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Buyer
Persona
in Marketing
Automation
Practical Guide to Creation
and Use of Personas
WHAT IS A BUYER PERSONA?
Definition
Use of Personas
Effects: Buyer Persona in numbers
CREATING BUYER PERSONA. METHODOLOGY
When to create a Persona?
Where to get data from?
Useful tools
How Marketing Automation helps you build a Persona?
Archetype theory (optional)
CREATING BUYER PERSONA STEP BY STEP
Let’s Go!
Sample questions for B2B
Sample questions for B2C
Important notes
Physical representation of your Persona
Frequently made mistakes
When Persona doesn’t work
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BUYER PERSONA – BASE FOR MARKETING
AUTOMATION ACTIONS
Highest form of personalization
Scoring
Lead Nurturing
Synergy of Automation and Content
Marketing with use of Persona
Case study
REFERENCES
Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas
Spis treści
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What is a Buyer Persona?
Definition
Use of Persona
Effects: Buyer Persona in numbers
Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas 3
BUYER PERSONA IS A FICTIONAL
CHARACTER REPRESENTING FEATURES
OF YOUR CUSTOMERS.
Desires
Definition
It represents human face of customer:
Motivations
Habits
Behavioral Patterns
Doubts
Aims.
Such representations make it easier
to segment customers, design Buyer's
Journey and plan Lead Nurturing.
Interdisciplinary Methodology
Creating Buyer Persona requires combining
knowledge and skills from various disciplines:
Psychology
Marketing
Anthropology (including Digital Anthropolgy)
Sociology
Analytics.
Aim?
To interpret data from analytics and research,
to understand customers better and to create
cohesive image of addressee of our actions.
What Buyer Persona is NOT
Brand hero
Projection of marketer’s
wishful thinking
Office mascot.
Original way: Function, stupid!
In this ebook we present our own recipe for creating
Buyer Persona, different from common practices.
Contrary to many others, we don’t believe in:
Personas creators and templates
Giving Personas faces and names
Creating plastic representations
of Personas (or in hanging them
in office)
Devoting too much time
for developing Personas
Establishing emotional bonds with
Personas, talking to them, etc.
We are pragmatic. Function is the key, and
Persona just serves sales. For us the most
important moment of working with Persona is not
creating it, but actual use in marketing and sales
actions. Last part of that ebook is devoted to
practical implementation of Persona.
Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas
Real, actual customer
(remember – Buyer Persona
is an abstract construct, extract
or generalization of all your customer).
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Understandable
representation of data:
Buyer Persona is created when we want to
translate abstract numbers, data and
information to more understandable form –
an image one can refer to, use it. Such
image embodies data, stimulates
imagination, helps transfer data into action. Secures coherence:
Marketers, salespeople and customer service
are tempted to imagine and profile customer
according to their current situation. Buyer
Persona prevents it by delivering stable point of
reference. Each new idea for campaign or
product can be confronted with that image and
verified: does new project reflect who we
address our services to?
Better personalization:
Personas provide plenty of inspiration in
terms of channels, forms and content of
personalized communication.
Use of Persona
Empathy:
Persona allows for better understanding of
customers, because it involves translating
data and analysis into experiences, habits
and emotions.
Enriches analytics:
Data tell us WHAT happens, while when
creating Personas we attempt to find out
WHY and HOW our customers do so.
Improving company’s
internal communication:
Thanks to Buyer Persona all departments share
cohesive vision of customer’s need, values,
doubts and communication.
Shows directions
of development:
Knowing our customers better we can
predict what more might they need
in the future.
Optimizes advertising costs:
Because of precise targeting you don’t waste
money on recipients who wouldn’t buy your
product anyway.
Seeing obstacles on
buyer’s journey:
When creating Buyer Persona you discover
customer’s inhibitions, doubts and problems.
Such valuable knowledge helps anticipate
possible criticism and address difficulties as
early as possible.
Rules of scoring:
Richer knowledge on how customer buys
helps determine stages of buyer’s journey
more precisely and adequately, and point out
events which really mean new level in
customer-brand relationship, therefore we
can build more reliable and efficient scoring
rules.
Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas 5
97%
more leads
acquired online
55%
more traffic from
organic search
210%
increase in traffic
(in total)
Case Study:
Effects: Buyer Persona in numbers
Skytap, IT solutions provider.
Thanks to developing
and implementing Buyer Persona
they achieved:
Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas
Effectiveness
of marketing
actions on the
website increases
Email CTR
increases by Targeted
ads are
at least
twice more
effective than
non-targeted ones2-5 Times
14%
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Creating Buyer Persona.
Methodology
When to create a Persona?
Where to get data from?
Useful tools
How Marketing Automation helps you build a Persona?
Archetype theory (optional)
Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas 7
At the stage of designing new
product or service: when you
want to determine your target,
When you design communication
strategy: and want to know what content
and in which form your recipients prefer,
When planning content
marketing: what topics interest your
readers? Which style, lenght and form would be
most convenient for them?
During work at concept of Lead
Nurturing:you know what content does
customer need at given point and how s/he prefers
to consume it, what to include, how to divide
educational material into bits.
When to create a Persona?
Creating Personas in a constant,
ongoing process, because your
knowledge on customers changes and
customers themselves change. Don’t
treat Personas as one-time task. Try to
revise Personas on regular basis
(once in a month, once in three months,
depending on your company’s
development’s dynamics).
Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas 8
Interviews with customers or prospects
(face to face in brick and mortar stores,
or via Skype)
Where to get data from?
Methods available
Focus groups
Surveys
Ethnographic research
(can be subcontracted)
Website analytics
(demographic data, interests,
references, activityi)
Online behavior monitoring
(behavioral and demographic data)
Information from salespeople or customer
service department
Customer feedback
on website and in social
media (analyze also competitors’
website from that perspective)
Social media analytics
Data from contact forms
Choice of method depends on many factors, mostly on resources. The more methodologies you
combine, the more material from various sources you combine, the more reliable your
Persona will be.
When your communication misses
customers and fails. You either don’t
know who your customer is or your
vision is detached from reality.
