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Running head: MANAGEMENT DILEMMAS 1
MANAGEMENT DILEMMAS 6
Management Dilemmas
Name
Institutional Affiliation
Management Dilemmas
Part I: Research Questions
1. Should student athletes receive a stipend by the universities
as reimbursement for participating in sports? Are there policies
under the ISSF that guide on how best students should be
compensated for their participation in different sports?
2. What challenges do coaches face in managing their respective
teams? Is there an approved ISSF standard management
structure that would allow coaches to participate and interact
more with their players such that they are not only constrained
to their managerial duties?
Part II: Research Topic
Problem Statement
Professional athletes earn large sums of money, though
considered unethical; due to the fact that most of the times these
athletes are students who are “exploited”. The estimated value
rose through college athletics is considered to be roughly more
than a billion dollars yearly, with this revenue being generated
from an estimated 25 football schools and 64 basketball schools
respectively (Brown & Williams, 2019). The concern raised is
that the students do not get to see the money earned; but instead
are offered athletic scholarships, allowing them to get free
college education. The concerning factor is that most students
use this opportunity as a chance to qualify for professional
leagues, without considering the beneficial factors that their
education offers. They are continuously to sacrifice their class
and study hours such that they can practice and travel for their
sports (Brown & Williams, 2019). Even though a scholarship
seems like a good deal for some of these college athletes, what
criteria is used to reward those athletes who are often viewed as
celebrities and exploited for their affiliation with different
institution to earn money for them?
Quite often, managers are faced with the dilemma of
relating with their athletes mainly because they are absorbed in
managerial duties that limit their interactions with their players.
As a result, the element of teamwork is ignored and
disregarded, leading to lack of communication, lack of trust,
and continued conflict, which may affect the effectiveness of
the team (Rollnick, Fader, Breckon, & Moyers, 2019).
Sometimes the coaches aspect of caring is viewed as
interference because there is no connection between the players
and their coach, with coaches feeling left out of most decisions
made by the players. This in mind, the study focuses on finding
new strategies that can be applied by all coaches in every sport,
such that the aspect of unity and communication is achieved,
with coaches participating more in their respective projects.
Importance of the Study
Given the dynamic scope of this industry, it is important to
do more research to understand the depth of the dilemma within
the industry, with the use of previous and current research to
provide insight on different perspectives about the industry.
Global advancements in fields such as medicine, technology,
and informatics create valid cause to conduct regular research in
the industry, tracing elements of change that may be important
in mitigating managerial dilemmas. The research is beneficial to
aspiring sports managers as well as young athletes who wish to
venture into different sports within the industry.
Part III: Review of Literature- Additional Sources
1. There are conflicting opinions on whether the revenue
gathered from the ISSF and NCAA should be used to pay
college education for student-athletes. The NCAA us against the
idea mostly because they feel that the athletes are at risk of
exploitation, and prefer using the funds to contract coaches who
would be posted in different facilities. However, the risks that
these student athletes put themselves in through injury and the
high competition gives an uncertain thought about the future of
their athletic careers. Literature source
https://digitalcommons.daemen.edu/academic_festival/95/
2. Governance and Policy making in the sports industry is
essential in the structure and function in different sports,
similar to those within the workplace. The journal demonstrates
how individual sports organizations are what make up the
industry, raising questions on policy issues and ethical concerns
raised daily. Additionally, managers have different perspectives
that give a glimpse of the impact of governance and policies on
sports professionals. The journal, therefore, helps understand
the perspective of the sports industry through giving examples
of some real-world case studies. Literature source
https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315213057
3. The article gives a systematic analysis of how coaches play a
role in unintended conflict in sports, giving an example of New
Zealand rugby and cricket coaches. Through a systematic
approach, the article gives an example of a model derived from
Edgar Schein’s three model theoretical framework, which uses
previous beliefs and values, artifacts, and assumptions in
management. The framework was designed to change the culture
of management from one that encourages violence to one that
encourages integrity and honor. Literature source
https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/e/9781315130194/chapters
/10.4324/9781315130194-3
Research Objectives
1. To determine whether student-athletes should receive
compensation or stipend for generating revenue for their
institutions.
2. To determine appropriate strategies coaches can use to be
more involved in their projects.
References
Brown, K., & Williams, A. (2019). Out of Bounds: A Critical
Race Theory Perspective on Pay for Play. J. Legal Aspects
Sport, 29, 30. Retrieved from https://heinonline.org/hol-cgi-
bin/get_pdf.cgi?handle=hein.journals/jlas29&section=4
Garvin, D. (2019). Pay for Play. Retrieved from
https://digitalcommons.daemen.edu/academic_festival/95/
Hums, M. A., & MacLean, J. C. (2017). Governance and policy
in sport organizations. Routledge. Retrieved from
https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315213057
Rollnick, S., Fader, J., Breckon, J., & Moyers, T. B. (2019).
Coaching Athletes to be Their Best: Motivational Interviewing
in Sports. Guilford Press. Retrieved from
https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=7XOxDwAAQB
AJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=What+is+the+main+reason+why+Socc
er+coaches+faile+managing+their+projects&ots=erIlD1GbPs&si
g=Df_0npM8G3iQ6gmg11ShLDLJacQ&redir_esc=y#v=onepage
&q&f=false
Smith, K. (2017). The role of sports coaches in creating culture:
A dysfunctional case. In Sports, Peacebuilding and Ethics (pp.
29-38). Routledge. Retrieved from
https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/e/9781315130194/chapters
/10.4324/9781315130194-3
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F o u r t e e n t h E d i t i o n
Essentials of
Organizational Behavior
Stephen P. Robbins
San Diego State University
Timothy A. Judge
The Ohio State University
New York, NY
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names: Robbins, Stephen P., author. | Judge, Tim, author.
Title: Essentials of organizational behavior / Stephen P.
Robbins, San Diego
State University, Timothy A. Judge, University of Notre
Dame.
Description: Fourteen edition. | Boston : Pearson Education,
[2016] |
Includes index.
Identifiers: LCCN 2016022886 (print) | LCCN 2016034760
(ebook) | ISBN
9780134523859 (pbk. : alk. paper) | ISBN 9780134527314
Subjects: LCSH: Organizational behavior.
Classification: LCC HD58.7 .R6 2017 (print) | LCC HD58.7
(ebook) | DDC
658.3––dc23
LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2016022886
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
ISBN 10: 0-13-452385-7
ISBN 13: 978-0-13-452385-9
A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 4 30/09/16 11:59 AM
http://www.pearsoned.com/permissions/
https://lccn.loc.gov/2016022886
This book is dedicated to our friends and colleagues in
The Organizational Behavior Teaching Society
who, through their teaching, research and commitment
to the leading process, have significantly
improved the ability of students
to understand and apply OB concepts.
A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 5 24/09/16 11:56 am
BRIEF CONTENTS
PART 1 Understanding Yourself and Others 1
Chapter 1 What Is Organizational Behavior? 1
Chapter 2 Diversity in Organizations 17
Chapter 3 Attitudes and Job Satisfaction 34
Chapter 4 Emotions and Moods 47
Chapter 5 Personality and Values 64
PART 2 Making and Implementing Decisions 82
Chapter 6 Perception and Individual Decision Making 82
Chapter 7 Motivation Concepts 100
Chapter 8 Motivation: From Concepts to Applications 120
PART 3 Communicating in Groups and Teams 136
Chapter 9 Foundations of Group Behavior 136
Chapter 10 Understanding Work Teams 154
Chapter 11 Communication 170
PART 4 Negotiating Power and Politics 186
Chapter 12 Leadership 186
Chapter 13 Power and Politics 207
Chapter 14 Conflict and Negotiation 226
PART 5 Leading, Understanding, and Transforming
the Organization System 245
Chapter 15 Foundations of Organization Structure 245
Chapter 16 Organizational Culture 265
Chapter 17 Organizational Change and Stress Management 285
vi
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vii
CONTENTS
Preface xxii
Acknowledgments xxix
About the Authors xxx
PART 1 Understanding Yourself and Others 1
Chapter 1 WHAT IS ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR? 1
Chapter Warm-up 1
Management and Organizational Behavior 2
Organizational Behavior (OB) Defined 3
Effective versus Successful Managerial Activities 3
Watch It—Herman Miller: Organizational Behavior 4
Complementing Intuition with Systematic Study 4
Big Data 5
Disciplines That Contribute to the OB Field 6
Psychology 6
Social Psychology 6
Sociology 7
Anthropology 7
There Are Few Absolutes in OB 7
Challenges and Opportunities for OB 8
Continuing Globalization 8
Workforce Demographics 10
Workforce Diversity 10
Social Media 10
Employee Well-Being at Work 11
Positive Work Environment 11
Ethical Behavior 12
Coming Attractions: Developing an OB Model 12
Overview 12
Inputs 13
Processes 13
Outcomes 14
Summary 15
Implications for Managers 15
Personal Inventory Assessments: Multicultural Awareness Scale
16
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viii Contents
Chapter 2 DIVERSITY IN ORGANIZATIONS 17
Chapter Warm-up 17
Diversity 17
Demographic Characteristics 18
Levels of Diversity 18
Discrimination 19
Stereotype Threat 19
Discrimination in the Workplace 20
Biographical Characteristics 21
Age 21
Sex 22
Race and Ethnicity 23
Disabilities 23
Hidden Disabilities 24
Other Differentiating Characteristics 25
Religion 25
Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity 25
Cultural Identity 27
Watch It—Verizon: Diversity 27
Ability 27
Intellectual Abilities 27
Physical Abilities 29
Implementing Diversity Management Strategies 29
Attracting, Selecting, Developing, and Retaining Diverse
Employees 30
Diversity in Groups 31
Diversity Programs 32
Summary 32
Implications for Managers 33
Try It—Simulation: Human Resources 33
Personal Inventory Assessments: Intercultural Sensitivity
Scale 33
Chapter 3 ATTITUDES AND JOB SATISFACTION 34
Chapter Warm-up 34
Attitudes 34
Watch It—Gawker Media: Attitudes and Job Satisfaction 36
Attitudes and Behavior 36
Job Attitudes 37
Job Satisfaction and Job Involvement 37
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Organizational Commitment 37
Perceived Organizational Support 37
Employee Engagement 38
Measuring Job Satisfaction 38
Approaches to Measurement 39
Measured Job Satisfaction Levels 39
What Causes Job Satisfaction? 39
Job Conditions 40
Personality 41
Pay 41
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) 41
Outcomes of Job Satisfaction 42
Job Performance 42
Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) 42
Customer Satisfaction 42
Life Satisfaction 43
The Impact of Job Dissatisfaction 43
Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB) 43
Understanding the Impact 45
Summary 46
Implications for Managers 46
Try It—Simulation: Attitudes & Job Satisfaction 46
Personal Inventory Assessments: Core Self-Evaluation (CSE)
Scale 46
Chapter 4 EMOTIONS AND MOODS 47
Chapter Warm-up 47
What Are Emotions and Moods? 47
The Basic Emotions 48
Moral Emotions 49
The Basic Moods: Positive and Negative Affect 49
Experiencing Moods and Emotions 50
The Function of Emotions 50
Sources of Emotions and Moods 51
Personality 52
Time of Day 52
Day of the Week 52
Weather 52
Stress 54
Sleep 54
Contents ix
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Exercise 54
Age 54
Sex 54
Emotional Labor 55
Controlling Emotional Displays 55
Emotional Dissonance and Mindfulness 56
Affective Events Theory 56
Emotional Intelligence 56
Emotion Regulation 58
Emotion Regulation Influences and Outcomes 58
Emotion Regulation Techniques 58
Ethics of Emotion Regulation 59
Watch It—East Haven Fire Department: Emotions and Moods
59
OB Applications of Emotions and Moods 59
Selection 59
Decision Making 60
Creativity 60
Motivation 60
Leadership 60
Customer Service 61
Job Attitudes 61
Deviant Workplace Behaviors 61
Safety and Injury at Work 62
Summary 62
Implications for Managers 62
Try It—Simulation: Emotions & Moods 63
Personal Inventory Assessments: Emotional Intelligence
Assessment 63
Chapter 5 PERSONALITY AND VALUES 64
Chapter Warm-up 64
Personality 64
What Is Personality? 65
Personality Frameworks 66
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator 66
The Big Five Personality Model 67
How Do the Big Five Traits Predict Behavior at Work? 68
The Dark Triad 69
Other Personality Attributes Relevant to OB 71
Core Self-Evaluation (CSE) 71
x Contents
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Self-Monitoring 72
Proactive Personality 72
Personality and Situations 72
Situation Strength Theory 73
Trait Activation Theory 74
Values 75
Watch It—Honest Tea: Ethics–Company Mission and Values 75
Terminal versus Instrumental Values 75
Generational Values 76
Linking an Individual’s Personality and Values
to the Workplace 76
Person–Job Fit 76
Person–Organization Fit 77
Other Dimensions of Fit 77
Cultural Values 78
Hofstede’s Framework 78
The GLOBE Framework 79
Comparison of Hofstede’s Framework and the Globe
Framework 79
Summary 81
Implications for Managers 81
Personal Inventory Assessments: Personality Style
Indicator 81
PART 2 Making and Implementing Decisions 82
Chapter 6 PERCEPTION AND INDIVIDUAL DECISION
MAKING 82
Chapter Warm-up 82
What Is Perception? 82
Factors That Influence Perception 83
Watch It—Orpheus Group Casting: Social Perception and
Attribution 84
Person Perception: Making Judgments about Others 84
Attribution Theory 84
Common Shortcuts in Judging Others 86
The Link between Perception and Individual Decision
Making 87
Decision Making in Organizations 87
The Rational Model, Bounded Rationality, and Intuition 87
Contents xi
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Common Biases and Errors in Decision Making 89
Influences on Decision Making: Individual Differences and
Organizational Constraints 91
Individual Differences 92
Organizational Constraints 93
What about Ethics in Decision Making? 93
Three Ethical Decision Criteria 94
Choosing between Criteria 94
Behavioral Ethics 95
Lying 95
Creativity, Creative Decision Making, and Innovation in
Organizations 95
Creative Behavior 96
Causes of Creative Behavior 96
Creative Outcomes (Innovation) 98
Summary 98
Implications for Managers 98
Try It—Simulation: Perception & Individual Decision
Making 99
Personal Inventory Assessments: How Creative Are You? 99
Chapter 7 Motivation ConCepts 100
Chapter Warm-up 100
Motivation 100
Watch It—Motivation (TWZ Role Play) 101
Early Theories of Motivation 101
Hierarchy of Needs Theory 101
Two-Factor Theory 102
McClelland’s Theory of Needs 102
Contemporary Theories of Motivation 104
Self-Determination Theory 104
Goal-Setting Theory 105
Other Contemporary Theories of Motivation 108
Self-Efficacy Theory 108
Reinforcement Theory 110
Equity Theory/Organizational Justice 111
Expectancy Theory 115
Job Engagement 116
Integrating Contemporary Theories of Motivation 116
xii Contents
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Summary 118
Implications for Managers 118
Try It—Simulation: Motivation 118
Personal Inventory Assessments: Work Motivation Indicator
119
Chapter 8 MOTIVATION: FROM CONCEPTS TO
APPLICATIONS 120
Chapter Warm-up 120
Motivating by Job Design: The Job Characteristics
Model (JCM) 121
Elements of the JCM 121
Efficacy of the JCM 121
Motivating Potential Score (MPS) 122
Cultural Generalizability of the JCM 123
Using Job Redesign to Motivate Employees 123
Job Rotation 123
Relational Job Design 124
Using Alternative Work Arrangements
to Motivate Employees 124
Flextime 125
Job Sharing 126
Telecommuting 127
Using Employee Involvement and Participation (EIP)
to Motivate Employees 127
Cultural EIP 128
Forms of Employee Involvement Programs 128
Using Extrinsic Rewards to Motivate Employees 129
What to Pay: Establishing a Pay Structure 129
How to Pay: Rewarding Individual Employees through
Variable-Pay Programs 129
Using Benefits to Motivate Employees 133
Using Intrinsic Rewards to Motivate Employees 133
Watch It—ZAPPOS: Motivating Employees through Company
Culture 134
Summary 134
Implications for Managers 135
Try It—Simulation: Extrinsic & Intrinsic Motivation 135
Personal Inventory Assessments: Diagnosing the Need for
Team Building 135
Contents xiii
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xiv Contents
PART 3 Communicating in Groups and Teams 136
Chapter 9 FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOR 136
Chapter Warm-up 136
Groups and Group Identity 137
Social Identity 137
Ingroups and Outgroups 137
Stages of Group Development 138
Watch It—Witness.org: Managing Groups & Teams 138
Group Property 1: Roles 139
Role Perception 140
Role Expectations 140
Role Conflict 140
Group Property 2: Norms 140
Norms and Emotions 141
Norms and Conformity 141
Norms and Behavior 142
Positive Norms and Group Outcomes 142
Negative Norms and Group Outcomes 143
Norms and Culture 144
Group Property 3: Status, and Group Property 4: Size 144
Group Property 3: Status 144
Group Property 4: Size 146
Group Property 5: Cohesiveness, and Group Property
6: Diversity 146
Group Property 5: Cohesiveness 147
