premi! Seguici su Twitter @CommunityDaysIT Facebook http://facebook.com/cdaysit #CDays14 #CDays14 – Milano 25, 26 e 27 Febbraio 2014