When you begin really innovative and
costly project. Sometimes price of
professional research is far smaller
from cost of potential failure, not to
mention invaluable insight you get.
Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas
Collecting data is actually about contact with customer or prospect. In order to talk to them,
you can use the following tools:
Choosing your method. The more material, the better!
When to invest in expensive methods?
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Useful tools
For survey:
SurveyMonkey
Google Forms
Skype
Instructions on conducting customer survey
System Marketing Automation
(more on that – p. 11)
To gather and represent
results
Trello
Evernote
Google Docs
There are plenty of Persona creators and
templates with questions and fields to be
filled, sometimes they even include pictures
you can add. You can use them, but in our
opinion they are more of a limitation than of
support. Why?
The point is that you have to come up with list
of questions yourself (of course, possibly
choosing from list and templates available,
combining your own list from many sources).
What aspect of customer experience, habits
or personality are vital for your business? No
pre-defined template will respond to your
needs.
Also your answers should (and probably will)
be more extensive than space provided by
authors of the template. You can also have
problems with including or needed materials or
links to it, with making corrections, evaluating
or reshaping your Persona.
But if you still prefer to work on templates,
we recommend you these two:
Personapp
Buyer Persona
Institute templates
Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas.
Persona Creators and Templates
Questions must be yours
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Why do you need Marketing Automation to build your Persona? Because it’s the most advanced tool for behavioral
monitoring and analytics, building a complex picture of users’ Digital Body Language.
minutyminuty
Marketing Automation platform collects data from
various channels,
How Marketing Automation helps you build a Persona?
MA platform registers all interactions, therefore
provides reliable data,
It offers precise methods of online monitoring, such
as Web Beacon (monitoring not only what user
clicks, but also what s/he actually clicks),
Offline tracking (thanks to beacons) allows to
combine knowledge about online and offline
shopping behaviors,
Thanks to huge amount of data collected by
system you can profile your questions for surveys
or interviews more precisely,
Offers possibility of segmenting recipients of your
survey, so you can prepare it in a couple of
versions (e.g. different for beginners and advanced
users) and get more relevant results,
Because it includes data from sales department,
you have all the information about what actions
were required to acquire a customer,
You can also use transactional data from ERP, POS
and CRM,
Makes communication between sales and
marketing departments more efficient and
enables marketers to use salespeople’s expertise
and experience,
You can combine all the data in one platform
– it guarantees order
,
Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas 11
Archetypes are used mostly to building
brand personality (assigning brand to
certain archetype and shaping narrative
accordingly, e.g. Benetton is an outlaw).
czyli
minuty
czyli
minuty
czyli
minutyminuty
Jungian archetypes
Archetype theory (optional)
Some marketers use Jungian archetypes
theory when building Personas in order
to understand psychological mecha-
nisms behind customers’ behavior
better. That trend was introduced with
„The Hero and the Outlaw. Building
Extraordinary Brands Through the Power
of Archetypes” by Margaret Mark and
Carol S. Pearson.
Customer intuitively gets universal
patterns
Jung claims that all people share
collective unconsciousness with
universal patterns of human experience
encrypted in it. Therefore if a brand refers
to that commonly understood models,
customers will intuitively get them very
fast and relate to them, because they
have natural predispositions to that.
Classification of archetypes
Analogically we can assign our Personas
to archetypes. It will provide some
structure and pose more psychological
questions. Your persona might be e.g.:
The Sage:
motivated by desire
to find the truth, with
expert knowledge
in the field, rational
The Explorer:
brave non-conformist,
risky and hungry for
new experiences
The Creator:
creative, emotional,
independent and free
Advantages:
Clear outline of the Persona
Inspirations
In-depth reflection on customer
psychology
Disadvantages:
Possibility of replacing data with
archetype theory, making data fit
archetype (it should be the other way
round)
Risk of wasting a lot of time for
developing irrelevant aspects of Persona
Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas 12
Creating Buyer Persona
Step by Step
Let’s Go!
Sample questions for B2B
Sample questions for B2C
Important notes
Physical representation of your Persona
Frequently made mistakes
When Persona doesn’t work
Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas 13
In the process of creating it we will try to establish:
Decide which questions are crucial for you right
now. Prepare a list and learn how you will find your
answers. Prepare surveys
if necessary.
Once a month or once in three months find some time
to take a look at your Persona(s). Have you learned
something new about them in that time? Maybe your
experience has proven some of earlier hypothesis
wrong? Or maybe your customer changed?
Remember that Personas are dynamic construct.
Revise them because otherwise they will lose
relevance and become either useless or harmful.
Regular revisions let you see previous mistakes and
You know now what tools you will need, what
Persona is and how to use it.
Essential questions are marked with a star*
Revise Personas
Let’s Go!
customer’s motivation and priorities
success indicators
possible obstacles or barriers preventing
from closing the deal
buyer’s journey
decision criteria
Below we prepared a list of questions useful when
creating a Persona, for B2B and B2C. We hope that
our list will inspire you: choose from our ideas,
combine them with others, and add your own freely.
Asking yourself that question is a good way to
start - you will know more precisely where to begin
when you eliminate as many other options as
possible. Also it comes at hand when you’re stuck
and can’t get a grip of your persona - defining
them negatively (who your customers certainly
ARE NOT) unlocks your creative and analytical
potential.
Who is NOT my customer?
Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas 14
On what is he currently working?
What are his priorities, crucial objectives? *
Sample questions for B2B
What obstacles he faces on the way? *
For what is he responsible?
What are his most important purchase criteria?*
What is his position in the company? Is his decisive? *
On which technologies is he dependent? *
What tools/ platforms does he use?
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What would prevent him from making a purchase? *
On what basis is his work evaluated?
How long does it take to make a decision? *
Which aspects of his work does he like?
What success means to him?
What size is his organization of? *
What are his core competencies, most valuable skills?
Where does he get his knowledge from?
What is his budget, approximately? *
Has he used your competitors’ solutions? *
What are his education and experience?
What is his business branch?