Group Property 6: Diversity 147
Group Decision Making 149
Groups versus the Individual 149
Groupthink 150
Groupshift or Group Polarization 151
Group Decision-Making Techniques 151
Summary 152
Implications for Managers 153
Try It—Simulation: Group Behavior 153
Personal Inventory Assessments: Communicating
Supportively 153
Chapter 10 UNDERSTANDING WORK TEAMS 154
Chapter Warm-up 154
Why Have Teams Become so Popular? 154
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Differences between Groups and Teams 155
Types of Teams 156
Problem-Solving Teams 156
Self-Managed Work Teams 156
Cross-Functional Teams 157
Virtual Teams 158
Multiteam Systems 158
Watch It—Teams (TWZ Role Play) 159
Creating Effective Teams 159
Team Context: What Factors Determine Whether
Teams Are Successful? 160
Team Composition 161
Team Processes 164
Turning Individuals into Team Players 166
Selecting: Hiring Team Players 167
Training: Creating Team Players 167
Rewarding: Providing Incentives to Be a
Good Team Player 167
Beware! Teams Aren’t Always the Answer 168
Summary 168
Implications for Managers 168
Try It—Simulation: Teams 169
Personal Inventory Assessments: Team Development
Behaviors 169
Chapter 11 COMMUNICATION 170
Chapter Warm-up 170
Communication 171
Functions of Communication 171
The Communication Process 172
Direction of Communication 172
Downward Communication 173
Upward Communication 173
Lateral Communication 173
Formal Small-Group Networks 174
The Grapevine 174
Modes of Communication 175
Oral Communication 175
Written Communication 176
Nonverbal Communication 176
Contents xv
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xvi Contents
Choice of Communication Channel 176
Channel Richness 176
Choosing Communication Methods 177
Information Security 178
Persuasive Communication 178
Automatic and Controlled Processing 178
Tailoring the Message 179
Barriers to Effective Communication 180
Filtering 180
Selective Perception 180
Information Overload 180
Emotions 181
Language 181
Silence 181
Communication Apprehension 181
Lying 182
Cultural Factors 182
Cultural Barriers 182
Cultural Context 183
A Cultural Guide 183
Watch It—Communication (TWZ Role Play) 184
Summary 184
Implications for Managers 185
Try It—Simulation: Communication 185
Personal Inventory Assessments: Communication Styles 185
PART 4 Negotiating Power and Politics 186
Chapter 12 LEADERSHIP 186
Chapter Warm-up 186
Watch It—Leadership (TWZ Role Play) 186
Trait Theories of Leadership 187
Personality Traits and Leadership 187
Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Leadership 188
Behavioral Theories 188
Initiating Structure 188
Consideration 189
Cultural Differences 189
Contingency Theories 189
The Fiedler Model 189
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Situational Leadership Theory 191
Path–Goal Theory 191
Leader–Participation Model 192
Contemporary Theories of Leadership 192
Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) Theory 192
Charismatic Leadership 194
Transactional and Transformational Leadership 196
Responsible Leadership 199
Authentic Leadership 199
Ethical Leadership 200
Servant Leadership 200
Positive Leadership 201
Trust 201
Mentoring 203
Challenges to Our Understanding of Leadership 203
Leadership as an Attribution 203
Substitutes for and Neutralizers of Leadership 204
Online Leadership 205
Summary 205
Implications for Managers 205
Try It—Simulation: Leadership 206
Personal Inventory Assessments: Ethical Leadership
Assessment 206
Chapter 13 POWER AND POLITICS 207
Chapter Warm-up 207
Watch It—Power and Political Behavior 207
Power and Leadership 208
Bases of Power 208
Formal Power 208
Personal Power 209
Which Bases of Power Are Most Effective? 210
Dependence: The Key to Power 210
The General Dependence Postulate 210
What Creates Dependence? 210
Social Network Analysis: A Tool for Assessing
Resources 211
Power Tactics 212
Using Power Tactics 212
Contents xvii
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xviii Contents
Cultural Preferences for Power Tactics 213
Applying Power Tactics 214
How Power Affects People 214
Power Variables 214
Sexual Harassment: Unequal Power in the Workplace 215
Politics: Power in Action 216
Definition of Organizational Politics 216
The Reality of Politics 216
Causes and Consequences of Political Behavior 217
Factors Contributing to Political Behavior 217
How Do People Respond to Organizational Politics? 219
Impression Management 220
The Ethics of Behaving Politically 222
Mapping Your Political Career 223
Summary 224
Implications for Managers 225
Try It—Simulation: Power & Politics 225
Personal Inventory Assessments: Gaining Power and
Influence 225
Chapter 14 ConfliCt and negotiation 226
Chapter Warm-up 226
A Definition of Conflict 226
Types of Conflict 228
Loci of Conflict 229
The Conflict Process 229
Stage I: Potential Opposition or Incompatibility 230
Stage II: Cognition and Personalization 231
Stage III: Intentions 231
Stage IV: Behavior 232
Stage V: Outcomes 233
Watch It—Gordon Law Group: Conflict and Negotiation 235
Negotiation 235
Bargaining Strategies 235
The Negotiation Process 237
Individual Differences in Negotiation Effectiveness 239
Negotiating in a Social Context 241
Reputation 241
Relationships 242
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Third-Party Negotiations 242
Summary 243
Implications for Managers 243
Personal Inventory Assessments: Strategies for Handling
Conflict 244
PART 5 Leading, Understanding, and Transforming
the Organization System 245
Chapter 15 FOUndATiOnS OF ORgAnizATiOn
STRUCTURe 245
Chapter Warm-up 245
What Is Organizational Structure? 246
Work Specialization 246
Departmentalization 247
Chain of Command 248
Span of Control 249
Centralization and Decentralization 250
Formalization 251
Boundary Spanning 251
Common Organizational Frameworks and Structures 252
The Simple Structure 252
The Bureaucracy 253
The Matrix Structure 254
Alternate Design Options 255
The Virtual Structure 255
The Team Structure 256
The Circular Structure 257
The Leaner Organization: Downsizing 257
Why Do Structures Differ? 258
Organizational Strategies 258
Organization Size 260
Technology 260
Environment 260
Institutions 261
Organizational Designs and Employee Behavior 262
Work Specialization 262
Span of Control 262
Centralization 263
Predictability versus Autonomy 263
National Culture 263
Watch It—ZipCar: Organizational Structure 263
Contents xix
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xx Contents
Summary 263
Implications for Managers 264
Try It—Simulation: Organizational Structure 264
Personal Inventory Assessments: Organizational Structure
Assessment 264
Chapter 16 ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE 265
Chapter Warm-up 265
Watch It—Organizational Culture (TWZ Role Play) 265
What Is Organizational Culture? 266
A Definition of Organizational Culture 266
Do Organizations Have Uniform Cultures? 266
Strong versus Weak Cultures 267
Culture versus Formalization 268
What Do Cultures Do? 268
The Functions of Culture 268
Culture Creates Climate 269
The Ethical Dimension of Culture 269
Culture and Sustainability 270
Culture and Innovation 271
Culture as an Asset 271
Culture as a Liability 272
Creating and Sustaining Culture 273
How a Culture Begins 273
Keeping a Culture Alive 274
Summary: How Organizational Cultures Form 276
How Employees Learn Culture 276
Stories 277
Rituals 277
Symbols 277
Language 278
Influencing an Organizational Culture 278
An Ethical Culture 278
A Positive Culture 279
A Spiritual Culture 280
The Global Context 282
Summary 283
Implications for Managers 283
Try It—Simulation: Organizational Culture 283
Personal Inventory Assessments: Organizational Structure
Assessment 284
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Chapter 17 ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE AND STRESS
MANAGEMENT 285
Chapter Warm-up 285
Change 285
Forces for Change 286
Reactionary versus Planned Change 286
Resistance to Change 287
Overcoming Resistance to Change 287
The Politics of Change 289
Approaches to Managing Organizational Change 290
Lewin’s Three-Step Model 290
Kotter’s Eight-Step Plan 290
Action Research 291
Organizational Development 291
Creating a Culture for Change 293
Managing Paradox 293
Stimulating a Culture of Innovation 294
Creating a Learning Organization 295
Organizational Change and Stress 296
Watch It—East Haven Fire Department: Managing Stress 296
Stress at Work 296
What Is Stress? 297
Potential Sources of Stress at Work 298
Individual Differences in Stress 300
Cultural Differences 301
Consequences of Stress at Work 301
Managing Stress 302
Individual Approaches 302
Organizational Approaches 303
Summary 304
Implications for Managers 305
Try It—Simulation: Change 305
Personal Inventory Assessments: Tolerance of Ambiguity
Scale 305
Epilogue 306
Endnotes 307
Glossary 354
Index 363
Contents xxi
A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 21 24/09/16 11:56 am
PREFACE
This book was created as an alternative to the 600- or 700-page
comprehensive text in
organizational behavior (OB). It attempts to provide balanced
coverage of all the key
elements comprising the discipline of OB in a style that readers
will find both informa-
tive and interesting. We’re pleased to say that this text has
achieved a wide following in
short courses and executive programs as well as in traditional
courses as a companion
volume to experiential, skill development, case, and readings
books. It is currently used
at more than 500 colleges and universities in the United States,
Canada, Latin America,
Europe, Australia, and Asia. It’s also been translated into
Spanish, Portuguese, Japanese,
Chinese, Dutch, Polish, Turkish, Danish, and Bahasa
Indonesian.
KEY CHANGES FOR THE FOURTEENTH EDITION
• Increased content coverage was added to include updated
research, relevant discus-
sion, and new exhibits on current issues of all aspects of
organizational behavior.
• Increased integration of contemporary global issues was added
into topic
discussions.
• Extensive reorganization of all chapters with new headings
and subsections to
make navigating the print and digital versions of the text easier
and bring important
content to the fore.
• Increased cross-references between chapters to link themes
and concepts for the
student’s quick access and to provide a more in-depth
understanding of topics.
• New assisted and auto-graded questions that students can
complete and submit via
MyManagementLab are provided for each chapter.
• A new feature, Try It, has been added to 14 chapters to direct
the student’s attention
to MyManagementLab simulations specific to the content in the
text.
RETAINED FROM THE PREVIOUS EDITION
What do people like about this book? Surveys of users have
found general agree-
ment about the following features. Needless to say, they’ve all
been retained in this
edition.
• Length. Since its inception in 1984, we’ve tried diligently to
keep this book in the
range of 325 to 400 pages. Users tell us this length allows them
considerable flex-
ibility in assigning supporting materials and projects.
• Balanced topic coverage. Although short in length, this book
continues to provide
balanced coverage of all the key concepts in OB. This includes
not only traditional
topics such as personality, motivation, and leadership but also
cutting-edge issues
such as emotions, diversity, negotiation, and teamwork.
• Writing style. This book is frequently singled out for its fluid
writing style
and extensive use of examples. Users regularly tell us that they
find this
book “conversational,” “interesting,” “student friendly,” and
“very clear and …
Running head: MANAGEMENT DILEMMAS 1
MANAGEMENT DILEMMAS 4
MANAGEMENT DILEMMAS
Student’s name
Institutional affiliates
Course
Date
Part I:Management Dilemmas
1. The first management dilemma is whether student-athletes
should get paid in theInternational Shooting Sport Federation
(ISSF)instead of just giving them free scholarships to higher
education. Literature source: https://heinonline.org/hol-cgi-
bin/get_pdf.cgi?handle=hein.journals/jlas29&section=4
2. The other dilemma is the main reason as to why the coaches
of soccer in theInternational Shooting Sport Federation(ISSF)
cannot manage their projects. Literature source:
https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=7XOxDwAAQB
AJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=What+is+the+main+reason+why+Socc
er+coaches+faile+managing+their+projects&ots=erIlD1GbPs&si
g=Df_0npM8G3iQ6gmg11ShLDLJacQ
3.
Part II: Define Research Questions
1. What should be done in order for the association to recognize
that the students who play soccer require more than just a
scholarship? How should they be made to understand that even
good grades can attain a student a scholarship which means that
athlete students need more than just a scholarship?
2. What steps should be taken in order to help soccer coaches
plan better and come up with strategic plans that will help in
successful project management and will gear effective planning,
scheduling, and allocation of resources needed for their
projects?
Part III: Further Define Research Questions
1. Resource management- assigning the available resources to
the project according to the importance and time that the
particular thing should take in order for a project to run
smoothly and get enough of everything to see it through until it
is done.
2. The schedule is a plan of carrying out a procedure or process
given a list of things that should be done at a particular event
with the sequence of how all the things should appear at
specific times.
3. Athletics is defined as a collection of sporting activities that
involves walking, running, throwing and jumping. The most
common types are road-running, track, and field and walking
races.
4. Soccer which is also known as football is a game played by
two different teams which have eleven players in each, a referee
and a coach.
References
Brown, K., & Williams, A. (2019). Out of Bounds: A Critical
Race Theory Perspective on Pay for Play. J. Legal Aspects
Sport, 29, 30.
Rollnick, S., Fader, J., Breckon, J., & Moyers, T. B. (2019).
Coaching Athletes to be Their Best: Motivational Interviewing
in Sports. Guilford Press.
Databases and search engines for academic literature in sport
management
Databases
1. ABI/INFORM Global
2. EBSCO – Academic Search Premier
3. JSTOR
4. SPORTDiscus with Full Text
5. SBRNet
6. Web of Science
7. WorldCat - FirstSearch
8. Lexis-Nexis (legal research and newspapers)
9. PsycINFO
10. Dissertations and Theses Full Text
Internet
1. Google Scholar
2. CV’s
3. Professional organizations (e.g., NCAA.org)
UF Library
1. Smathers Library West Catalog
2. Interlibrary loan (ILL)
Review of Literature
The purpose of this review is to provide the literature and
theoretical frameworks
related to the objectives of the study. The review contains
many subsections, but the
organization overall is rather uncomplicated. First, the
importance of conducting dyad level
research in organizational settings is provided. Second, the
literature describing the role of
demographics in work dyads and groups is reviewed and
evaluated. Finally, the various
theoretical foundations for relational demography are described.
The Importance of Dyad Research
Tsui, Xin, and Egan (1995) have asserted that much of the
research on demographic
diversity in the work place has been performed at the group
rather than dyad level. This
contention is surprising given the great deal of research that has
shown the importance to
understanding the relationship between the superior and
subordinate. For example, Tsui,
Xin, and Egan (1995) contend, “an important factor in how well
a team works is the
relationship that a team leader has with each individual team
member” (p. 97). Further, Fahr,
Podsakoff, and Organ (1990) indicated that much of the contract
between an individual
employee and an organization is derived from the relationship
the employee enjoys with his
or her immediate supervisor.
Much of research that has occurred at the dyadic level has
occurred over the past three
decades. One paradigm that produced numerous studies at the
dyadic level was originally
termed the vertical dyad linkage model (Dansereau, Cashman, &
Graen, 1973). Recently this
line of research, which focuses on the leadership exchanges
between superiors and
subordinates, has been categorized as the leader-member
exchange (LMX) theory (Graen,
Novak, & Sommerkamp, 1982). Tsui et al. (1995) describes the
basic tenets of the theory as
“leaders categorize subordinates into two groups: the ingroup
(characterized by high trust,
interaction, support, and formal and informal rewards) and the
outgroup (characterized by low
trust, interaction, support, and formal and informal rewards)”(p.
99).
The research that has been conducted under LMX theory has
been able to establish that
ingroup members enjoy better relationships with, and benefit
greater from, their supervisors
than outgroup members. Further, according to Graen and
Cashman (1975), supervisors trade
resources (both personal and positional) for cooperation from
subordinates. In exchange for
this collaboration, ingroup members benefit from enhanced
access to information, decision-
making latitude, supervisory support, opportunity for
challenging tasks, and influence.
An example of a study using this framework by Liden and
Graen (1980) on 41
superior-subordinate dyads tested the validity of the vertical
dyad linkage model, and reported
findings indicating the importance of achieving high quality
exchange relationships. Results
signified that subordinates in high quality leader-member
relationships, or the ingroup,
indicated having greater job responsibility, having a greater
contribution to their work units,
and received higher performance ratings than those in low
quality leader-member relationships
(i.e., outgroup relationships). Another study by Vecchio,
Griffeth, and Hom (1986) of hospital
employees showed a positive relationship between job
satisfaction and a high quality
relationship. In yet another study, Vecchio and Gobdel (1984)
confirmed that high quality
leader to member exchanges were important to work related
outcomes. Their study of 45
dyads in a business organization showed that subordinates
achieving ingroup status were rated
higher by superiors, had fewer intentions to quit, and showed
greater satisfaction with
supervision than those in the outgroup.
Another study of 261 superior-subordinate dyads from a
telephone company (Duarte,
Goodson, & Klich, 1993), however, failed to indicate conclusive
evidence of a positive link
between the quality of exchange and actual objective job
performance. Yet, the researchers
reported that subordinates in the ingroup received higher
performance appraisal ratings
regardless of the actual objective performance. That is,
regardless of the actual performance
level by a subordinate, those enjoying ingroup status received
higher subjective performance
appraisals than those experiencing low quality exchanges with a
supervisor, which indicates a
positive bias by supervisors toward ingroup members.
In summary, based on conceptual and empirical research
conducted under the leader-
member exchange model, the literature generally indicates that
members of an ingroup will
experience significantly better relationships with their
respective supervisor than those
subordinates in the outgroup. However, what has yet to be
established from this literature is
what factors may contribute to the categorization of
subordinates into an ingroup or outgroup
by their superiors. Based on preliminary evidence in the
literature, there appears to be
evidence that demographic factors alone may have an impact on
whether a subordinate will
experience high-quality exchanges (i.e., be an in group
member), or low-quality exchanges
with supervisors (i.e., be an outgroup member).
Review of Previous Relational Demography Research
Tusi et al. (1995) have contended that relational demography is
the missing link toward
a greater understanding of vertical dyad research. This assertion
is based on preliminary
research that suggest that relational demographic similarity
between superiors and subordinates
can play an important role in the well being of subordinates.
However, the research on
relational demography is in its infancy. Only a few studies have
explicitly examined relational
demography at the dyad level, though many studies have
analyzed the theory utilizing larger
group samples. Therefore the literature concerning both work
groups and work dyads are
presented, however, the reviewed literature in this section
heavily emphasizes the relevant
contributions at the dyad level, and only the most noteworthy
group level analyses.
The origin of relational demography research stems from the
broader work on
organizational demography (Pfeffer, 1983). Organizational
demography contends that the
distributional properties of both individual and group
demographic characteristics in an
organization can have immense meaning beyond that associated
with a demographic attribute
considered in isolation (Pfeffer, 1983). Tsui and O’Reilly
(1989) were the first to posit the term
relational demography by suggesting that demographic variation
could be analyzed even
further than that proposed by Pfeffer, and in the context of
interacting group members. Tsui
and O’Reilly (1989) defined relational demography as the
comparative demographic
characteristics of group members, including dyads, who engage
in interactions on a regular
basis. They described the conceptualization in detail as:
We propose that knowing the comparative similarity or
dissimilarity in given
demographic attributes of a superior and a subordinate or of the
members of an
interacting work team may provide additional information about
the members’
characteristic attitudes and behaviors and, more important,
insight into the processes
through which demography affects job outcomes (Tsui &
O’Reilly, 1989, p. 403).
Although Tsui and O’Reilly (1989) were the first to coin the
term relational
demography and analyze specific research questions from this
framework, previous research
had indicated the importance of relational demographics on
interacting members. For example,
the work by Pfeffer and his associates under the organizational
demography methodology
produced findings consistent with relational demographic
studies. One such study by McCain,
O’Reilly, and Pfeffer (1983) indicated that organizational
turnover was related to the
demographics of the group. Results suggested that those group
members that belonged to
more homogeneous groups in terms of tenure experienced fewer
turnovers. A similar study by
Wagner, Pfeffer, and O’Reilly (1984) examined turnover in top-
management groups. Their
findings showed that individuals belonging to groups that were
more heterogeneous in terms of
age were more likely to turnover than those in more
homogeneous groups.
Another more thorough study by O’Reilly, Caldwell, and
Barnett (1989) examined
work group cohesion and turnover. The research on field sales
representatives included 20
different work groups consisting of 3 to 6 members each (N =
79). Their findings showed that
work groups that were most similar in terms of tenure, reported
greater group cohesion among
the members and lower turnover. Further, findings at the
individual level indicated that the
more similar members were in terms of tenure with other
members, the less likely they were to
turnover and were more integrated.
There were a few early studies that focused on the relational
demographic framework at
the dyad level as well. For example, one of the first studies to
discuss a demographic effect in
interacting dyads was completed by Larwood and Blackmore
(1978). Larwood and Blackmore
used 60 male and female students in an experiment to
understand the behavior of soliciting
volunteer leaders. The study reported that the students tended
to solicit leadership toward
members of their own sex more so than the opposite sex.
Liden (1985) studied 35 female bank employees in an attempt
to measure the subjects’
reactions to female and male managers. Liden reported that
80% of the female subordinates in
the study actually showed a preference for a male manager.
While this finding might
demonstrate that homogenous work teams provide no advantage
in the work place, the author
drew a different conclusion. Liden concluded that the
relationship was based on situational
variables, and not to gender differences. That is, because the
female superiors in the banks
possessed less experience and the male superiors reported
having more influence than female
managers, the preference for the male supervisors was based
more on rank or position and not
gender of supervisor.
Tsui and O’Reilly (1989) were the first to perform a study under
what is now
considered relational demography. The researchers framed their
study under the similarity-
attraction paradigm and analyzed the effects of age, gender,
education, company tenure, and
job tenure dissimilarities on four outcome variables. The
outcome variables included
reputational effectiveness, supervisory affect, role ambiguity,
and role conflict. The study
analyzed superior-subordinate dyads (N = 272) from a Fortune
500 multidivisional
corporation. Analysis included the use of blocked regressions
that included the superior’s
demographics (block one), the subordinate’s demographics
(block two), and relational
demographics (block three). The results of the study indicated a
relational demographic effect
on three of the four outcome variables, and significant beta
weights were yielded on 13 of the
24 possible relational demographic variables. Some of the most
noteworthy findings included
subordinates in mixed-gender dyads were rated to perform
worse and were liked less well than
those subordinates in a same-gender dyad. Subordinates in the
mixed-gender dyads also
reported higher levels of role conflict and role ambiguity.
Supervisors also indicated a greater
liking for subordinates with shorter job tenures than themselves,
than those with the same or a
greater amount of tenure.
Weslowski and Mossholder (1997) conducted a more recent
study under the concept of
relational demography, and framed the analysis under self-
categorization theory. The
researchers tested if demographic dissimilarity between the
dyad for the variables of race,
gender, age, and education affected subordinates job attitudes of
job satisfaction, burnout, and
perceived procedural justice. The researchers collected data
from 124 superior-subordinate
dyads working at two different service-oriented companies, and
primarily used polynomial
regressions for analyses. The results of the study yielded
significant relational effects for the
race variable only. Specifically, relational race was found to
correlate with perceptions of
procedural justice and job satisfaction, but not for burnout. That
is, those in mixed-race dyads
indicated significantly lower means for job satisfaction and
procedural justice than those in
same-race dyads.
Another dyad level study that utilized a relational demography
methodology was
conducted by Epitropaki and Martin (1999). The researchers
analyzed the impact of
differences in age, organizational tenure, and gender between
subordinates and their managers
as a potential moderator between the quality of leader-member
exchanges, organizational
commitment, job satisfaction, and job-related well-being. The
findings of the study did not
show direct relational demographic effects on any of the work-
related outcomes. However, the
researchers did reveal some evidence of the moderating effect
of relational demographics on
work outcomes. For example, when LMX was low, a high age
difference was associated with
lower well being than when the age differences were low. That
is, employees with a high
difference in age to their manager and low LMX, indicated
lower well-being. Organizational
tenure differences between the manger and subordinate also
moderated the relationship
between LMX and organizational commitment, job satisfaction,
and well-being. Therefore,
the study indicated that those experiencing low LMX and
having large organizational tenure
differences reported the lowest organizational commitment, job
satisfaction, and well-being.
Any gender differences between the manager and subordinate
were not found to moderate the
LMX relationship and the work outcomes. While this study
fails to provide evidence of a
direct relational demographic effect on the work outcomes, it
does demonstrate the importance
of relational demography in understanding work outcomes
through the moderation in the
leader-member exchanges of dyads.
Judge and Ferris (1993) studied the extent that a demographic
dissimilarity between a
superior and subordinate would affect the performance appraisal
process on 81 registered
nurses and their supervisors from a hospital in central Illinois.
The researchers chose just two
demographic variables for analysis, age and tenure, and
hypothesized that the more similar a
the supervisor and subordinate were with respect to theses two
variables, the more the
supervisor reported liking the subordinate, which would
indirectly have an effect on a positive
performance rating. Results of the study supported the
hypothesis in that increased similarity
between the dyad on a composite score of both age and tenure,
positively affected supervisors'
affect toward subordinates, and therefore, indirectly affected a
positive performance appraisal.
Another dyad level study by Green, Anderson, and Shivers
(1996) assessed the effects
of organizational (e.g., work unit size) and demographic
characteristics (e.g., age, gender, and
education differences) on the quality of leader-member
exchanges (LMX) among a sample of
208 public library employees. Furthermore, the researchers
assessed the relative contributions
of the organizational characteristics, relational demographics,
and LMX on a subordinate’s
work attitudes (i.e., job satisfaction and organizational
commitment). The results indicated that
a gender difference was evident on LMX and that LMX was of
lower quality when the
subordinate and superior were of different genders. Further, the
relational gender difference
almost always took the form of a female subordinate and a male
supervisor. Therein, the
authors contend, “the presence of a male manager with a female
subordinate may have taken
on special significance in this work setting and altered the LMX
development process” (Green
et al., 1996, p. 210). The negative effect on the quality of LMX
was subsequently found to
affect the job satisfaction variable indirectly through a positive
effect of LMX on satisfaction.
The relational education variable was found to have a direct
effect on organizational
commitment. The authors also report that organizational
characteristics (unit size and work
load experienced) were negatively related to LMX quality.
An important group level, as opposed to dyad level, study by
was conducted by Fields
and Blum (1997). The study analyzed the relationship between
an employee’s job satisfaction,
and the gender composition of his or her work group. The
authors surveyed a total of 820 men
and 814 women representing employed persons from across the
United States. Results of the
study indicated that both men and women working in a gender-
balanced group (similar
amounts of male and females) had higher job satisfaction levels
than those working in more
homogeneous groups (i.e., mostly male or mostly female).
Further, employees that worked in
groups containing mostly men indicated the lowest levels of job
satisfaction from the other
groups. Those employees working in groups of mostly females,
indicated job satisfaction
levels in the middle of the continuum. Although this study did
not use relational demography
as a framework for analysis, the study further iterates the
importance of demographic
characteristics on the well being of employees.
A more recent study by Lichtenstien and Alexander (2000) did
use relational
demography as a framework for analysis. The study utilized
data from 38 hospitals and
hospital administrative offices (N = 1,795). The authors
hypothesized that perceptions of
advancement opportunities of employees with regard to
demographic dissimilarity to the work
group in public sector organizations (i.e., VA hospital
employees) would differ from previous
research utilizing private sector organizations. That is, the
authors contended that being
demographically dissimilar to co-workers in a public sector
organization would result in much
different results on perceived advancement opportunities than
other relational demography
research that indicate a negative effect on the construct.
Results of the study partially
supported the hypotheses, at least with respect to relational age
and race. The results indicated
that the more dissimilar an employee was with regard to age and
race, the greater the
perception of advancement opportunity was. The authors
contend that these findings, which
contradict previous studies, could be attributed to the many
equal opportunity policies that
public sector organizations pursue, which altered the expected
relationship between
dissimilarity in demographics and perceptions of advancement
opportunity in ones job.
Pelled (1996) conducted a study of 233 blue collar workers and
assessed if a
demographic dissimilarity from those in a work group (n = 42)
affected how individual’s
perceived the groups performance and conflict. Pelled used a
relational demography
framework to shape the study hypotheses and assessed
differences among the interacting
members on the demographic variables of gender,
organizational tenure, and race. The model
included two hypotheses and assessed the effects of relational
demography on the outcome
variables of perceived emotional conflict and perceptions of
group performance. Results
indicated that both gender and tenure dissimilarity had positive
relationships with the perceived
emotional conflict construct. Demographic dissimilarity was
also negatively related to the
ratings of group performance indirectly through the conflict
perception variable. That is,
although the demographic dissimilarities did not have a direct
effect on the perceived
productivity of the group, the negative relationships toward the
emotional conflict variable,
which subsequently predicted less perceived productivity,
indicates that relational demography
can affect the confidence members have toward their group.
Jackson et al. (1991) produced a study that analyzed both the
effects of demographic
similarity to a group on individuals and groups. The researchers
examined the demographic
differences among the variables of age, organizational tenure,
educational level, college
curriculum, industry experience, and military experience on a
sample of 93 top management
teams (totaling 625 individuals) in the banking industry. The
study was conducted under
similar theories—the attraction-selection-attrition model (ASA)
(Schneider, 1987) and the
organizational demography model (Pfeffer, 1983). The effects
of individual dissimilarity and
group heterogeneity on the outcome variables of recruitment,
promotion, and turnover were
assessed using analysis of variance, correlations, and
regressions. The group level analyses
indicated that group heterogeneity predicted turnover. That is,
the more dissimilar the work
group was in terms of the demographic variables, the more
turnover the team experienced over
the four-year period under study. The results at the individual
level indicated that a
dissimilarity between the individual and the work group with
respect to the demographic
variables predicted higher turnover. The results lent support for
both models under
investigation in that demographic similarity (organizational
demography) and psychological
similarity (ASA) effects on the outcomes were noted.
A group level study by Mueller et al. (1999) studied teachers in
405 urban school
district schools under relational demography theory, a racial
prejudice framework, and status
characteristics theory. The studied assessed the direct effects of
the racial composition of the
schools teachers and students on job satisfaction, organizational
commitment, and career
commitment. Furthermore, the researchers were interested in
assessing what variables would
act as mediators of the group composition differences effect on
satisfaction and commitment
constructs. Specifically, the authors main hypotheses was that
teachers that worked in schools
in which there own race was dominant would experience greater
commitment and job
satisfaction than teachers in schools where a race other than
their own was primary. Further,
the authors tested whether White teachers in schools with
predominately White colleagues
would experience greater coworker support, role conflict, and
autonomy, a contention that is
grounded in the nonsymmetry hypothesis. Results indicated that
the racial composition of
schools affected the White teachers but not the Black teachers,
which lent support for the
nonsymmetry hypothesis that Whites in Black-dominant settings
often react more negatively
than Blacks in White-dominant settings. The specific results
indicated that White teachers in
“mismatched” settings (e.g., in a Black-dominant school)
experienced greater role conflict,
inadequate resources, and less job autonomy. These negative
effects in turn shaped less job
satisfaction and organizational commitment. However, no
racial composition effects on career
commitment were found. As such, the authors assert that
relational demography effects appear
to have “more short-term than long-term effects on teachers”
(Mueller et al., 1999, p. 211).
Tsui, Egan, O’Reilly (1992) constructed a framework built on
self-categorization
theory to test a series of hypotheses regarding relational
demographic differences with respect
to age, race, tenure, education, and gender. The researchers
tested the effects of relational
demography on the outcome variables of commitment,
attendance behavior, and tenure
intentions among 1,705 workers across three different
industries. The results indicated that an
increase in work-unit diversity among group members
negatively affected the psychological
attachment of the individuals. Specifically, the researchers
reported general relational
demography effects on three of the five difference variables.
The tenure, gender, and race
variables all accounted for a difference in all three of the
outcome variables. For the gender
and race relational scores, the direction of the relationship was
as hypothesized. Thus, the
greater the difference in gender and race of the individual
toward the work group, the lower
levels of commitment, the higher the frequency of absences, and
the lower stay intentions were
experienced by the employees. However, the hypothesized
effects for education and tenure
were not supported. In fact, the opposite effects to those
hypothesized were actually found to
exist.
Numerous interesting results were noted in the study by Tsui et
al. (1992). The most
noteworthy of these emerged in the nonsymmetrical effects
analysis for the gender variable
(i.e., separate analysis for each gender). For the men in this
analysis, an increase in the gender
composition of the work group was actually associated with less
psychological attachment,
increased absence, and fewer stay intentions. However, for
women, an increase in the gender
from others in the group was associated with greater levels of
organizational attachment. Thus,
it appears that men are more affected by an increase in the
heterogeneity of a work group, and
would have more positive psychological outcomes in a male-
dominated or all male setting.
However, females appear to be unaffected by an increase in the
gender heterogeneity a work
group.