What strategies does he use? Which are efficient?
Is he satisfied with his job?
How his typical workday looks like?
Of what tasks does it consist?
Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas
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What is his gender?
How old is he?
How many responsibilities does he have and how much time for leisure? What is his work-life balance?
Where does he come from?
When he buys?
Where he buys (online/ offline; brands, stores)? *
How much does he spend?
What are his shopping habits (conducting research? Participating willingly in loyalty programs?
Prefering big but rare shopping or small but frequent sessions? Does he enjoy shopping?) *
What triggers him to shopping? *
What interrupts purchase or discourages from it? What are shopping barriers? *
Sample questions for B2C
Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas
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What are his doubts?
Where does he look for information (channels, media, size of content, content consumption habits…)? *
Which feature of the product are crucial for him? *
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Be specific. Try to answer
questions as precisely as possible.
Mark details and note the exact
words your customers use.
Collect quotes.
You Persona should be made of real
words of customers and analytics.
Important notes
Don’t force answers.
If you don’t know something
important about your customers,
don’t feel compelled to fill in the
blanks at all cost. If you have a
hypothesis, write it there and
mark as hypothesis. You can
go back to that question later.
You can have more than
1 Persona.
But Personas must be distinct,
otherwise there is no point in creating
many of them. Or maybe you haven’t
been precise enough?
Primal customer.
If you have more than 1 Persona,
know which one is your primal, core,
most important customer, on whom
you want to focus.
How do I know that?
Adding new feature to your Persona
profile, note where do you know
it from, in order to distinguish
between solid knowledge from
hypothesis.
Predict.
Use Personas to indicating trends
and predicting future needs of your
customers.
Don’t overdo it.
Don’t waste time on developing to
complex Persona (do you need to
make up his bio to know how he
spends money?). It’s easy to get
overwhelmed with massive amount of
irrelevant details. Sometimes working
on Persona can be an excuse for not
taking real actions to communicate
with actual customers.
Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas 17
Physical form.
Some marketers like to make physical
representation of Persona as similar
to real person as possible. So they
add a photo of face, make a Persona
puppet or figurine. Going that far isn’t
necessary.
Physical representation of your Persona
Document.
We recommend keeping Persona in
form of a written description in text
document, preferably one with online
editing options (it will help you make
corrections or build up new
informations).
Wieszanie persony w biurze.
People do so in order to make all
employees remember about final
addressee of their efforts. However
it might lead to oversimplifying the
Persona or infantilizing it, what turns
it into nothing more that an empty requisite
or a mascot without real function.
Face of the customer.
Others give Persona face of actual
customer. Such practice also brings
on risk of misconception. Persona is
NOT your real customer – it’s just a
set of conclusions drawn from
analysis, research and survey. It’s a
form of representing data.
Persona has to be clear
and readable above all.
Don’t try to
overcomplicate it with
unnecessary graphic
or manual work. It will
only make your work
longer without providing
any real value.
You should keep a record of all collected data
which create your Persona. There is a couple of
methods.
Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas 18
Wishful thinking:
giving up to unrealistic dreams,
misadjusting Persona to one’s
fantasies
Frequently made mistakes
Methodological mistakes:
They might concern unfortunate,
misleading or biased phrasing in
survey (and other survey – creating
missteps, like including too many
questions) and interpretation of
answers.
Focusing too much on
Persona-creating and not enough
at their function.
You develop Persona to understand
your customers better and know how
to communicate with them (see p. 5),
not for sake of artwork.
Generalities:
Phrases like „Appreciates good
quality and is willing to pay for it”
or „Cares about health” mean noth-
ing, because they are too general
and too vague. Avoid them at any
cost, because at the first sight they
look like actual knowledge and might
overshadow real, solid information.
Unsupported hypothesis:
filling holes or blank spot between
solid information (from analytics,
research or survey) with pure
speculation. When you have
fragments of reliable knowledge and
stitch them up with suppositions,
assuming that you understanding
customers already, you might fail
completely (read our case study on
the topic).
Infantilization:
Although some experts recommend
such practice, we strongly discourage
you from giving Personas names,
especially funny names (Spaghetti
Samanta, Lazy Luke). Firstly, it makes
your Persona a joke, not something
that can be seriously used, secondly,
it might harm your communication
with customers. If you perceive them
as ridiculous, your customer service
might reflect that.
Building Persona based
on 1 actual customer.
Persona is not 1 customer
generalized, but inversely:
large group extracted to 1 model.
Overloaded Persona:
consisting of many irrelevant features
and information. Crucial knowledge
about buying behavior is lost among
speculation about list of his/her
favorite books. Reduce Persona only
to the data you actually need. Another
version of that mistake is creating too
many Personas.
Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas 19
What could go wrong?
Problems you can face on your way to successful Persona.
When Persona doesn’t work
My Buyer Personas
are far from my actual customers!
If you happen to sometimes have customers different from your
Personas, that’s totally fine and shouldn’t make you do any changes.
But if it’s a massive process, it means that your Persona is unrealistic
and should be corrected.
-> Make new Persona, according to your actual customers,
and think about its relation to previous one.
I create Persona,
but can’t actually use them
Personas created without function in mind are useless.
-> Go back and create Persona once more, but before you
start, ask yourself: how am I going to use it? It will help you
find right questions.
Problem Solution
My Persona is out-of-date It’s a natural sign of development.
-> Don’t panic. Just find out what happened: did your
customers change? Why?
Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas 20
Buyer Persona– base
for Marketing Automation
actions
Highest form of personalization
Scoring
Lead Nurturing
Synergy of Automation and Content
Marketing with use of Persona
Case study
Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas 21
End of mass marketing
Idea of Buyer Persona comes from
belief that mass communication is
over. Marketers need to target their
campaigns precisely, starting with
discovering who their customers
actually are. The point is not to
bombard as many people as possible
with our message, but to spot ones
who might be really interested in the
product and focus on them, offering
relevant and helpful content, without
wasting money and energy on people
who wouldn’t buy it anyway.