Theoretical Frameworks Explaining Demographic Effects
Relational demography effects can be best explained by self-
categorization theory, a
theory grounded in Tajfel’s (1974) social identity theory. Hogg
and Terry (2000) contend that
Tajfel developed the theory to indicate “how beliefs about the
nature of relationships between
groups (status, stability, permeability, legitimacy) influence the
way that individuals or groups
pursue positive social identity” (p. 122-123). One principle of
an individual’s social identity is
that of self-enhancement, which is related to one’s self-esteem
(Riordon, 1995). Individuals
are expected to desire to establish a high level of self-esteem
(e.g., Brockner, 1988), this in turn
will motivate them to achieve a favorable self-identity (Tajfel &
Turner, 1986). However, in
order for individuals to identify how they feel about others,
they are required to identify
themselves first (Tsui et al., 1992).
To establish this identity, individuals are expected to partake in
a self-categorization
process (Turner, 1987). Self-categorization elaborates on social
identity theory and contends
that individuals “classify themselves and others into social
categories using characteristics such
as organizational membership, age, race, status, or religion”
(Tsui et al., 1992). These social
categories allow individuals to define themselves in terms of
social identity (Miklos, 1999).
Furthermore, the process allows individuals to assume a more
positive self-identity and s/he
may consequently seek to maximize their ingroup uniqueness
and disfavor the outgroups
distinctiveness (Kramer, 1991). Stephan and Stephan (1985)
have asserted, “people who are
regarded as superior experience anxiety concerning interaction
with others who are regarded as
inferior” (p. 163). This anxiety can in turn challenge one’s self-
esteem and enable people to
avoid contact with members of an outgroup, and to increase the
stereotyping behavior toward
the outgroup (Tsui et al., 1992).
The theory is ideal for analysis in an organizational context
because existence of the
numerous groups in these setting (e.g., work groups, supervisor-
subordinate dyads,
management groups) and the research that suggests that
individuals prefer to function in
homogeneous groups of similar others rather than in a group of
dissimilar others (e.g.,
Schneider, 1987). Relational demographics are relevant
because individuals often classify
themselves and others into categories using various
characteristics such as gender, race, age,
tenure, and education (Riordan, 1995; Tsui et al., 1992; Zenger
& Lawrence, 1989). Thus, if an
individual’s demographic background and characteristics (such
as age, gender, tenure, race, or
religion) make them distinct, she or he may engage in social
identification and subsequent self-
categorization based on the particular background or
characteristic (Pelled, 1996).
At the dyad level, self-categorization theory and relational
demographic effects
contends that demographic dissimilarities between the two
members can lead to an increase in
polarization between the members based on definition of the
social group as a whole (i.e.,
conflicting outgroup or ingroup group memberships when
compared to the broader group as a
whole) (Turner & Oakes, 1989). Further, when demographic
dissimilarities exist within a dyad,
subordinates and superiors may tend to stereotype each other
and emphasize their differences
(Weslowski & Mossholder, 1997). These contentions, along
with the literature reviewed
indicating the importance of ingroup and outgroup
categorizations in dyad studies, …
Running Head: EMPHASIS ON EXPERIENCE 1
Major League Soccer: Emphasis on Experience = Fans in the
Stands
Alexis Petrou
University of Florida
EMPHASIS ON EXPERIENCE
2
Introduction
Over the past decade, Major League Soccer has grown
exponentially. In the past, soccer
always took a back seat to the so-called “Big Four” professional
sports (football, basketball,
baseball, and hockey). It was always referred to as the least
popular sport in the United States.
However, in a recent change of events, soccer is now increasing
in popularity and is not too far
behind the other professional sports leagues. Major League
Soccer was never really considered a
serious professional sports league. There teams were not
successful, their stadiums were never
filled, and the average American had an apathetic feeling
toward the sport. In fact, “professional
soccer in the United States would remain dormant for over a
decade until FIFA awarded the
1994 World Cup to the United States” (Ageris & Nagel, 2013).
The recent boom of soccer in the
United States has spread across the nation, and it is now one of
the most popular sports among
children and young adults in the country. This has been helped
by the growth of technology and
media contracts, with national television companies now airing
soccer games from across the
globe on a weekly basis. The United States has recently caught
up with most other countries to
appreciate the most popular sport in the world.
Because of this rapid growth, Major League Soccer has
expanded quicker than most other
professional sports leagues. A decade ago, the MLS consisted of
only 12 teams. Today, that
number has grown to 20, with a further four teams joining the
league by 2018 to bring the total to
24. Their commissioner, Don Garber, has claimed that they will
not stop there, and eventually
want to reach 30 teams to compete with the other professional
sports markets. Even though this
expansion has been good for the sport of soccer, there are some
negatives that come with it.
Expanding so quickly makes it difficult to attract fans to these
relatively new franchises. Some of
the professional soccer teams in Major League Soccer are
struggling to sell tickets and fill their
EMPHASIS ON EXPERIENCE
3
stadiums for their home games. This is not a problem solely for
Major League Soccer, as other
professional teams in other leagues also struggle to sell out
stadiums and arenas every game.
However, if the MLS wants to be able to sustain their
expansion, teams will need to create a
loyal fan base to be able to stay afloat. In order to successfully
attract fans to soccer stadiums, it
is necessary to investigate what fans consider important to their
experience at games. In order to
determine this, fan motivation must be defined and evaluated in
order to find out who, what,
when, where, and why fans choose to attend soccer games. Fan
satisfaction is a major key to
successfully selling out games in any sports league, but research
must be done to find out what
satisfies the core demographic of soccer fans. Research must be
done to see the perception of
Major League Soccer as a whole, with the product on the field,
with the facilities, and with the
competition between franchises. In addition, ticket pricing and
attendance records are inherently
connected, therefore it is important to see which markets are
successful and why they have been
successful. There is a lack of research done on fan attendance
specific to soccer, and while there
has been research done on the relationship between differing
factors influencing spectator
attendance, “most of this body of work is relevant to the ‘big
three’ sports of football, basketball,
and baseball” (Parrish, 2013). Marketing strategies from other
sports leagues (NFL, NBA, MLB,
NHL) can be applied to Major League Soccer. The key
component to the research in question is
finding out what aspects of the fan experience are most critical
to the average soccer fan.
Review of Literature
Consumer Satisfaction
In today’s sports marketing world, consumer expectations are of
the utmost importance.
In order to better understand which aspects of the fan
experience are valued, Michael Mondello
and Brian Gordon (2015) focused on consumer satisfaction in
the National Basketball
EMPHASIS ON EXPERIENCE
4
Association. In their research, The NBA Fan Experience: A
Case Study of a Professional Sport
Franchise, they utilized focus groups of season ticket holders
from the Orlando Magic franchise
to discuss their opinions on the fan experience on a variety of
variables. To determine a the most
avid fans, it is important to gauge the level of interest, passion,
and loyalty a fan displays to a
favorite sports team. The more connected a fan is to their team,
the more time, money, and effort
they will spend on products and activities correlated with that
team. The research done by
Modello and Gordon (2015) was focused on finding what
customers wanted from their fan
experience, and how teams were “delivering and creating
memorable experiences for their
customers.” In order to do this, they used two different focus
groups comprised of male and
female ticket holders, varying in age and demographics. There
are usually “two types of
customer satisfaction at sporting events: game satisfaction and
service satisfaction” (Mondello &
Gordon, 2015). It is imperative to satisfy both needs if a
professional sports franchise wants to
attract more fans to their home games. By using questions
focused on advertising, ticketing
pricing, the overall experience, motivations, and frequency of
attendance, the research was able
to determine what factors are of the most important to NBA
fans. The findings of this study are
of particular importance to Major League Soccer, because they
can employ some of the results to
create a better atmosphere and draw more fans to their games.
Customer satisfaction is key to
keeping fans around, and the amount of satisfaction can impact
“social identification and the
level of involvement towards sporting events and clubs”
(Beccarini & Ferrand, 2006). There has
been research done that is negative regarding satisfaction with a
professional league’s marketing
and operations. Using questionnaires, Bo Gong, Minkil Kim,
Tyreal Qian, and James Zhang
(2015) investigated fan satisfaction in the Chinese Soccer
League to determine whether customer
attention and involvement correlates with satisfaction. Their
findings showed that in China, fans
EMPHASIS ON EXPERIENCE
5
became less satisfied with the league the more they became
involved in it. Because they were
able to see how the market and teams operated, they were turned
off to the idea of attending
more games. The fans of the Chinese Soccer League “perceive
that the league has a number of
problems. (Gong, et al. 2015). Findings like these are important
for the MLS to consider because
they want to create a league that can function properly, as well
as increase the satisfaction and
attendance of all fans.
Target Market
There are a variety of results from the studies conducted that
can have an impact on the
fan experience in Major League Soccer games. Even though the
focus groups were based on
NBA fans, the findings are applicable to all professional sports
leagues. Most fans tend to plan
their entire night based on a sporting event if they plan on
attending. In order to encourage this,
Major League Soccer teams should look to promote game
packages that can allow for this.
Offering ticket packages for “Guys Night Out” or “Girls Night
Out” could be beneficial to
attracting fans, especially young adults. The age of soccer fans
“mostly ranges from 20-29 and
30-39 years” (Zorzou, et al. 2014). As pointed out in the study,
“the majority of respondents
focused on ‘the entire experience’ when discussing their
perceptions of attending a game”
(Mondello & Gordon, 2015). In addition, this specific study
actually discovered that the Orlando
Magic contacted a MLS franchise, Sporting Kansas City to learn
how they have increased ticket
sales. Sporting KC used sports analytics to find out in depth
information about their average
fans. This is one way to discover what the average fans wants in
their sporting experience.
Findings from other soccer cultures can be of importance when
trying to increase ticket sales in
the United States. Mariana Carvalho, Felip Boen, Jose Pedro
Sarmento, and Jereon Scheerder
(2015) looked into the attendance patterns in Portugal and
Belgium to get a better understanding
EMPHASIS ON EXPERIENCE
6
of predictors of soccer attendance. They focused on these two
countries because they believed it
was a “good opportunity to include two different soccer
attendance cultures” in order to find
patterns and profiles of fans (Carvalho, et al. 2015). Initially,
Major League Soccer targeted the
“soccer mom” in order to attract fans to the stadiums. Recently
however, there has been a shift to
young adults. Using surveys, Carvalho, et al (2015) suggests
that there is a different market that
soccer teams should target: teens. While the push for soccer
moms was partially successful,
Major League Soccer quickly learned that young adults were the
best fans to try and attract for a
variety of reasons. However, teens should be targeted because
“they are considered to be
trendsetters, because they influence their parents’ spending, and
because they are a future
market” (Carvalho, et al. 2015). Major League Soccer should try
to attract more teenagers
because they have a long term impact for game attendance.
Teenagers and children tend to
become fans at a young age, so it is important to capitalize on
this time frame. Argeris and Nagel
(20) further proved this theory when they found that “a weathly,
young, white and male
population is associated with higher MLS attendance.” In
addition, Mondello and Gordon (2015)
found that the main motives for attendance found in the study
were centered on family influence.
The responders in the focus groups who had children tended to
use that as an influence to attend
basketball games. In addition, some responders claimed games
were used as a “family night out”
or “date night” with a significant other (Mondello & Gordon,
2015). It is not surprising to see
this, as many people use sporting events to get out of the house,
as well as spend time with their
family or partner. Friends and peer groups also influenced fan
attendance in a noticeable way.
Fans of Major League Soccer do no differ from those who are
fans of the other four professional
sports leagues in the United States; they “tend to be young,
male professionals with disposable
income” (Argeris & Nagel, 2013).
EMPHASIS ON EXPERIENCE
7
Designated Players
Delving into the deep web of fan satisfaction can be a daunting
task. There are a variety
of issues that have been shown to influence fan attendance at
sporting events, and previous
research has found many different factors that can have an
effect on a fan’s motivation to attend
games. One of the topics of influence that has been studied
carefully is the work based around
the introduction of the “designated player” in Major League
Soccer recently. Studies has shown
that attendance will increase with the presence of designated
players, regardless of whether the
team is successful or not. When the Los Angeles Galaxy were
able to convince David Beckham
to join their MLS franchise in 2007, the league discovered a
new trend. Bringing in established,
well-known soccer players from around the world could have a
positive impact on fan
attendance. Steve Argeris and Mark Nagel (2013) studied the
effects of the “designated player”
on average fan attendance and they found that “Beckham’s
inclusion on the Galaxy roster nearly
doubled attendance figures.” The MLS instituted the “Beckham
Rule” because previous research
has shown that “MLS attendance is dependent upon the presence
of ‘better players’” (Parrish,
2013). After the designated player rule was instituted, more
teams were looking to attract highly
marketable superstars so that they could increase ticket sales
and merchandise revenue. Charles
Parrish (2013) wanted to discover whether the presence of these
new, attractive superstars had a
noticeable effect on fan attendance for franchises. By looking at
the attendance records for
matches that had one or multiple designated players
participating versus games without any,
results showed that there was a relationship present between fan
attendance and the amount of
designated players participating in a match. In order to sell
more tickets, Major League Soccer
franchises need to be able to sign quality soccer players from
around the world, preferably ones
that are house hold names. It does not matter their age, but
rather the recognition they have
EMPHASIS ON EXPERIENCE
8
globally. The MLS has succeeded in implementing the strategy
to make “it possible for teams to
pay market value to high profile players without having these
salaries count against a team’s
salary cap” (Parrish, 2013). Fans want to see star players
involved in their league, and allowing
franchises to sign more can increase attendance and ticket sales.
Game Atmosphere/Team Success
By looking at the designated player rule, Major League Soccer
can learn a lot about their
product on the field when determining fan satisfaction. Fans do
not necessarily care about the
product on the field, but rather about the atmosphere at the
stadium and star players they will get
to see. For some teams, a major negative for season ticket
holders is also the overall atmosphere
at games. Even though some teams’ “roster lacked genuine star
power,” fans were still willing to
attend if the energy in the building was “electric” (Mondello &
Gordon, 2015). Fans want to
experience something exciting and energetic. If the fans are not
into the game, then it takes away
from the entire sporting experience. The product on the court or
field is not as important as the
energy of the fans. It is of the utmost importance to provide an
energetic game atmosphere, as
this was a strong predictor of fan satisfaction. Research has
been conducted in Germany to
determine whether or not fans stay loyal when their teams get
relegated to a lower division. The
study is important because it further proves that fans do not
care if their team wins or loses, but
rather the emotional connection they feel with their favorite
team. Previous research has shown
that “soccer fans tend to claim to maintain a deep relationship
with their club” (Koenigstorfer,
Groeppel-Klein, & Schmitt, 2010). Using a longitudinal field
study and applying an inner-
subject design, Koenigstorfer, Groeppel-Klein, & Schmitt
(2010), were able to examine if fan’s
loyalty changes when their team gets relegated. Surprisingly,
they found that “highly committed
fans and their clubs are strongly bound to each other—and this
connection becomes even
EMPHASIS ON EXPERIENCE
9
stronger after relegation” (Koenigstorfer, et al. 2010). Major
League Soccer can look at this and
put it to use in a marketing strategy. Providing a great team
atmosphere will have a greater
impact on fan loyalty than just success. Fans want to feel a
connection to their club, and they can
achieve this by creating intimate connections throughout the
franchise. If fans are able to have
this connection, then they will stand by the club, even in bad
times. Fan passion has always been
described as a key componenet of intimidating franchises. A
loyal fan base can help a team
achieve success and can thrive off the atmosphere provided by
fans. Kirk Wakefield (2016)
wanted to investigate the role that passion plays in the
consumption of fans. He wanted to know
if passion lead to an increase in fans’ desire to attend games or
consume more information about
the team. Through his research, he found that “passion strongly
predicted attendance” and the
more passionate a fan is, the more likely they are to attend
(Wakefield, 2016). Fan passion has
always influenced leisure activites, but this is of particular
importance to Major League Soccer
because they can use these findings to their advantage. By
connecting fans to the franchise, they
will in turn become more passionate about it. The more
passionate a fan is, the less likely they
are to desert the team in bad times.
Adam Karg, Heath McDonald, and Geoff Schoenberg (2015)
wanted to prove this further
by investigating whether coaching changes had a negative effect
on fan attendance. This topic is
particulary important regarding season ticket holders, because it
would impact whether or not
they choose to renew their tickets. Previous research has shown
that the product on the field or
court does not necessarily influence season ticket holders’
decision to renew each year, but
coaching changes have not been investigated. Since “less than
5% of coaches across the four
major US professional leagues have tenure longer than a
decade,” changes could have an adverse
effect on fan attendance (Karg, McDonald, & Schoenberg,
2015). Using an online questionnaire
EMPHASIS ON EXPERIENCE
10
to determine fan satisfaction regarding coaching changes, they
discovered that “appointing a new
coach was met with increases in positive attitudes toward
almost every aspect of the season
ticket holder experience” (Karg, et al. 2015). Major League
Soccer can use research like this to
its advantage because coaching changes occur rapidly for new
professional teams. As the league
continues to expand, new coaches will be introduced, while
other will be removed. The coaching
carousel will be in full effect, and it is important to know how
season ticket holders will respond
to coaching changes. Professional franchises need to have
coaching plans in place and know who
the successor will be. When teams hesitate after firing their
head coach, season ticket holders
may be skeptical to renew. Attitudes can be expected to change
positively “when the succession
cycle is completed—through the appointment of the successor’
(Karg, et al. 2015).
Soccer Specific Stadiums
When looking at the success of Major League Soccer recently,
it is important to consider
the markets that have been chosen for expansion. Previous
research by Charles Parrish (2013)
has shown that “soccer specific stadia provide a more appealing
atmosphere for spectators.”
Using attendance figures and determining which teams have
soccer specific stadiums, Parrish
was able to determine whether attendance is affected by the
type of stadium used. When teams
used soccer specific stadiums, attendance actually increased. To
back up this theory, Steve
Argeris and Mark Nagel (2013) investigated Major League
Soccer attendance to determine the
effects of stadiums (soccer versus football specific), location,
and designated players on fan
attendance. It is necessary to delve into these topics because
these findings could play a major
role in where a new expansion team may choose to play, as well
as who teams might try to sign
in the transfer market. As Major League Soccer continues to
expand, the need for facilities
becomes more and more important. In the past, when expansion
teams were joining the league,
EMPHASIS ON EXPERIENCE
11
they usually tried to share football specific stadiums for their
home soccer games. The problem
with this, however, is that soccer games did not attract as many
fans as football games, therefore
the stadiums would usually look empty. Recently, though, a
trend has begun where MLS teams
are “moving from large, American football-oriented
multipurpose facilities into soccer-specific
venues” (Argeris & Nagel, 2013). When deciding expansion
teams, Major League Soccer now
looks at whether teams are willing to build their own soccer
specific stadium when they join the
league. Investigating this trend is key to determining fan
satisfaction at games. When games are
held at soccer specific stadiums, it can make the fans feel more
important, and that their teams
value their attendance. It is not a shared stadium, but rather
their own home venue they can feel
attached to. Using a survey regarding on-field performance and
stadium quality, Argeris and
Nagel (2013) were able to find that “the building of soccer-
specific stadiums typically offered
fans a better on-site experience.” Major League Soccer can use
this to create better fan
experiences by using soccer venues as home fields. The number
of teams that have soccer venues
has increased, but it can only benefit Major League Soccer’s
ticket sales if they require all
stadiums to have their own home field. Marko Sarstedt,
Christian Ringle, Sascha Raithel, and
Siegfried Gudergan (2014) investigated the soccer specific
stadium trend in Germany, using
online questionnaires and forums to determine that “satisfaction
with the club stadium affects fan
satisfaction.” While the team on the field might have an impact
on the experience, they found
that new stadiums could have an increase in attendance, even if
performances on the field do not
change. As long as basic needs are filled in the stadium, most
fans will be pleased to have their
own venue to cheer on their favorite team.
Advertising
EMPHASIS ON EXPERIENCE
12
Also important is the advertising and availability of ticket
packages. Using more social
media platforms could result in reaching more fans. If fans are
not aware of the ticket plans that
are offered by the MLS franchise, then they will not be able to
attend games. “Passion produced
the strongest effects on attendance, media consumption,
Facebook usage, and Twitter usage
(Wakefield, 2016). For many fans, promotional nights often
influence their desire to attend one
of the games. When there are promotional ticket offerings, or
when there is a giveaway at the
arena, fans are more likely to attend the game. Especially when
talking about fans with children,
this could be a useful tool to get parents to bring their children
to the games if they know their
child might get a toy or poster for attending. In contrast,
however, some of the reasons fans did
not attend games were due to the time commitment, scheduling
conflicts, finance problems, and
affordability of tickets. Offering promotions that increase fan
identification can have a positive
impact on attendance and viewership. Anne Wan-Ling Hu and
Lin-Ru Tang (2010) used
questionnaires to determine that entertainment and perceived
fan identification “positively
affected length of viewing behavior.” This shows that the
happier fans are at games, the longer
they will stay. Offering promotional value will only increase the
satisfaction of fans. In addition,
if concession prices were lower or if the tickets were more
valuable (i.e. receiving a souvenir or
all-inclusive tickets), then fans might be more inclined to
attend. One of the major problems that
the study by Mondello and Gordon (2015) found regarding
attendance was the lack of awareness
for ticket plans. Almost all of the participants were not aware
that there were ticket packages
available. The ticket plans gave fans the ability to overcome
both the financial and scheduling
problems, both of which were the two biggest attendance
constraints. The general awareness of
these plans was lacking, therefore more advertising can be done
in order to sell more packages.
Since technology has continued to expand astronomically over
the past decade, the use of it has
EMPHASIS ON EXPERIENCE
13
become important to professional sports leagues. Social media
can be used to advertise ticket
packages in order to reach the target market of teenagers and
young professionals. Passionate
fans are more likely to use social media accounts to monitor
their favorite team because “passion
strongly predicts social media behavior related to the team”
(Wakefield, 2016). Almost every
young fan is on social media today, therefore using this could
be of great value to Major League
Soccer to increase fan attendance.
Implications
The studies discussed can have a positive impact moving
forward for Major League
Soccer. As the league grows, it needs to be able to continue to
sell tickets, as well as develop the
fan experience into something truly memorable. From previous
research, franchises have learned
that most fans care more about the experience rather than the
product on the field or court. Major
League Soccer must move forward and try to use all soccer-
specific venues, as this leads to
increased fan satisfaction. In addition, teams must try to target a
new market: teenagers. Teens
are the future of fans; therefore, they must be pursued to
increase fan loyalty at a young age.
Young adults usually have disposable income as well, and
research has shown that focusing on
this demographic can have positive effects on ticket sales. Rules
might have to be changed in
order to allow more franchises to sign designated players
because that is who fans want to see
playing. Designated players can increase attendance as well as
quality of the team. It also adds
value in marketing as teams will be able to create a face to
associate with the franchise. It is
necessary to create marketing campaigns to advertise game
plans, increase attendance, and create
the best overall experience so that fans will keep coming back
for more. Major League Soccer
can learn from other professional leagues’ ticketing plans, as
well as other soccer leagues around
the globe, and they can increase and sustain fan attendance in
the future.
EMPHASIS ON EXPERIENCE
14
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Running head MANAGEMENT DILEMMAS1MANAGEMENT DILEMMAS6.docx

  • 1. Running head: MANAGEMENT DILEMMAS 1 MANAGEMENT DILEMMAS 6 Management Dilemmas Name Institutional Affiliation Management Dilemmas Part I: Research Questions 1. Should student athletes receive a stipend by the universities as reimbursement for participating in sports? Are there policies under the ISSF that guide on how best students should be compensated for their participation in different sports? 2. What challenges do coaches face in managing their respective teams? Is there an approved ISSF standard management structure that would allow coaches to participate and interact more with their players such that they are not only constrained to their managerial duties? Part II: Research Topic Problem Statement Professional athletes earn large sums of money, though considered unethical; due to the fact that most of the times these athletes are students who are “exploited”. The estimated value
  • 2. rose through college athletics is considered to be roughly more than a billion dollars yearly, with this revenue being generated from an estimated 25 football schools and 64 basketball schools respectively (Brown & Williams, 2019). The concern raised is that the students do not get to see the money earned; but instead are offered athletic scholarships, allowing them to get free college education. The concerning factor is that most students use this opportunity as a chance to qualify for professional leagues, without considering the beneficial factors that their education offers. They are continuously to sacrifice their class and study hours such that they can practice and travel for their sports (Brown & Williams, 2019). Even though a scholarship seems like a good deal for some of these college athletes, what criteria is used to reward those athletes who are often viewed as celebrities and exploited for their affiliation with different institution to earn money for them? Quite often, managers are faced with the dilemma of relating with their athletes mainly because they are absorbed in managerial duties that limit their interactions with their players. As a result, the element of teamwork is ignored and disregarded, leading to lack of communication, lack of trust, and continued conflict, which may affect the effectiveness of the team (Rollnick, Fader, Breckon, & Moyers, 2019). Sometimes the coaches aspect of caring is viewed as interference because there is no connection between the players and their coach, with coaches feeling left out of most decisions made by the players. This in mind, the study focuses on finding new strategies that can be applied by all coaches in every sport, such that the aspect of unity and communication is achieved, with coaches participating more in their respective projects. Importance of the Study Given the dynamic scope of this industry, it is important to do more research to understand the depth of the dilemma within the industry, with the use of previous and current research to provide insight on different perspectives about the industry. Global advancements in fields such as medicine, technology,
  • 3. and informatics create valid cause to conduct regular research in the industry, tracing elements of change that may be important in mitigating managerial dilemmas. The research is beneficial to aspiring sports managers as well as young athletes who wish to venture into different sports within the industry. Part III: Review of Literature- Additional Sources 1. There are conflicting opinions on whether the revenue gathered from the ISSF and NCAA should be used to pay college education for student-athletes. The NCAA us against the idea mostly because they feel that the athletes are at risk of exploitation, and prefer using the funds to contract coaches who would be posted in different facilities. However, the risks that these student athletes put themselves in through injury and the high competition gives an uncertain thought about the future of their athletic careers. Literature source https://digitalcommons.daemen.edu/academic_festival/95/ 2. Governance and Policy making in the sports industry is essential in the structure and function in different sports, similar to those within the workplace. The journal demonstrates how individual sports organizations are what make up the industry, raising questions on policy issues and ethical concerns raised daily. Additionally, managers have different perspectives that give a glimpse of the impact of governance and policies on sports professionals. The journal, therefore, helps understand the perspective of the sports industry through giving examples of some real-world case studies. Literature source https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315213057 3. The article gives a systematic analysis of how coaches play a role in unintended conflict in sports, giving an example of New Zealand rugby and cricket coaches. Through a systematic approach, the article gives an example of a model derived from Edgar Schein’s three model theoretical framework, which uses previous beliefs and values, artifacts, and assumptions in management. The framework was designed to change the culture of management from one that encourages violence to one that encourages integrity and honor. Literature source
  • 4. https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/e/9781315130194/chapters /10.4324/9781315130194-3 Research Objectives 1. To determine whether student-athletes should receive compensation or stipend for generating revenue for their institutions. 2. To determine appropriate strategies coaches can use to be more involved in their projects. References Brown, K., & Williams, A. (2019). Out of Bounds: A Critical Race Theory Perspective on Pay for Play. J. Legal Aspects Sport, 29, 30. Retrieved from https://heinonline.org/hol-cgi- bin/get_pdf.cgi?handle=hein.journals/jlas29&section=4 Garvin, D. (2019). Pay for Play. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.daemen.edu/academic_festival/95/ Hums, M. A., & MacLean, J. C. (2017). Governance and policy in sport organizations. Routledge. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315213057 Rollnick, S., Fader, J., Breckon, J., & Moyers, T. B. (2019). Coaching Athletes to be Their Best: Motivational Interviewing in Sports. Guilford Press. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=7XOxDwAAQB AJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=What+is+the+main+reason+why+Socc er+coaches+faile+managing+their+projects&ots=erIlD1GbPs&si g=Df_0npM8G3iQ6gmg11ShLDLJacQ&redir_esc=y#v=onepage &q&f=false Smith, K. (2017). The role of sports coaches in creating culture: A dysfunctional case. In Sports, Peacebuilding and Ethics (pp. 29-38). Routledge. Retrieved from https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/e/9781315130194/chapters /10.4324/9781315130194-3
  • 5. with MyManagementLab® • Learning Catalytics™—Is an interactive, student response tool that uses students’ smartphones, tablets, or laptops to engage them in more sophisticated tasks and thinking. Now included with MyLab with eText, Learning Catalytics enables you to generate classroom discussion, guide your lecture, and promote peer-to-peer learning with real-time analytics. • Dynamic Study Modules—Helps students study effectively on their own by continuously assessing their activity and performance in real time. Here’s how it works: students complete a set of questions with a unique answer format that also asks them to indicate their confidence level. Questions repeat until the student can answer them all correctly and confidently. Once completed, Dynamic Study Modules explain the concept using materials from the text. These are available as graded assignments prior to class, and accessible on smartphones, tablets, and computers. • Reporting Dashboard—View, analyze, and report learning outcomes clearly and easily, and get the information you need to keep your students on track throughout the course with the new Reporting Dashboard.
  • 6. Available via the MyLab Gradebook and fully mobile-ready, the Reporting Dashboard presents student performance data at the class, section, and program levels in an accessible, visual manner. • Accessibility (ADA)—Pearson works continuously to ensure our products are as accessible as possible to all students. The platform team for our Business MyLab products is working toward achieving WCAG 2.0 Level AA and Section 508 standards, as expressed in the Pearson Guidelines for Accessible Educational Web Media. Moreover, our products support customers in meeting their obligation to comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) by providing access to learning technology programs for users with disabilities. The following information provides tips and answers to frequently asked questions for those using assistive technologies to access the Business MyLab products. As product accessibility evolves continuously, please email our Accessibility Team at [email protected] for the most up-to-date information. • LMS Integration—You can now link from Blackboard Learn, Brightspace by D2L, Canvas, or Moodle to MyManagementLab. Access assignments, rosters, and resources, and synchronize grades with your LMS gradebook.
  • 7. For students, single sign-on provides access to all the personalized learning resources that make studying more efficient and effective. A L W A Y S L E A R N I N G A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 1 24/09/16 11:56 am mailto:[email protected] A01_HANL4898_08_SE_FM.indd 2 24/12/14 12:49 PM This page intentionally left blank F o u r t e e n t h E d i t i o n Essentials of Organizational Behavior Stephen P. Robbins San Diego State University Timothy A. Judge The Ohio State University New York, NY A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 3 24/09/16 11:56 am
  • 8. Vice President, Business Publishing: Donna Battista Director of Portfolio Management: Stephanie Wall Portfolio Manager: Kris Ellis-Levy Editorial Assistant: Hannah Lamarre Vice President, Product Marketing: Roxanne McCarley Director of Strategic Marketing: Brad Parkins Strategic Marketing Manager: Deborah Strickland Product Marketer: Becky Brown Field Marketing Manager: Lenny Ann Kucenski Product Marketing Assistant: Jessica Quazza Vice President, Production and Digital Studio, Arts and Business: Etain O’Dea Director of Production, Business: Jeff Holcomb Managing Producer, Business: Ashley Santora Content Producer: Claudia Fernandes Operations Specialist: Carol Melville Creative Director: Blair Brown Manager, Learning Tools: Brian Surette Content Developer, Learning Tools: Lindsey Sloan Managing Producer, Digital Studio, Arts and Business: Diane Lombardo Digital Studio Producer: Monique Lawrence Digital Studio Producer: Alana Coles Full-Service Project Management and Composition: Cenveo® Publisher Services Interior and Cover Designer: Cenveo® Publisher Services Cover Art: LeitnerR/Fotolia Printer/Binder: RR Donnelley/Crawfordsville Cover Printer: Phoenix Color/Hagerstown Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Manufactured in the United
  • 9. States of America. This publication is protected by copyright, and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, record- ing, or otherwise. For information regarding permissions, request forms, and the appropriate contacts within the Pearson Education Global Rights and Permissions department, please visit www.pearsoned.com/permissions/ Acknowledgments of third-party content appear on the appropriate page within the text. PEARSON, ALWAYS LEARNING, and MYMANAGEMENTLAB® are exclusive trademarks owned by Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates in the U.S. and/or other countries. Unless otherwise indicated herein, any third-party trademarks, logos, or icons that may appear in this work are the property of their respec- tive owners, and any references to third-party trademarks, logos, icons, or other trade dress are for demonstrative or descriptive purposes only. Such references are not intended to imply any sponsorship, endorsement, authorization, or promotion of Pearson’s products by the owners of such marks, or any relationship between the owner and Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates, authors, licensees, or distributors. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Robbins, Stephen P., author. | Judge, Tim, author.
  • 10. Title: Essentials of organizational behavior / Stephen P. Robbins, San Diego State University, Timothy A. Judge, University of Notre Dame. Description: Fourteen edition. | Boston : Pearson Education, [2016] | Includes index. Identifiers: LCCN 2016022886 (print) | LCCN 2016034760 (ebook) | ISBN 9780134523859 (pbk. : alk. paper) | ISBN 9780134527314 Subjects: LCSH: Organizational behavior. Classification: LCC HD58.7 .R6 2017 (print) | LCC HD58.7 (ebook) | DDC 658.3––dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2016022886 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ISBN 10: 0-13-452385-7 ISBN 13: 978-0-13-452385-9 A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 4 30/09/16 11:59 AM http://www.pearsoned.com/permissions/ https://lccn.loc.gov/2016022886 This book is dedicated to our friends and colleagues in The Organizational Behavior Teaching Society who, through their teaching, research and commitment to the leading process, have significantly improved the ability of students to understand and apply OB concepts.