Highest form of personalization
Use Persona
The very same idea brought
Marketing Automation into being. And
that’s the only tool allowing to
functionalize Persona, actually use it.
Otherwise it’s just a set of information.
After having created a Persona
Most instructions concerning
Personas focus on how to create
them. But the real work starts later!
The most important stage of working
with Persona is developing marketing
campaigns based on it. We automate
these actions: Persona provides
conceptual framework for them.
Below we describe some
examples of implementing Personas
in practice.
Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas 22
Scoring
What is scoring?
Visit on the website
Downloading materials
Attending a webinar
Recommendation
Scoring should reflect level of customer’s
knowledge on the product and engagement
with the brand. Numbers in which that level is
expressed allow for automation. Therefore
setting reliable rules of scoring (for what
customers’ action how many points are
assigned), reflecting actual shopping process,
is a crucial marketer’s task.
Reliable rules
Are social media important channel for
him/ her? Do likes result in purchase?
It’s an amount of points, given to each user by
Marketing Automation system. Points can be
given for actions like:
Purchase
Talking to consultant
Activity in brand social media.
Does Persona conduct a research before
purchase?
How Persona react to contact with
salesperson: does s/he like to talk or
prefers to find knowledge independently?
Start with establishing most important event.
Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas
Use Persona to determine which events are vital for
purchase. Take a look at your Persona’s triggers and
inhibitions.
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Education for Purchase
Lead Nurturing means preparing
customer for purchase with education
(building up knowledge, answering
questions and doubt).
Efficiency of Lead Nurturing
According to Forrester Research, well
prepared Lead Nurturing program
increases lead conversion by 50%,
decreasing cost of lead generation by
30% at the same time.
What does he know about
our product?
Tools
For implementing Lead Nurturing we need:
Buyer Persona as a scheme of user’s
educational needs, expectations and
preferences.
To build such a successful
programm, marketers must
understand lead’s needs.
What more should he know
to make a decision?
In what order knowledge should
be delivered?
In what form information
should be delivered? Should we
divide it into many smaller
bites or rather offer in bigger
parts?
Which channels will be most
suitable?
Knowledge: educational content,
prepared according to lead’s
preferences,
Marketing Automation platform, which
will secure mechanics of the proces,
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Lead Nurturing
Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas
50%
30%
3
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How to use Persona in Lead Nurturing?
Keeping in touch
with Lead
Make bonds: use general information from your Persona to build relationship
on what is important and relevant for customer. Adapt your style.
Use quotes: Use words and phrases your customers used in surveys or
interviews. You’ll be talking about product in language of its real users. Maybe
customers paid attention to some features you don’t discuss much?
Communicating
the idea of the product
Match content to user:
Combine knowledge on lead’s preferences with knowledge on what
must be communicated to convince lead to purchase.
Portions: : Size matters. Know what size of content does your lead
prefer.
Aims of Lead
Nurturing
Tips
Communication
adjusted to actual state
of customer’s knowledge
Decision: : When creating your Persona, pay attention to
reconstructing decision process. It’s easier to do when you use
Marketing Automation.
Aspects of Buyer Persona
How your customers make
relationships: with brands, but also
with others? To which values and
experiences of everyday life should
you refer?
How does Lead consume content?
What form does he prefer? How much
time does he devote to it daily? What
topics are interesting for him? What
doubts does he have?
What are his shopping habits?
How much time passes before first
contact and purchase?
The Moment of Purchase: Use Persona to determine which
factors indicate readiness to purchase and conditions under
which it can happen.
Indicating best
moment for sale
What triggers customer to
purchase? In which situation does
he often shop?
Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas 25
Branże, które już nigdy nie będą takie same
Content Marketing is willingly used both in
B2B (91% of companies use it) and B2C
(86% creates content on regular basis).
Synergy of Automation and Content
Marketing with use of Persona
Advantages of Content Marketing
Generating organic traffic
(we attract people already
interested in the problem).
Non-invasive, non-aggresive method.
Lower costs.
Content Automation
Persona helps you understand your
customer, while Marketing Automation
helps translate that knowledge into action.
Thanks to use of Persona (with tag) we
can e.g. make video more visible on the
website for video-prefering user.
What your customer wants to read?
One of the most common content
marketing mistakes is writing more for
search engines and less for humans. But
what your customers need? What do they
want to read?
Indicating most interesting topics.
Indicating most preferable form.
Organizing content.
Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas
Why?
91%
of B2B
86%
of B2C
Allowing to personalize content.
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Bruynzeel is a B2B company, delivering
storage systems for archives, museum,
libraries, academic and public institutions
Case study: Bruynzeel
Company profile
Facility manager
Architect
Content marketing
Marketers prepared map of content and
designed a scheme of process of
consuming knowledge, according to
user’s behavior and doubts and questions
asked by them frequently.
Nationality of users was also taken into
consideration, so 2 versions of each Persona
was prepared (German and Dutch).
Personas
2 Personas were created:
Marketing Automation
Marketing Automation tools were also
applied. Marketers focused on automation
of Lead Generation: personalized landing
pages, dynamic contact forms, pop-ups
and analytics. It delivered more knowledge
on customers, their behavior and needs
Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas 27
Margaret Mark, Carol S. Pearson, The Hero and the Outlaw.