  • 11. A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 5 24/09/16 11:56 am BRIEF CONTENTS PART 1 Understanding Yourself and Others 1 Chapter 1 What Is Organizational Behavior? 1 Chapter 2 Diversity in Organizations 17 Chapter 3 Attitudes and Job Satisfaction 34 Chapter 4 Emotions and Moods 47 Chapter 5 Personality and Values 64 PART 2 Making and Implementing Decisions 82 Chapter 6 Perception and Individual Decision Making 82 Chapter 7 Motivation Concepts 100 Chapter 8 Motivation: From Concepts to Applications 120 PART 3 Communicating in Groups and Teams 136 Chapter 9 Foundations of Group Behavior 136 Chapter 10 Understanding Work Teams 154 Chapter 11 Communication 170 PART 4 Negotiating Power and Politics 186 Chapter 12 Leadership 186 Chapter 13 Power and Politics 207 Chapter 14 Conflict and Negotiation 226 PART 5 Leading, Understanding, and Transforming the Organization System 245 Chapter 15 Foundations of Organization Structure 245
  • 12. Chapter 16 Organizational Culture 265 Chapter 17 Organizational Change and Stress Management 285 vi A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 6 24/09/16 11:56 am vii CONTENTS Preface xxii Acknowledgments xxix About the Authors xxx PART 1 Understanding Yourself and Others 1 Chapter 1 WHAT IS ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR? 1 Chapter Warm-up 1 Management and Organizational Behavior 2 Organizational Behavior (OB) Defined 3 Effective versus Successful Managerial Activities 3 Watch It—Herman Miller: Organizational Behavior 4 Complementing Intuition with Systematic Study 4 Big Data 5 Disciplines That Contribute to the OB Field 6
  • 13. Psychology 6 Social Psychology 6 Sociology 7 Anthropology 7 There Are Few Absolutes in OB 7 Challenges and Opportunities for OB 8 Continuing Globalization 8 Workforce Demographics 10 Workforce Diversity 10 Social Media 10 Employee Well-Being at Work 11 Positive Work Environment 11 Ethical Behavior 12 Coming Attractions: Developing an OB Model 12 Overview 12 Inputs 13 Processes 13 Outcomes 14 Summary 15 Implications for Managers 15 Personal Inventory Assessments: Multicultural Awareness Scale 16 A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 7 24/09/16 11:56 am viii Contents Chapter 2 DIVERSITY IN ORGANIZATIONS 17
  • 14. Chapter Warm-up 17 Diversity 17 Demographic Characteristics 18 Levels of Diversity 18 Discrimination 19 Stereotype Threat 19 Discrimination in the Workplace 20 Biographical Characteristics 21 Age 21 Sex 22 Race and Ethnicity 23 Disabilities 23 Hidden Disabilities 24 Other Differentiating Characteristics 25 Religion 25 Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity 25 Cultural Identity 27 Watch It—Verizon: Diversity 27 Ability 27 Intellectual Abilities 27 Physical Abilities 29 Implementing Diversity Management Strategies 29 Attracting, Selecting, Developing, and Retaining Diverse Employees 30
  • 15. Diversity in Groups 31 Diversity Programs 32 Summary 32 Implications for Managers 33 Try It—Simulation: Human Resources 33 Personal Inventory Assessments: Intercultural Sensitivity Scale 33 Chapter 3 ATTITUDES AND JOB SATISFACTION 34 Chapter Warm-up 34 Attitudes 34 Watch It—Gawker Media: Attitudes and Job Satisfaction 36 Attitudes and Behavior 36 Job Attitudes 37 Job Satisfaction and Job Involvement 37 A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 8 24/09/16 11:56 am Organizational Commitment 37 Perceived Organizational Support 37 Employee Engagement 38 Measuring Job Satisfaction 38 Approaches to Measurement 39 Measured Job Satisfaction Levels 39 What Causes Job Satisfaction? 39
  • 16. Job Conditions 40 Personality 41 Pay 41 Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) 41 Outcomes of Job Satisfaction 42 Job Performance 42 Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) 42 Customer Satisfaction 42 Life Satisfaction 43 The Impact of Job Dissatisfaction 43 Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB) 43 Understanding the Impact 45 Summary 46 Implications for Managers 46 Try It—Simulation: Attitudes & Job Satisfaction 46 Personal Inventory Assessments: Core Self-Evaluation (CSE) Scale 46 Chapter 4 EMOTIONS AND MOODS 47 Chapter Warm-up 47 What Are Emotions and Moods? 47 The Basic Emotions 48 Moral Emotions 49 The Basic Moods: Positive and Negative Affect 49 Experiencing Moods and Emotions 50 The Function of Emotions 50 Sources of Emotions and Moods 51
  • 17. Personality 52 Time of Day 52 Day of the Week 52 Weather 52 Stress 54 Sleep 54 Contents ix A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 9 24/09/16 11:56 am Exercise 54 Age 54 Sex 54 Emotional Labor 55 Controlling Emotional Displays 55 Emotional Dissonance and Mindfulness 56 Affective Events Theory 56 Emotional Intelligence 56 Emotion Regulation 58 Emotion Regulation Influences and Outcomes 58 Emotion Regulation Techniques 58 Ethics of Emotion Regulation 59 Watch It—East Haven Fire Department: Emotions and Moods 59 OB Applications of Emotions and Moods 59
  • 18. Selection 59 Decision Making 60 Creativity 60 Motivation 60 Leadership 60 Customer Service 61 Job Attitudes 61 Deviant Workplace Behaviors 61 Safety and Injury at Work 62 Summary 62 Implications for Managers 62 Try It—Simulation: Emotions & Moods 63 Personal Inventory Assessments: Emotional Intelligence Assessment 63 Chapter 5 PERSONALITY AND VALUES 64 Chapter Warm-up 64 Personality 64 What Is Personality? 65 Personality Frameworks 66 The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator 66 The Big Five Personality Model 67 How Do the Big Five Traits Predict Behavior at Work? 68 The Dark Triad 69 Other Personality Attributes Relevant to OB 71 Core Self-Evaluation (CSE) 71 x Contents
  • 19. A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 10 24/09/16 11:56 am Self-Monitoring 72 Proactive Personality 72 Personality and Situations 72 Situation Strength Theory 73 Trait Activation Theory 74 Values 75 Watch It—Honest Tea: Ethics–Company Mission and Values 75 Terminal versus Instrumental Values 75 Generational Values 76 Linking an Individual’s Personality and Values to the Workplace 76 Person–Job Fit 76 Person–Organization Fit 77 Other Dimensions of Fit 77 Cultural Values 78 Hofstede’s Framework 78 The GLOBE Framework 79 Comparison of Hofstede’s Framework and the Globe Framework 79 Summary 81 Implications for Managers 81 Personal Inventory Assessments: Personality Style
  • 20. Indicator 81 PART 2 Making and Implementing Decisions 82 Chapter 6 PERCEPTION AND INDIVIDUAL DECISION MAKING 82 Chapter Warm-up 82 What Is Perception? 82 Factors That Influence Perception 83 Watch It—Orpheus Group Casting: Social Perception and Attribution 84 Person Perception: Making Judgments about Others 84 Attribution Theory 84 Common Shortcuts in Judging Others 86 The Link between Perception and Individual Decision Making 87 Decision Making in Organizations 87 The Rational Model, Bounded Rationality, and Intuition 87 Contents xi A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 11 24/09/16 11:56 am Common Biases and Errors in Decision Making 89 Influences on Decision Making: Individual Differences and Organizational Constraints 91
  • 21. Individual Differences 92 Organizational Constraints 93 What about Ethics in Decision Making? 93 Three Ethical Decision Criteria 94 Choosing between Criteria 94 Behavioral Ethics 95 Lying 95 Creativity, Creative Decision Making, and Innovation in Organizations 95 Creative Behavior 96 Causes of Creative Behavior 96 Creative Outcomes (Innovation) 98 Summary 98 Implications for Managers 98 Try It—Simulation: Perception & Individual Decision Making 99 Personal Inventory Assessments: How Creative Are You? 99 Chapter 7 Motivation ConCepts 100 Chapter Warm-up 100 Motivation 100 Watch It—Motivation (TWZ Role Play) 101 Early Theories of Motivation 101 Hierarchy of Needs Theory 101 Two-Factor Theory 102 McClelland’s Theory of Needs 102
  • 22. Contemporary Theories of Motivation 104 Self-Determination Theory 104 Goal-Setting Theory 105 Other Contemporary Theories of Motivation 108 Self-Efficacy Theory 108 Reinforcement Theory 110 Equity Theory/Organizational Justice 111 Expectancy Theory 115 Job Engagement 116 Integrating Contemporary Theories of Motivation 116 xii Contents A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 12 30/09/16 11:42 AM Summary 118 Implications for Managers 118 Try It—Simulation: Motivation 118 Personal Inventory Assessments: Work Motivation Indicator 119 Chapter 8 MOTIVATION: FROM CONCEPTS TO APPLICATIONS 120 Chapter Warm-up 120 Motivating by Job Design: The Job Characteristics Model (JCM) 121 Elements of the JCM 121
  • 23. Efficacy of the JCM 121 Motivating Potential Score (MPS) 122 Cultural Generalizability of the JCM 123 Using Job Redesign to Motivate Employees 123 Job Rotation 123 Relational Job Design 124 Using Alternative Work Arrangements to Motivate Employees 124 Flextime 125 Job Sharing 126 Telecommuting 127 Using Employee Involvement and Participation (EIP) to Motivate Employees 127 Cultural EIP 128 Forms of Employee Involvement Programs 128 Using Extrinsic Rewards to Motivate Employees 129 What to Pay: Establishing a Pay Structure 129 How to Pay: Rewarding Individual Employees through Variable-Pay Programs 129 Using Benefits to Motivate Employees 133 Using Intrinsic Rewards to Motivate Employees 133 Watch It—ZAPPOS: Motivating Employees through Company Culture 134 Summary 134
  • 24. Implications for Managers 135 Try It—Simulation: Extrinsic & Intrinsic Motivation 135 Personal Inventory Assessments: Diagnosing the Need for Team Building 135 Contents xiii A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 13 24/09/16 11:56 am xiv Contents PART 3 Communicating in Groups and Teams 136 Chapter 9 FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOR 136 Chapter Warm-up 136 Groups and Group Identity 137 Social Identity 137 Ingroups and Outgroups 137 Stages of Group Development 138 Watch It—Witness.org: Managing Groups & Teams 138 Group Property 1: Roles 139 Role Perception 140 Role Expectations 140 Role Conflict 140 Group Property 2: Norms 140 Norms and Emotions 141
  • 25. Norms and Conformity 141 Norms and Behavior 142 Positive Norms and Group Outcomes 142 Negative Norms and Group Outcomes 143 Norms and Culture 144 Group Property 3: Status, and Group Property 4: Size 144 Group Property 3: Status 144 Group Property 4: Size 146 Group Property 5: Cohesiveness, and Group Property 6: Diversity 146 Group Property 5: Cohesiveness 147 Group Property 6: Diversity 147 Group Decision Making 149 Groups versus the Individual 149 Groupthink 150 Groupshift or Group Polarization 151 Group Decision-Making Techniques 151 Summary 152 Implications for Managers 153 Try It—Simulation: Group Behavior 153 Personal Inventory Assessments: Communicating Supportively 153 Chapter 10 UNDERSTANDING WORK TEAMS 154 Chapter Warm-up 154 Why Have Teams Become so Popular? 154 A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 14 24/09/16 11:56 am
  • 26. Differences between Groups and Teams 155 Types of Teams 156 Problem-Solving Teams 156 Self-Managed Work Teams 156 Cross-Functional Teams 157 Virtual Teams 158 Multiteam Systems 158 Watch It—Teams (TWZ Role Play) 159 Creating Effective Teams 159 Team Context: What Factors Determine Whether Teams Are Successful? 160 Team Composition 161 Team Processes 164 Turning Individuals into Team Players 166 Selecting: Hiring Team Players 167 Training: Creating Team Players 167 Rewarding: Providing Incentives to Be a Good Team Player 167 Beware! Teams Aren’t Always the Answer 168 Summary 168 Implications for Managers 168 Try It—Simulation: Teams 169 Personal Inventory Assessments: Team Development Behaviors 169
  • 27. Chapter 11 COMMUNICATION 170 Chapter Warm-up 170 Communication 171 Functions of Communication 171 The Communication Process 172 Direction of Communication 172 Downward Communication 173 Upward Communication 173 Lateral Communication 173 Formal Small-Group Networks 174 The Grapevine 174 Modes of Communication 175 Oral Communication 175 Written Communication 176 Nonverbal Communication 176 Contents xv A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 15 24/09/16 11:56 am xvi Contents Choice of Communication Channel 176 Channel Richness 176 Choosing Communication Methods 177 Information Security 178
  • 28. Persuasive Communication 178 Automatic and Controlled Processing 178 Tailoring the Message 179 Barriers to Effective Communication 180 Filtering 180 Selective Perception 180 Information Overload 180 Emotions 181 Language 181 Silence 181 Communication Apprehension 181 Lying 182 Cultural Factors 182 Cultural Barriers 182 Cultural Context 183 A Cultural Guide 183 Watch It—Communication (TWZ Role Play) 184 Summary 184 Implications for Managers 185 Try It—Simulation: Communication 185 Personal Inventory Assessments: Communication Styles 185 PART 4 Negotiating Power and Politics 186 Chapter 12 LEADERSHIP 186 Chapter Warm-up 186 Watch It—Leadership (TWZ Role Play) 186 Trait Theories of Leadership 187
  • 29. Personality Traits and Leadership 187 Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Leadership 188 Behavioral Theories 188 Initiating Structure 188 Consideration 189 Cultural Differences 189 Contingency Theories 189 The Fiedler Model 189 A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 16 24/09/16 11:56 am Situational Leadership Theory 191 Path–Goal Theory 191 Leader–Participation Model 192 Contemporary Theories of Leadership 192 Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) Theory 192 Charismatic Leadership 194 Transactional and Transformational Leadership 196 Responsible Leadership 199 Authentic Leadership 199 Ethical Leadership 200 Servant Leadership 200 Positive Leadership 201
  • 30. Trust 201 Mentoring 203 Challenges to Our Understanding of Leadership 203 Leadership as an Attribution 203 Substitutes for and Neutralizers of Leadership 204 Online Leadership 205 Summary 205 Implications for Managers 205 Try It—Simulation: Leadership 206 Personal Inventory Assessments: Ethical Leadership Assessment 206 Chapter 13 POWER AND POLITICS 207 Chapter Warm-up 207 Watch It—Power and Political Behavior 207 Power and Leadership 208 Bases of Power 208 Formal Power 208 Personal Power 209 Which Bases of Power Are Most Effective? 210 Dependence: The Key to Power 210 The General Dependence Postulate 210 What Creates Dependence? 210 Social Network Analysis: A Tool for Assessing Resources 211 Power Tactics 212
  • 31. Using Power Tactics 212 Contents xvii A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 17 24/09/16 11:56 am xviii Contents Cultural Preferences for Power Tactics 213 Applying Power Tactics 214 How Power Affects People 214 Power Variables 214 Sexual Harassment: Unequal Power in the Workplace 215 Politics: Power in Action 216 Definition of Organizational Politics 216 The Reality of Politics 216 Causes and Consequences of Political Behavior 217 Factors Contributing to Political Behavior 217 How Do People Respond to Organizational Politics? 219 Impression Management 220 The Ethics of Behaving Politically 222 Mapping Your Political Career 223 Summary 224 Implications for Managers 225 Try It—Simulation: Power & Politics 225 Personal Inventory Assessments: Gaining Power and
  • 32. Influence 225 Chapter 14 ConfliCt and negotiation 226 Chapter Warm-up 226 A Definition of Conflict 226 Types of Conflict 228 Loci of Conflict 229 The Conflict Process 229 Stage I: Potential Opposition or Incompatibility 230 Stage II: Cognition and Personalization 231 Stage III: Intentions 231 Stage IV: Behavior 232 Stage V: Outcomes 233 Watch It—Gordon Law Group: Conflict and Negotiation 235 Negotiation 235 Bargaining Strategies 235 The Negotiation Process 237 Individual Differences in Negotiation Effectiveness 239 Negotiating in a Social Context 241 Reputation 241 Relationships 242 A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 18 30/09/16 11:42 AM
  • 33. Third-Party Negotiations 242 Summary 243 Implications for Managers 243 Personal Inventory Assessments: Strategies for Handling Conflict 244 PART 5 Leading, Understanding, and Transforming the Organization System 245 Chapter 15 FOUndATiOnS OF ORgAnizATiOn STRUCTURe 245 Chapter Warm-up 245 What Is Organizational Structure? 246 Work Specialization 246 Departmentalization 247 Chain of Command 248 Span of Control 249 Centralization and Decentralization 250 Formalization 251 Boundary Spanning 251 Common Organizational Frameworks and Structures 252 The Simple Structure 252 The Bureaucracy 253 The Matrix Structure 254 Alternate Design Options 255 The Virtual Structure 255 The Team Structure 256 The Circular Structure 257 The Leaner Organization: Downsizing 257 Why Do Structures Differ? 258
  • 34. Organizational Strategies 258 Organization Size 260 Technology 260 Environment 260 Institutions 261 Organizational Designs and Employee Behavior 262 Work Specialization 262 Span of Control 262 Centralization 263 Predictability versus Autonomy 263 National Culture 263 Watch It—ZipCar: Organizational Structure 263 Contents xix A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 19 30/09/16 11:42 AM xx Contents Summary 263 Implications for Managers 264 Try It—Simulation: Organizational Structure 264 Personal Inventory Assessments: Organizational Structure Assessment 264 Chapter 16 ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE 265 Chapter Warm-up 265 Watch It—Organizational Culture (TWZ Role Play) 265 What Is Organizational Culture? 266
  • 35. A Definition of Organizational Culture 266 Do Organizations Have Uniform Cultures? 266 Strong versus Weak Cultures 267 Culture versus Formalization 268 What Do Cultures Do? 268 The Functions of Culture 268 Culture Creates Climate 269 The Ethical Dimension of Culture 269 Culture and Sustainability 270 Culture and Innovation 271 Culture as an Asset 271 Culture as a Liability 272 Creating and Sustaining Culture 273 How a Culture Begins 273 Keeping a Culture Alive 274 Summary: How Organizational Cultures Form 276 How Employees Learn Culture 276 Stories 277 Rituals 277 Symbols 277 Language 278 Influencing an Organizational Culture 278 An Ethical Culture 278 A Positive Culture 279 A Spiritual Culture 280 The Global Context 282
  • 36. Summary 283 Implications for Managers 283 Try It—Simulation: Organizational Culture 283 Personal Inventory Assessments: Organizational Structure Assessment 284 A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 20 24/09/16 11:56 am Chapter 17 ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE AND STRESS MANAGEMENT 285 Chapter Warm-up 285 Change 285 Forces for Change 286 Reactionary versus Planned Change 286 Resistance to Change 287 Overcoming Resistance to Change 287 The Politics of Change 289 Approaches to Managing Organizational Change 290 Lewin’s Three-Step Model 290 Kotter’s Eight-Step Plan 290 Action Research 291 Organizational Development 291 Creating a Culture for Change 293 Managing Paradox 293 Stimulating a Culture of Innovation 294 Creating a Learning Organization 295
  • 37. Organizational Change and Stress 296 Watch It—East Haven Fire Department: Managing Stress 296 Stress at Work 296 What Is Stress? 297 Potential Sources of Stress at Work 298 Individual Differences in Stress 300 Cultural Differences 301 Consequences of Stress at Work 301 Managing Stress 302 Individual Approaches 302 Organizational Approaches 303 Summary 304 Implications for Managers 305 Try It—Simulation: Change 305 Personal Inventory Assessments: Tolerance of Ambiguity Scale 305 Epilogue 306 Endnotes 307 Glossary 354 Index 363 Contents xxi A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 21 24/09/16 11:56 am PREFACE
  • 38. This book was created as an alternative to the 600- or 700-page comprehensive text in organizational behavior (OB). It attempts to provide balanced coverage of all the key elements comprising the discipline of OB in a style that readers will find both informa- tive and interesting. We’re pleased to say that this text has achieved a wide following in short courses and executive programs as well as in traditional courses as a companion volume to experiential, skill development, case, and readings books. It is currently used at more than 500 colleges and universities in the United States, Canada, Latin America, Europe, Australia, and Asia. It’s also been translated into Spanish, Portuguese, Japanese, Chinese, Dutch, Polish, Turkish, Danish, and Bahasa Indonesian. KEY CHANGES FOR THE FOURTEENTH EDITION • Increased content coverage was added to include updated research, relevant discus- sion, and new exhibits on current issues of all aspects of organizational behavior. • Increased integration of contemporary global issues was added into topic discussions. • Extensive reorganization of all chapters with new headings and subsections to make navigating the print and digital versions of the text easier and bring important content to the fore.