Building Extraordinary Brands Through the Power of Archetypes”,
McGraw –Hill 20012
2013 B2B Content Marketing Benchmarks, Budgets and Trends
[Research Report]
2013 B2C Content Marketing Research: Benchmarks, Budgets,
and Trends
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persona_%28user_experience%29
Portigal, S. Persona non grata. interactions, Jan/Feb 2008.
http://contentmarketinginstitute.com/2013/04/tips-keeping-buyer-personas-fresh/
http://www.forbes.com/sites/theyec/2014/10/28/how-to-devel-
op-your-buyer-persona-and-reel-in-better-customers/2/
http://johneengle.com/buyer-personas-crucial-element-selling-online/
http://blog.storeya.com/2014/11/create-buyer-persona-ecommerce-example/
http://cdn2.hubspot.net/hub/137828/file-552110662-pdf/Buyer_Personas_V2_Deck.pdf
http://tonyzambito.com/5-core-components-buyer-persona-development/
Statystyki dotyczące skuteczności person: https://mikegingerich.com/building-buyer-persona/
http://blog.hubspot.com/marketing/buyer-persona-research-tools
http://contentmarketinginstitute.com/2012/08/4-common-
persona-mistakes-to-avoid/
http://www.i-scoop.eu/persona-and-buyer-persona-mod-
els-for-integrated-customer-centric-marketing/
http://www.businessesgrow.com/2014/02/12/31-business-
building-benefits-buyer-personas/
http://www.salesmanago.pl/marketing-automation/lead_nurturing.htm
http://www.spotonvision.com/en/casestudies/bruynzeel-buy-
er-persona-marketing-automation/
References
Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas 28
Visit:
www.salesmanago.com
E-BOOK MADE BY
Apayo.pl

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SALESmanago: Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation

  • 2. WHAT IS A BUYER PERSONA? Definition Use of Personas Effects: Buyer Persona in numbers CREATING BUYER PERSONA. METHODOLOGY When to create a Persona? Where to get data from? Useful tools How Marketing Automation helps you build a Persona? Archetype theory (optional) CREATING BUYER PERSONA STEP BY STEP Let’s Go! Sample questions for B2B Sample questions for B2C Important notes Physical representation of your Persona Frequently made mistakes When Persona doesn’t work 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 BUYER PERSONA – BASE FOR MARKETING AUTOMATION ACTIONS Highest form of personalization Scoring Lead Nurturing Synergy of Automation and Content Marketing with use of Persona Case study REFERENCES Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas Spis treści 21 22 23 24 26 27 28 2
  • 3. What is a Buyer Persona? Definition Use of Persona Effects: Buyer Persona in numbers Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas 3
  • 4. BUYER PERSONA IS A FICTIONAL CHARACTER REPRESENTING FEATURES OF YOUR CUSTOMERS. Desires Definition It represents human face of customer: Motivations Habits Behavioral Patterns Doubts Aims. Such representations make it easier to segment customers, design Buyer's Journey and plan Lead Nurturing. Interdisciplinary Methodology Creating Buyer Persona requires combining knowledge and skills from various disciplines: Psychology Marketing Anthropology (including Digital Anthropolgy) Sociology Analytics. Aim? To interpret data from analytics and research, to understand customers better and to create cohesive image of addressee of our actions. What Buyer Persona is NOT Brand hero Projection of marketer’s wishful thinking Office mascot. Original way: Function, stupid! In this ebook we present our own recipe for creating Buyer Persona, different from common practices. Contrary to many others, we don’t believe in: Personas creators and templates Giving Personas faces and names Creating plastic representations of Personas (or in hanging them in office) Devoting too much time for developing Personas Establishing emotional bonds with Personas, talking to them, etc. We are pragmatic. Function is the key, and Persona just serves sales. For us the most important moment of working with Persona is not creating it, but actual use in marketing and sales actions. Last part of that ebook is devoted to practical implementation of Persona. Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas Real, actual customer (remember – Buyer Persona is an abstract construct, extract or generalization of all your customer). 4
  • 5. Understandable representation of data: Buyer Persona is created when we want to translate abstract numbers, data and information to more understandable form – an image one can refer to, use it. Such image embodies data, stimulates imagination, helps transfer data into action. Secures coherence: Marketers, salespeople and customer service are tempted to imagine and profile customer according to their current situation. Buyer Persona prevents it by delivering stable point of reference. Each new idea for campaign or product can be confronted with that image and verified: does new project reflect who we address our services to? Better personalization: Personas provide plenty of inspiration in terms of channels, forms and content of personalized communication. Use of Persona Empathy: Persona allows for better understanding of customers, because it involves translating data and analysis into experiences, habits and emotions. Enriches analytics: Data tell us WHAT happens, while when creating Personas we attempt to find out WHY and HOW our customers do so. Improving company’s internal communication: Thanks to Buyer Persona all departments share cohesive vision of customer’s need, values, doubts and communication. Shows directions of development: Knowing our customers better we can predict what more might they need in the future. Optimizes advertising costs: Because of precise targeting you don’t waste money on recipients who wouldn’t buy your product anyway. Seeing obstacles on buyer’s journey: When creating Buyer Persona you discover customer’s inhibitions, doubts and problems. Such valuable knowledge helps anticipate possible criticism and address difficulties as early as possible. Rules of scoring: Richer knowledge on how customer buys helps determine stages of buyer’s journey more precisely and adequately, and point out events which really mean new level in customer-brand relationship, therefore we can build more reliable and efficient scoring rules. Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas 5
  • 6. 97% more leads acquired online 55% more traffic from organic search 210% increase in traffic (in total) Case Study: Effects: Buyer Persona in numbers Skytap, IT solutions provider. Thanks to developing and implementing Buyer Persona they achieved: Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas Effectiveness of marketing actions on the website increases Email CTR increases by Targeted ads are at least twice more effective than non-targeted ones2-5 Times 14% 6
  • 7. Creating Buyer Persona. Methodology When to create a Persona? Where to get data from? Useful tools How Marketing Automation helps you build a Persona? Archetype theory (optional) Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas 7
  • 8. At the stage of designing new product or service: when you want to determine your target, When you design communication strategy: and want to know what content and in which form your recipients prefer, When planning content marketing: what topics interest your readers? Which style, lenght and form would be most convenient for them? During work at concept of Lead Nurturing:you know what content does customer need at given point and how s/he prefers to consume it, what to include, how to divide educational material into bits. When to create a Persona? Creating Personas in a constant, ongoing process, because your knowledge on customers changes and customers themselves change. Don’t treat Personas as one-time task. Try to revise Personas on regular basis (once in a month, once in three months, depending on your company’s development’s dynamics). Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas 8
  • 9. Interviews with customers or prospects (face to face in brick and mortar stores, or via Skype) Where to get data from? Methods available Focus groups Surveys Ethnographic research (can be subcontracted) Website analytics (demographic data, interests, references, activityi) Online behavior monitoring (behavioral and demographic data) Information from salespeople or customer service department Customer feedback on website and in social media (analyze also competitors’ website from that perspective) Social media analytics Data from contact forms Choice of method depends on many factors, mostly on resources. The more methodologies you combine, the more material from various sources you combine, the more reliable your Persona will be. When your communication misses customers and fails. You either don’t know who your customer is or your vision is detached from reality. When you begin really innovative and costly project. Sometimes price of professional research is far smaller from cost of potential failure, not to mention invaluable insight you get. Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas Collecting data is actually about contact with customer or prospect. In order to talk to them, you can use the following tools: Choosing your method. The more material, the better! When to invest in expensive methods? 9
  • 10. Useful tools For survey: SurveyMonkey Google Forms Skype Instructions on conducting customer survey System Marketing Automation (more on that – p. 11) To gather and represent results Trello Evernote Google Docs There are plenty of Persona creators and templates with questions and fields to be filled, sometimes they even include pictures you can add. You can use them, but in our opinion they are more of a limitation than of support. Why? The point is that you have to come up with list of questions yourself (of course, possibly choosing from list and templates available, combining your own list from many sources). What aspect of customer experience, habits or personality are vital for your business? No pre-defined template will respond to your needs. Also your answers should (and probably will) be more extensive than space provided by authors of the template. You can also have problems with including or needed materials or links to it, with making corrections, evaluating or reshaping your Persona. But if you still prefer to work on templates, we recommend you these two: Personapp Buyer Persona Institute templates Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas. Persona Creators and Templates Questions must be yours 10
  • 11. Why do you need Marketing Automation to build your Persona? Because it’s the most advanced tool for behavioral monitoring and analytics, building a complex picture of users’ Digital Body Language. minutyminuty Marketing Automation platform collects data from various channels, How Marketing Automation helps you build a Persona? MA platform registers all interactions, therefore provides reliable data, It offers precise methods of online monitoring, such as Web Beacon (monitoring not only what user clicks, but also what s/he actually clicks), Offline tracking (thanks to beacons) allows to combine knowledge about online and offline shopping behaviors, Thanks to huge amount of data collected by system you can profile your questions for surveys or interviews more precisely, Offers possibility of segmenting recipients of your survey, so you can prepare it in a couple of versions (e.g. different for beginners and advanced users) and get more relevant results, Because it includes data from sales department, you have all the information about what actions were required to acquire a customer, You can also use transactional data from ERP, POS and CRM, Makes communication between sales and marketing departments more efficient and enables marketers to use salespeople’s expertise and experience, You can combine all the data in one platform – it guarantees order , Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas 11
  • 12. Archetypes are used mostly to building brand personality (assigning brand to certain archetype and shaping narrative accordingly, e.g. Benetton is an outlaw). czyli minuty czyli minuty czyli minutyminuty Jungian archetypes Archetype theory (optional) Some marketers use Jungian archetypes theory when building Personas in order to understand psychological mecha- nisms behind customers’ behavior better. That trend was introduced with „The Hero and the Outlaw. Building Extraordinary Brands Through the Power of Archetypes” by Margaret Mark and Carol S. Pearson. Customer intuitively gets universal patterns Jung claims that all people share collective unconsciousness with universal patterns of human experience encrypted in it. Therefore if a brand refers to that commonly understood models, customers will intuitively get them very fast and relate to them, because they have natural predispositions to that. Classification of archetypes Analogically we can assign our Personas to archetypes. It will provide some structure and pose more psychological questions. Your persona might be e.g.: The Sage: motivated by desire to find the truth, with expert knowledge in the field, rational The Explorer: brave non-conformist, risky and hungry for new experiences The Creator: creative, emotional, independent and free Advantages: Clear outline of the Persona Inspirations In-depth reflection on customer psychology Disadvantages: Possibility of replacing data with archetype theory, making data fit archetype (it should be the other way round) Risk of wasting a lot of time for developing irrelevant aspects of Persona Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas 12
  • 13. Creating Buyer Persona Step by Step Let’s Go! Sample questions for B2B Sample questions for B2C Important notes Physical representation of your Persona Frequently made mistakes When Persona doesn’t work Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas 13
  • 14. In the process of creating it we will try to establish: Decide which questions are crucial for you right now. Prepare a list and learn how you will find your answers. Prepare surveys if necessary. Once a month or once in three months find some time to take a look at your Persona(s). Have you learned something new about them in that time? Maybe your experience has proven some of earlier hypothesis wrong? Or maybe your customer changed? Remember that Personas are dynamic construct. Revise them because otherwise they will lose relevance and become either useless or harmful. Regular revisions let you see previous mistakes and You know now what tools you will need, what Persona is and how to use it. Essential questions are marked with a star* Revise Personas Let’s Go! customer’s motivation and priorities success indicators possible obstacles or barriers preventing from closing the deal buyer’s journey decision criteria Below we prepared a list of questions useful when creating a Persona, for B2B and B2C. We hope that our list will inspire you: choose from our ideas, combine them with others, and add your own freely. Asking yourself that question is a good way to start - you will know more precisely where to begin when you eliminate as many other options as possible. Also it comes at hand when you’re stuck and can’t get a grip of your persona - defining them negatively (who your customers certainly ARE NOT) unlocks your creative and analytical potential. Who is NOT my customer? Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas 14