  • 39. • Increased cross-references between chapters to link themes and concepts for the student’s quick access and to provide a more in-depth understanding of topics. • New assisted and auto-graded questions that students can complete and submit via MyManagementLab are provided for each chapter. • A new feature, Try It, has been added to 14 chapters to direct the student’s attention to MyManagementLab simulations specific to the content in the text. RETAINED FROM THE PREVIOUS EDITION What do people like about this book? Surveys of users have found general agree- ment about the following features. Needless to say, they’ve all been retained in this edition. • Length. Since its inception in 1984, we’ve tried diligently to keep this book in the range of 325 to 400 pages. Users tell us this length allows them considerable flex- ibility in assigning supporting materials and projects. • Balanced topic coverage. Although short in length, this book continues to provide balanced coverage of all the key concepts in OB. This includes not only traditional topics such as personality, motivation, and leadership but also cutting-edge issues such as emotions, diversity, negotiation, and teamwork.
  • 40. • Writing style. This book is frequently singled out for its fluid writing style and extensive use of examples. Users regularly tell us that they find this book “conversational,” “interesting,” “student friendly,” and “very clear and … Running head: MANAGEMENT DILEMMAS 1 MANAGEMENT DILEMMAS 4 MANAGEMENT DILEMMAS Student’s name Institutional affiliates Course Date Part I:Management Dilemmas 1. The first management dilemma is whether student-athletes should get paid in theInternational Shooting Sport Federation (ISSF)instead of just giving them free scholarships to higher education. Literature source: https://heinonline.org/hol-cgi- bin/get_pdf.cgi?handle=hein.journals/jlas29&section=4 2. The other dilemma is the main reason as to why the coaches of soccer in theInternational Shooting Sport Federation(ISSF) cannot manage their projects. Literature source: https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=7XOxDwAAQB
  • 41. AJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=What+is+the+main+reason+why+Socc er+coaches+faile+managing+their+projects&ots=erIlD1GbPs&si g=Df_0npM8G3iQ6gmg11ShLDLJacQ 3. Part II: Define Research Questions 1. What should be done in order for the association to recognize that the students who play soccer require more than just a scholarship? How should they be made to understand that even good grades can attain a student a scholarship which means that athlete students need more than just a scholarship? 2. What steps should be taken in order to help soccer coaches plan better and come up with strategic plans that will help in successful project management and will gear effective planning, scheduling, and allocation of resources needed for their projects? Part III: Further Define Research Questions 1. Resource management- assigning the available resources to the project according to the importance and time that the particular thing should take in order for a project to run smoothly and get enough of everything to see it through until it is done. 2. The schedule is a plan of carrying out a procedure or process given a list of things that should be done at a particular event with the sequence of how all the things should appear at specific times. 3. Athletics is defined as a collection of sporting activities that involves walking, running, throwing and jumping. The most common types are road-running, track, and field and walking races. 4. Soccer which is also known as football is a game played by two different teams which have eleven players in each, a referee and a coach. References Brown, K., & Williams, A. (2019). Out of Bounds: A Critical
  • 42. Race Theory Perspective on Pay for Play. J. Legal Aspects Sport, 29, 30. Rollnick, S., Fader, J., Breckon, J., & Moyers, T. B. (2019). Coaching Athletes to be Their Best: Motivational Interviewing in Sports. Guilford Press. Databases and search engines for academic literature in sport management Databases 1. ABI/INFORM Global 2. EBSCO – Academic Search Premier 3. JSTOR 4. SPORTDiscus with Full Text 5. SBRNet 6. Web of Science 7. WorldCat - FirstSearch 8. Lexis-Nexis (legal research and newspapers) 9. PsycINFO 10. Dissertations and Theses Full Text Internet 1. Google Scholar 2. CV’s 3. Professional organizations (e.g., NCAA.org)
  • 43. UF Library 1. Smathers Library West Catalog 2. Interlibrary loan (ILL) Review of Literature The purpose of this review is to provide the literature and theoretical frameworks related to the objectives of the study. The review contains many subsections, but the organization overall is rather uncomplicated. First, the importance of conducting dyad level research in organizational settings is provided. Second, the literature describing the role of demographics in work dyads and groups is reviewed and evaluated. Finally, the various theoretical foundations for relational demography are described. The Importance of Dyad Research
  • 44. Tsui, Xin, and Egan (1995) have asserted that much of the research on demographic diversity in the work place has been performed at the group rather than dyad level. This contention is surprising given the great deal of research that has shown the importance to understanding the relationship between the superior and subordinate. For example, Tsui, Xin, and Egan (1995) contend, “an important factor in how well a team works is the relationship that a team leader has with each individual team member” (p. 97). Further, Fahr, Podsakoff, and Organ (1990) indicated that much of the contract between an individual employee and an organization is derived from the relationship the employee enjoys with his or her immediate supervisor. Much of research that has occurred at the dyadic level has occurred over the past three decades. One paradigm that produced numerous studies at the dyadic level was originally termed the vertical dyad linkage model (Dansereau, Cashman, & Graen, 1973). Recently this
  • 45. line of research, which focuses on the leadership exchanges between superiors and subordinates, has been categorized as the leader-member exchange (LMX) theory (Graen, Novak, & Sommerkamp, 1982). Tsui et al. (1995) describes the basic tenets of the theory as “leaders categorize subordinates into two groups: the ingroup (characterized by high trust, interaction, support, and formal and informal rewards) and the outgroup (characterized by low trust, interaction, support, and formal and informal rewards)”(p. 99). The research that has been conducted under LMX theory has been able to establish that ingroup members enjoy better relationships with, and benefit greater from, their supervisors than outgroup members. Further, according to Graen and Cashman (1975), supervisors trade resources (both personal and positional) for cooperation from subordinates. In exchange for this collaboration, ingroup members benefit from enhanced access to information, decision- making latitude, supervisory support, opportunity for challenging tasks, and influence.
  • 46. An example of a study using this framework by Liden and Graen (1980) on 41 superior-subordinate dyads tested the validity of the vertical dyad linkage model, and reported findings indicating the importance of achieving high quality exchange relationships. Results signified that subordinates in high quality leader-member relationships, or the ingroup, indicated having greater job responsibility, having a greater contribution to their work units, and received higher performance ratings than those in low quality leader-member relationships (i.e., outgroup relationships). Another study by Vecchio, Griffeth, and Hom (1986) of hospital employees showed a positive relationship between job satisfaction and a high quality relationship. In yet another study, Vecchio and Gobdel (1984) confirmed that high quality leader to member exchanges were important to work related outcomes. Their study of 45 dyads in a business organization showed that subordinates achieving ingroup status were rated
  • 47. higher by superiors, had fewer intentions to quit, and showed greater satisfaction with supervision than those in the outgroup. Another study of 261 superior-subordinate dyads from a telephone company (Duarte, Goodson, & Klich, 1993), however, failed to indicate conclusive evidence of a positive link between the quality of exchange and actual objective job performance. Yet, the researchers reported that subordinates in the ingroup received higher performance appraisal ratings regardless of the actual objective performance. That is, regardless of the actual performance level by a subordinate, those enjoying ingroup status received higher subjective performance appraisals than those experiencing low quality exchanges with a supervisor, which indicates a positive bias by supervisors toward ingroup members. In summary, based on conceptual and empirical research conducted under the leader- member exchange model, the literature generally indicates that members of an ingroup will experience significantly better relationships with their respective supervisor than those
  • 48. subordinates in the outgroup. However, what has yet to be established from this literature is what factors may contribute to the categorization of subordinates into an ingroup or outgroup by their superiors. Based on preliminary evidence in the literature, there appears to be evidence that demographic factors alone may have an impact on whether a subordinate will experience high-quality exchanges (i.e., be an in group member), or low-quality exchanges with supervisors (i.e., be an outgroup member). Review of Previous Relational Demography Research Tusi et al. (1995) have contended that relational demography is the missing link toward a greater understanding of vertical dyad research. This assertion is based on preliminary research that suggest that relational demographic similarity between superiors and subordinates can play an important role in the well being of subordinates. However, the research on relational demography is in its infancy. Only a few studies have explicitly examined relational
  • 49. demography at the dyad level, though many studies have analyzed the theory utilizing larger group samples. Therefore the literature concerning both work groups and work dyads are presented, however, the reviewed literature in this section heavily emphasizes the relevant contributions at the dyad level, and only the most noteworthy group level analyses. The origin of relational demography research stems from the broader work on organizational demography (Pfeffer, 1983). Organizational demography contends that the distributional properties of both individual and group demographic characteristics in an organization can have immense meaning beyond that associated with a demographic attribute considered in isolation (Pfeffer, 1983). Tsui and O’Reilly (1989) were the first to posit the term relational demography by suggesting that demographic variation could be analyzed even further than that proposed by Pfeffer, and in the context of interacting group members. Tsui and O’Reilly (1989) defined relational demography as the comparative demographic
  • 50. characteristics of group members, including dyads, who engage in interactions on a regular basis. They described the conceptualization in detail as: We propose that knowing the comparative similarity or dissimilarity in given demographic attributes of a superior and a subordinate or of the members of an interacting work team may provide additional information about the members’ characteristic attitudes and behaviors and, more important, insight into the processes through which demography affects job outcomes (Tsui & O’Reilly, 1989, p. 403). Although Tsui and O’Reilly (1989) were the first to coin the term relational demography and analyze specific research questions from this framework, previous research had indicated the importance of relational demographics on interacting members. For example, the work by Pfeffer and his associates under the organizational demography methodology
  • 51. produced findings consistent with relational demographic studies. One such study by McCain, O’Reilly, and Pfeffer (1983) indicated that organizational turnover was related to the demographics of the group. Results suggested that those group members that belonged to more homogeneous groups in terms of tenure experienced fewer turnovers. A similar study by Wagner, Pfeffer, and O’Reilly (1984) examined turnover in top- management groups. Their findings showed that individuals belonging to groups that were more heterogeneous in terms of age were more likely to turnover than those in more homogeneous groups. Another more thorough study by O’Reilly, Caldwell, and Barnett (1989) examined work group cohesion and turnover. The research on field sales representatives included 20 different work groups consisting of 3 to 6 members each (N = 79). Their findings showed that work groups that were most similar in terms of tenure, reported greater group cohesion among the members and lower turnover. Further, findings at the individual level indicated that the
  • 52. more similar members were in terms of tenure with other members, the less likely they were to turnover and were more integrated. There were a few early studies that focused on the relational demographic framework at the dyad level as well. For example, one of the first studies to discuss a demographic effect in interacting dyads was completed by Larwood and Blackmore (1978). Larwood and Blackmore used 60 male and female students in an experiment to understand the behavior of soliciting volunteer leaders. The study reported that the students tended to solicit leadership toward members of their own sex more so than the opposite sex. Liden (1985) studied 35 female bank employees in an attempt to measure the subjects’ reactions to female and male managers. Liden reported that 80% of the female subordinates in the study actually showed a preference for a male manager. While this finding might demonstrate that homogenous work teams provide no advantage in the work place, the author
  • 53. drew a different conclusion. Liden concluded that the relationship was based on situational variables, and not to gender differences. That is, because the female superiors in the banks possessed less experience and the male superiors reported having more influence than female managers, the preference for the male supervisors was based more on rank or position and not gender of supervisor. Tsui and O’Reilly (1989) were the first to perform a study under what is now considered relational demography. The researchers framed their study under the similarity- attraction paradigm and analyzed the effects of age, gender, education, company tenure, and job tenure dissimilarities on four outcome variables. The outcome variables included reputational effectiveness, supervisory affect, role ambiguity, and role conflict. The study analyzed superior-subordinate dyads (N = 272) from a Fortune 500 multidivisional corporation. Analysis included the use of blocked regressions that included the superior’s demographics (block one), the subordinate’s demographics
  • 54. (block two), and relational demographics (block three). The results of the study indicated a relational demographic effect on three of the four outcome variables, and significant beta weights were yielded on 13 of the 24 possible relational demographic variables. Some of the most noteworthy findings included subordinates in mixed-gender dyads were rated to perform worse and were liked less well than those subordinates in a same-gender dyad. Subordinates in the mixed-gender dyads also reported higher levels of role conflict and role ambiguity. Supervisors also indicated a greater liking for subordinates with shorter job tenures than themselves, than those with the same or a greater amount of tenure. Weslowski and Mossholder (1997) conducted a more recent study under the concept of relational demography, and framed the analysis under self- categorization theory. The researchers tested if demographic dissimilarity between the dyad for the variables of race,
  • 55. gender, age, and education affected subordinates job attitudes of job satisfaction, burnout, and perceived procedural justice. The researchers collected data from 124 superior-subordinate dyads working at two different service-oriented companies, and primarily used polynomial regressions for analyses. The results of the study yielded significant relational effects for the race variable only. Specifically, relational race was found to correlate with perceptions of procedural justice and job satisfaction, but not for burnout. That is, those in mixed-race dyads indicated significantly lower means for job satisfaction and procedural justice than those in same-race dyads. Another dyad level study that utilized a relational demography methodology was conducted by Epitropaki and Martin (1999). The researchers analyzed the impact of differences in age, organizational tenure, and gender between subordinates and their managers as a potential moderator between the quality of leader-member exchanges, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and job-related well-being. The
  • 56. findings of the study did not show direct relational demographic effects on any of the work- related outcomes. However, the researchers did reveal some evidence of the moderating effect of relational demographics on work outcomes. For example, when LMX was low, a high age difference was associated with lower well being than when the age differences were low. That is, employees with a high difference in age to their manager and low LMX, indicated lower well-being. Organizational tenure differences between the manger and subordinate also moderated the relationship between LMX and organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and well-being. Therefore, the study indicated that those experiencing low LMX and having large organizational tenure differences reported the lowest organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and well-being. Any gender differences between the manager and subordinate were not found to moderate the LMX relationship and the work outcomes. While this study fails to provide evidence of a
  • 57. direct relational demographic effect on the work outcomes, it does demonstrate the importance of relational demography in understanding work outcomes through the moderation in the leader-member exchanges of dyads. Judge and Ferris (1993) studied the extent that a demographic dissimilarity between a superior and subordinate would affect the performance appraisal process on 81 registered nurses and their supervisors from a hospital in central Illinois. The researchers chose just two demographic variables for analysis, age and tenure, and hypothesized that the more similar a the supervisor and subordinate were with respect to theses two variables, the more the supervisor reported liking the subordinate, which would indirectly have an effect on a positive performance rating. Results of the study supported the hypothesis in that increased similarity between the dyad on a composite score of both age and tenure, positively affected supervisors' affect toward subordinates, and therefore, indirectly affected a positive performance appraisal.