  • 15. On what is he currently working? What are his priorities, crucial objectives? * Sample questions for B2B What obstacles he faces on the way? * For what is he responsible? What are his most important purchase criteria?* What is his position in the company? Is his decisive? * On which technologies is he dependent? * What tools/ platforms does he use? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 What would prevent him from making a purchase? * On what basis is his work evaluated? How long does it take to make a decision? * Which aspects of his work does he like? What success means to him? What size is his organization of? * What are his core competencies, most valuable skills? Where does he get his knowledge from? What is his budget, approximately? * Has he used your competitors’ solutions? * What are his education and experience? What is his business branch? What strategies does he use? Which are efficient? Is he satisfied with his job? How his typical workday looks like? Of what tasks does it consist? Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 15
  • 16. What is his gender? How old is he? How many responsibilities does he have and how much time for leisure? What is his work-life balance? Where does he come from? When he buys? Where he buys (online/ offline; brands, stores)? * How much does he spend? What are his shopping habits (conducting research? Participating willingly in loyalty programs? Prefering big but rare shopping or small but frequent sessions? Does he enjoy shopping?) * What triggers him to shopping? * What interrupts purchase or discourages from it? What are shopping barriers? * Sample questions for B2C Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 What are his doubts? Where does he look for information (channels, media, size of content, content consumption habits…)? * Which feature of the product are crucial for him? * 16
  • 17. Be specific. Try to answer questions as precisely as possible. Mark details and note the exact words your customers use. Collect quotes. You Persona should be made of real words of customers and analytics. Important notes Don’t force answers. If you don’t know something important about your customers, don’t feel compelled to fill in the blanks at all cost. If you have a hypothesis, write it there and mark as hypothesis. You can go back to that question later. You can have more than 1 Persona. But Personas must be distinct, otherwise there is no point in creating many of them. Or maybe you haven’t been precise enough? Primal customer. If you have more than 1 Persona, know which one is your primal, core, most important customer, on whom you want to focus. How do I know that? Adding new feature to your Persona profile, note where do you know it from, in order to distinguish between solid knowledge from hypothesis. Predict. Use Personas to indicating trends and predicting future needs of your customers. Don’t overdo it. Don’t waste time on developing to complex Persona (do you need to make up his bio to know how he spends money?). It’s easy to get overwhelmed with massive amount of irrelevant details. Sometimes working on Persona can be an excuse for not taking real actions to communicate with actual customers. Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas 17
  • 18. Physical form. Some marketers like to make physical representation of Persona as similar to real person as possible. So they add a photo of face, make a Persona puppet or figurine. Going that far isn’t necessary. Physical representation of your Persona Document. We recommend keeping Persona in form of a written description in text document, preferably one with online editing options (it will help you make corrections or build up new informations). Wieszanie persony w biurze. People do so in order to make all employees remember about final addressee of their efforts. However it might lead to oversimplifying the Persona or infantilizing it, what turns it into nothing more that an empty requisite or a mascot without real function. Face of the customer. Others give Persona face of actual customer. Such practice also brings on risk of misconception. Persona is NOT your real customer – it’s just a set of conclusions drawn from analysis, research and survey. It’s a form of representing data. Persona has to be clear and readable above all. Don’t try to overcomplicate it with unnecessary graphic or manual work. It will only make your work longer without providing any real value. You should keep a record of all collected data which create your Persona. There is a couple of methods. Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas 18
  • 19. Wishful thinking: giving up to unrealistic dreams, misadjusting Persona to one’s fantasies Frequently made mistakes Methodological mistakes: They might concern unfortunate, misleading or biased phrasing in survey (and other survey – creating missteps, like including too many questions) and interpretation of answers. Focusing too much on Persona-creating and not enough at their function. You develop Persona to understand your customers better and know how to communicate with them (see p. 5), not for sake of artwork. Generalities: Phrases like „Appreciates good quality and is willing to pay for it” or „Cares about health” mean noth- ing, because they are too general and too vague. Avoid them at any cost, because at the first sight they look like actual knowledge and might overshadow real, solid information. Unsupported hypothesis: filling holes or blank spot between solid information (from analytics, research or survey) with pure speculation. When you have fragments of reliable knowledge and stitch them up with suppositions, assuming that you understanding customers already, you might fail completely (read our case study on the topic). Infantilization: Although some experts recommend such practice, we strongly discourage you from giving Personas names, especially funny names (Spaghetti Samanta, Lazy Luke). Firstly, it makes your Persona a joke, not something that can be seriously used, secondly, it might harm your communication with customers. If you perceive them as ridiculous, your customer service might reflect that. Building Persona based on 1 actual customer. Persona is not 1 customer generalized, but inversely: large group extracted to 1 model. Overloaded Persona: consisting of many irrelevant features and information. Crucial knowledge about buying behavior is lost among speculation about list of his/her favorite books. Reduce Persona only to the data you actually need. Another version of that mistake is creating too many Personas. Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas 19
  • 20. What could go wrong? Problems you can face on your way to successful Persona. When Persona doesn’t work My Buyer Personas are far from my actual customers! If you happen to sometimes have customers different from your Personas, that’s totally fine and shouldn’t make you do any changes. But if it’s a massive process, it means that your Persona is unrealistic and should be corrected. -> Make new Persona, according to your actual customers, and think about its relation to previous one. I create Persona, but can’t actually use them Personas created without function in mind are useless. -> Go back and create Persona once more, but before you start, ask yourself: how am I going to use it? It will help you find right questions. Problem Solution My Persona is out-of-date It’s a natural sign of development. -> Don’t panic. Just find out what happened: did your customers change? Why? Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas 20
  • 21. Buyer Persona– base for Marketing Automation actions Highest form of personalization Scoring Lead Nurturing Synergy of Automation and Content Marketing with use of Persona Case study Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas 21
  • 22. End of mass marketing Idea of Buyer Persona comes from belief that mass communication is over. Marketers need to target their campaigns precisely, starting with discovering who their customers actually are. The point is not to bombard as many people as possible with our message, but to spot ones who might be really interested in the product and focus on them, offering relevant and helpful content, without wasting money and energy on people who wouldn’t buy it anyway. Highest form of personalization Use Persona The very same idea brought Marketing Automation into being. And that’s the only tool allowing to functionalize Persona, actually use it. Otherwise it’s just a set of information. After having created a Persona Most instructions concerning Personas focus on how to create them. But the real work starts later! The most important stage of working with Persona is developing marketing campaigns based on it. We automate these actions: Persona provides conceptual framework for them. Below we describe some examples of implementing Personas in practice. Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas 22
  • 23. Scoring What is scoring? Visit on the website Downloading materials Attending a webinar Recommendation Scoring should reflect level of customer’s knowledge on the product and engagement with the brand. Numbers in which that level is expressed allow for automation. Therefore setting reliable rules of scoring (for what customers’ action how many points are assigned), reflecting actual shopping process, is a crucial marketer’s task. Reliable rules Are social media important channel for him/ her? Do likes result in purchase? It’s an amount of points, given to each user by Marketing Automation system. Points can be given for actions like: Purchase Talking to consultant Activity in brand social media. Does Persona conduct a research before purchase? How Persona react to contact with salesperson: does s/he like to talk or prefers to find knowledge independently? Start with establishing most important event. Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas Use Persona to determine which events are vital for purchase. Take a look at your Persona’s triggers and inhibitions. 23
  • 24. Education for Purchase Lead Nurturing means preparing customer for purchase with education (building up knowledge, answering questions and doubt). Efficiency of Lead Nurturing According to Forrester Research, well prepared Lead Nurturing program increases lead conversion by 50%, decreasing cost of lead generation by 30% at the same time. What does he know about our product? Tools For implementing Lead Nurturing we need: Buyer Persona as a scheme of user’s educational needs, expectations and preferences. To build such a successful programm, marketers must understand lead’s needs. What more should he know to make a decision? In what order knowledge should be delivered? In what form information should be delivered? Should we divide it into many smaller bites or rather offer in bigger parts? Which channels will be most suitable? Knowledge: educational content, prepared according to lead’s preferences, Marketing Automation platform, which will secure mechanics of the proces, 1 2 Lead Nurturing Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas 50% 30% 3 24
  • 25. How to use Persona in Lead Nurturing? Keeping in touch with Lead Make bonds: use general information from your Persona to build relationship on what is important and relevant for customer. Adapt your style. Use quotes: Use words and phrases your customers used in surveys or interviews. You’ll be talking about product in language of its real users. Maybe customers paid attention to some features you don’t discuss much? Communicating the idea of the product Match content to user: Combine knowledge on lead’s preferences with knowledge on what must be communicated to convince lead to purchase. Portions: : Size matters. Know what size of content does your lead prefer. Aims of Lead Nurturing Tips Communication adjusted to actual state of customer’s knowledge Decision: : When creating your Persona, pay attention to reconstructing decision process. It’s easier to do when you use Marketing Automation. Aspects of Buyer Persona How your customers make relationships: with brands, but also with others? To which values and experiences of everyday life should you refer? How does Lead consume content? What form does he prefer? How much time does he devote to it daily? What topics are interesting for him? What doubts does he have? What are his shopping habits? How much time passes before first contact and purchase? The Moment of Purchase: Use Persona to determine which factors indicate readiness to purchase and conditions under which it can happen. Indicating best moment for sale What triggers customer to purchase? In which situation does he often shop? Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas 25
  • 26. Branże, które już nigdy nie będą takie same Content Marketing is willingly used both in B2B (91% of companies use it) and B2C (86% creates content on regular basis). Synergy of Automation and Content Marketing with use of Persona Advantages of Content Marketing Generating organic traffic (we attract people already interested in the problem). Non-invasive, non-aggresive method. Lower costs. Content Automation Persona helps you understand your customer, while Marketing Automation helps translate that knowledge into action. Thanks to use of Persona (with tag) we can e.g. make video more visible on the website for video-prefering user. What your customer wants to read? One of the most common content marketing mistakes is writing more for search engines and less for humans. But what your customers need? What do they want to read? Indicating most interesting topics. Indicating most preferable form. Organizing content. Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas Why? 91% of B2B 86% of B2C Allowing to personalize content. 26
  • 27. Bruynzeel is a B2B company, delivering storage systems for archives, museum, libraries, academic and public institutions Case study: Bruynzeel Company profile Facility manager Architect Content marketing Marketers prepared map of content and designed a scheme of process of consuming knowledge, according to user’s behavior and doubts and questions asked by them frequently. Nationality of users was also taken into consideration, so 2 versions of each Persona was prepared (German and Dutch). Personas 2 Personas were created: Marketing Automation Marketing Automation tools were also applied. Marketers focused on automation of Lead Generation: personalized landing pages, dynamic contact forms, pop-ups and analytics. It delivered more knowledge on customers, their behavior and needs Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas 27
  • 28. Margaret Mark, Carol S. Pearson, The Hero and the Outlaw. Building Extraordinary Brands Through the Power of Archetypes”, McGraw –Hill 20012 2013 B2B Content Marketing Benchmarks, Budgets and Trends [Research Report] 2013 B2C Content Marketing Research: Benchmarks, Budgets, and Trends http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persona_%28user_experience%29 Portigal, S. Persona non grata. interactions, Jan/Feb 2008. http://contentmarketinginstitute.com/2013/04/tips-keeping-buyer-personas-fresh/ http://www.forbes.com/sites/theyec/2014/10/28/how-to-devel- op-your-buyer-persona-and-reel-in-better-customers/2/ http://johneengle.com/buyer-personas-crucial-element-selling-online/ http://blog.storeya.com/2014/11/create-buyer-persona-ecommerce-example/ http://cdn2.hubspot.net/hub/137828/file-552110662-pdf/Buyer_Personas_V2_Deck.pdf http://tonyzambito.com/5-core-components-buyer-persona-development/ Statystyki dotyczące skuteczności person: https://mikegingerich.com/building-buyer-persona/ http://blog.hubspot.com/marketing/buyer-persona-research-tools http://contentmarketinginstitute.com/2012/08/4-common- persona-mistakes-to-avoid/ http://www.i-scoop.eu/persona-and-buyer-persona-mod- els-for-integrated-customer-centric-marketing/ http://www.businessesgrow.com/2014/02/12/31-business- building-benefits-buyer-personas/ http://www.salesmanago.pl/marketing-automation/lead_nurturing.htm http://www.spotonvision.com/en/casestudies/bruynzeel-buy- er-persona-marketing-automation/ References Buyer Persona in Marketing Automation. Practical Guide to Creation and Use of Personas 28