  • 58. Another dyad level study by Green, Anderson, and Shivers (1996) assessed the effects of organizational (e.g., work unit size) and demographic characteristics (e.g., age, gender, and education differences) on the quality of leader-member exchanges (LMX) among a sample of 208 public library employees. Furthermore, the researchers assessed the relative contributions of the organizational characteristics, relational demographics, and LMX on a subordinate’s work attitudes (i.e., job satisfaction and organizational commitment). The results indicated that a gender difference was evident on LMX and that LMX was of lower quality when the subordinate and superior were of different genders. Further, the relational gender difference almost always took the form of a female subordinate and a male supervisor. Therein, the authors contend, “the presence of a male manager with a female subordinate may have taken on special significance in this work setting and altered the LMX development process” (Green et al., 1996, p. 210). The negative effect on the quality of LMX
  • 59. was subsequently found to affect the job satisfaction variable indirectly through a positive effect of LMX on satisfaction. The relational education variable was found to have a direct effect on organizational commitment. The authors also report that organizational characteristics (unit size and work load experienced) were negatively related to LMX quality. An important group level, as opposed to dyad level, study by was conducted by Fields and Blum (1997). The study analyzed the relationship between an employee’s job satisfaction, and the gender composition of his or her work group. The authors surveyed a total of 820 men and 814 women representing employed persons from across the United States. Results of the study indicated that both men and women working in a gender- balanced group (similar amounts of male and females) had higher job satisfaction levels than those working in more homogeneous groups (i.e., mostly male or mostly female). Further, employees that worked in groups containing mostly men indicated the lowest levels of job satisfaction from the other
  • 60. groups. Those employees working in groups of mostly females, indicated job satisfaction levels in the middle of the continuum. Although this study did not use relational demography as a framework for analysis, the study further iterates the importance of demographic characteristics on the well being of employees. A more recent study by Lichtenstien and Alexander (2000) did use relational demography as a framework for analysis. The study utilized data from 38 hospitals and hospital administrative offices (N = 1,795). The authors hypothesized that perceptions of advancement opportunities of employees with regard to demographic dissimilarity to the work group in public sector organizations (i.e., VA hospital employees) would differ from previous research utilizing private sector organizations. That is, the authors contended that being demographically dissimilar to co-workers in a public sector organization would result in much different results on perceived advancement opportunities than
  • 61. other relational demography research that indicate a negative effect on the construct. Results of the study partially supported the hypotheses, at least with respect to relational age and race. The results indicated that the more dissimilar an employee was with regard to age and race, the greater the perception of advancement opportunity was. The authors contend that these findings, which contradict previous studies, could be attributed to the many equal opportunity policies that public sector organizations pursue, which altered the expected relationship between dissimilarity in demographics and perceptions of advancement opportunity in ones job. Pelled (1996) conducted a study of 233 blue collar workers and assessed if a demographic dissimilarity from those in a work group (n = 42) affected how individual’s perceived the groups performance and conflict. Pelled used a relational demography framework to shape the study hypotheses and assessed differences among the interacting members on the demographic variables of gender,
  • 62. organizational tenure, and race. The model included two hypotheses and assessed the effects of relational demography on the outcome variables of perceived emotional conflict and perceptions of group performance. Results indicated that both gender and tenure dissimilarity had positive relationships with the perceived emotional conflict construct. Demographic dissimilarity was also negatively related to the ratings of group performance indirectly through the conflict perception variable. That is, although the demographic dissimilarities did not have a direct effect on the perceived productivity of the group, the negative relationships toward the emotional conflict variable, which subsequently predicted less perceived productivity, indicates that relational demography can affect the confidence members have toward their group. Jackson et al. (1991) produced a study that analyzed both the effects of demographic similarity to a group on individuals and groups. The researchers examined the demographic
  • 63. differences among the variables of age, organizational tenure, educational level, college curriculum, industry experience, and military experience on a sample of 93 top management teams (totaling 625 individuals) in the banking industry. The study was conducted under similar theories—the attraction-selection-attrition model (ASA) (Schneider, 1987) and the organizational demography model (Pfeffer, 1983). The effects of individual dissimilarity and group heterogeneity on the outcome variables of recruitment, promotion, and turnover were assessed using analysis of variance, correlations, and regressions. The group level analyses indicated that group heterogeneity predicted turnover. That is, the more dissimilar the work group was in terms of the demographic variables, the more turnover the team experienced over the four-year period under study. The results at the individual level indicated that a dissimilarity between the individual and the work group with respect to the demographic variables predicted higher turnover. The results lent support for both models under
  • 64. investigation in that demographic similarity (organizational demography) and psychological similarity (ASA) effects on the outcomes were noted. A group level study by Mueller et al. (1999) studied teachers in 405 urban school district schools under relational demography theory, a racial prejudice framework, and status characteristics theory. The studied assessed the direct effects of the racial composition of the schools teachers and students on job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and career commitment. Furthermore, the researchers were interested in assessing what variables would act as mediators of the group composition differences effect on satisfaction and commitment constructs. Specifically, the authors main hypotheses was that teachers that worked in schools in which there own race was dominant would experience greater commitment and job satisfaction than teachers in schools where a race other than their own was primary. Further, the authors tested whether White teachers in schools with predominately White colleagues
  • 65. would experience greater coworker support, role conflict, and autonomy, a contention that is grounded in the nonsymmetry hypothesis. Results indicated that the racial composition of schools affected the White teachers but not the Black teachers, which lent support for the nonsymmetry hypothesis that Whites in Black-dominant settings often react more negatively than Blacks in White-dominant settings. The specific results indicated that White teachers in “mismatched” settings (e.g., in a Black-dominant school) experienced greater role conflict, inadequate resources, and less job autonomy. These negative effects in turn shaped less job satisfaction and organizational commitment. However, no racial composition effects on career commitment were found. As such, the authors assert that relational demography effects appear to have “more short-term than long-term effects on teachers” (Mueller et al., 1999, p. 211). Tsui, Egan, O’Reilly (1992) constructed a framework built on self-categorization theory to test a series of hypotheses regarding relational demographic differences with respect
  • 66. to age, race, tenure, education, and gender. The researchers tested the effects of relational demography on the outcome variables of commitment, attendance behavior, and tenure intentions among 1,705 workers across three different industries. The results indicated that an increase in work-unit diversity among group members negatively affected the psychological attachment of the individuals. Specifically, the researchers reported general relational demography effects on three of the five difference variables. The tenure, gender, and race variables all accounted for a difference in all three of the outcome variables. For the gender and race relational scores, the direction of the relationship was as hypothesized. Thus, the greater the difference in gender and race of the individual toward the work group, the lower levels of commitment, the higher the frequency of absences, and the lower stay intentions were experienced by the employees. However, the hypothesized effects for education and tenure
  • 67. were not supported. In fact, the opposite effects to those hypothesized were actually found to exist. Numerous interesting results were noted in the study by Tsui et al. (1992). The most noteworthy of these emerged in the nonsymmetrical effects analysis for the gender variable (i.e., separate analysis for each gender). For the men in this analysis, an increase in the gender composition of the work group was actually associated with less psychological attachment, increased absence, and fewer stay intentions. However, for women, an increase in the gender from others in the group was associated with greater levels of organizational attachment. Thus, it appears that men are more affected by an increase in the heterogeneity of a work group, and would have more positive psychological outcomes in a male- dominated or all male setting. However, females appear to be unaffected by an increase in the gender heterogeneity a work group. Theoretical Frameworks Explaining Demographic Effects
  • 68. Relational demography effects can be best explained by self- categorization theory, a theory grounded in Tajfel’s (1974) social identity theory. Hogg and Terry (2000) contend that Tajfel developed the theory to indicate “how beliefs about the nature of relationships between groups (status, stability, permeability, legitimacy) influence the way that individuals or groups pursue positive social identity” (p. 122-123). One principle of an individual’s social identity is that of self-enhancement, which is related to one’s self-esteem (Riordon, 1995). Individuals are expected to desire to establish a high level of self-esteem (e.g., Brockner, 1988), this in turn will motivate them to achieve a favorable self-identity (Tajfel & Turner, 1986). However, in order for individuals to identify how they feel about others, they are required to identify themselves first (Tsui et al., 1992). To establish this identity, individuals are expected to partake in a self-categorization process (Turner, 1987). Self-categorization elaborates on social identity theory and contends
  • 69. that individuals “classify themselves and others into social categories using characteristics such as organizational membership, age, race, status, or religion” (Tsui et al., 1992). These social categories allow individuals to define themselves in terms of social identity (Miklos, 1999). Furthermore, the process allows individuals to assume a more positive self-identity and s/he may consequently seek to maximize their ingroup uniqueness and disfavor the outgroups distinctiveness (Kramer, 1991). Stephan and Stephan (1985) have asserted, “people who are regarded as superior experience anxiety concerning interaction with others who are regarded as inferior” (p. 163). This anxiety can in turn challenge one’s self- esteem and enable people to avoid contact with members of an outgroup, and to increase the stereotyping behavior toward the outgroup (Tsui et al., 1992). The theory is ideal for analysis in an organizational context because existence of the numerous groups in these setting (e.g., work groups, supervisor- subordinate dyads,
  • 70. management groups) and the research that suggests that individuals prefer to function in homogeneous groups of similar others rather than in a group of dissimilar others (e.g., Schneider, 1987). Relational demographics are relevant because individuals often classify themselves and others into categories using various characteristics such as gender, race, age, tenure, and education (Riordan, 1995; Tsui et al., 1992; Zenger & Lawrence, 1989). Thus, if an individual’s demographic background and characteristics (such as age, gender, tenure, race, or religion) make them distinct, she or he may engage in social identification and subsequent self- categorization based on the particular background or characteristic (Pelled, 1996). At the dyad level, self-categorization theory and relational demographic effects contends that demographic dissimilarities between the two members can lead to an increase in polarization between the members based on definition of the social group as a whole (i.e., conflicting outgroup or ingroup group memberships when
  • 71. compared to the broader group as a whole) (Turner & Oakes, 1989). Further, when demographic dissimilarities exist within a dyad, subordinates and superiors may tend to stereotype each other and emphasize their differences (Weslowski & Mossholder, 1997). These contentions, along with the literature reviewed indicating the importance of ingroup and outgroup categorizations in dyad studies, … Running Head: EMPHASIS ON EXPERIENCE 1 Major League Soccer: Emphasis on Experience = Fans in the Stands Alexis Petrou
  • 72. University of Florida EMPHASIS ON EXPERIENCE 2 Introduction Over the past decade, Major League Soccer has grown exponentially. In the past, soccer always took a back seat to the so-called “Big Four” professional sports (football, basketball,
  • 73. baseball, and hockey). It was always referred to as the least popular sport in the United States. However, in a recent change of events, soccer is now increasing in popularity and is not too far behind the other professional sports leagues. Major League Soccer was never really considered a serious professional sports league. There teams were not successful, their stadiums were never filled, and the average American had an apathetic feeling toward the sport. In fact, “professional soccer in the United States would remain dormant for over a decade until FIFA awarded the 1994 World Cup to the United States” (Ageris & Nagel, 2013). The recent boom of soccer in the United States has spread across the nation, and it is now one of the most popular sports among children and young adults in the country. This has been helped by the growth of technology and media contracts, with national television companies now airing soccer games from across the globe on a weekly basis. The United States has recently caught up with most other countries to appreciate the most popular sport in the world. Because of this rapid growth, Major League Soccer has
  • 74. expanded quicker than most other professional sports leagues. A decade ago, the MLS consisted of only 12 teams. Today, that number has grown to 20, with a further four teams joining the league by 2018 to bring the total to 24. Their commissioner, Don Garber, has claimed that they will not stop there, and eventually want to reach 30 teams to compete with the other professional sports markets. Even though this expansion has been good for the sport of soccer, there are some negatives that come with it. Expanding so quickly makes it difficult to attract fans to these relatively new franchises. Some of the professional soccer teams in Major League Soccer are struggling to sell tickets and fill their EMPHASIS ON EXPERIENCE 3 stadiums for their home games. This is not a problem solely for Major League Soccer, as other professional teams in other leagues also struggle to sell out stadiums and arenas every game.
  • 75. However, if the MLS wants to be able to sustain their expansion, teams will need to create a loyal fan base to be able to stay afloat. In order to successfully attract fans to soccer stadiums, it is necessary to investigate what fans consider important to their experience at games. In order to determine this, fan motivation must be defined and evaluated in order to find out who, what, when, where, and why fans choose to attend soccer games. Fan satisfaction is a major key to successfully selling out games in any sports league, but research must be done to find out what satisfies the core demographic of soccer fans. Research must be done to see the perception of Major League Soccer as a whole, with the product on the field, with the facilities, and with the competition between franchises. In addition, ticket pricing and attendance records are inherently connected, therefore it is important to see which markets are successful and why they have been successful. There is a lack of research done on fan attendance specific to soccer, and while there has been research done on the relationship between differing factors influencing spectator
  • 76. attendance, “most of this body of work is relevant to the ‘big three’ sports of football, basketball, and baseball” (Parrish, 2013). Marketing strategies from other sports leagues (NFL, NBA, MLB, NHL) can be applied to Major League Soccer. The key component to the research in question is finding out what aspects of the fan experience are most critical to the average soccer fan. Review of Literature Consumer Satisfaction In today’s sports marketing world, consumer expectations are of the utmost importance. In order to better understand which aspects of the fan experience are valued, Michael Mondello and Brian Gordon (2015) focused on consumer satisfaction in the National Basketball EMPHASIS ON EXPERIENCE 4 Association. In their research, The NBA Fan Experience: A Case Study of a Professional Sport Franchise, they utilized focus groups of season ticket holders
  • 77. from the Orlando Magic franchise to discuss their opinions on the fan experience on a variety of variables. To determine a the most avid fans, it is important to gauge the level of interest, passion, and loyalty a fan displays to a favorite sports team. The more connected a fan is to their team, the more time, money, and effort they will spend on products and activities correlated with that team. The research done by Modello and Gordon (2015) was focused on finding what customers wanted from their fan experience, and how teams were “delivering and creating memorable experiences for their customers.” In order to do this, they used two different focus groups comprised of male and female ticket holders, varying in age and demographics. There are usually “two types of customer satisfaction at sporting events: game satisfaction and service satisfaction” (Mondello & Gordon, 2015). It is imperative to satisfy both needs if a professional sports franchise wants to attract more fans to their home games. By using questions focused on advertising, ticketing pricing, the overall experience, motivations, and frequency of
  • 78. attendance, the research was able to determine what factors are of the most important to NBA fans. The findings of this study are of particular importance to Major League Soccer, because they can employ some of the results to create a better atmosphere and draw more fans to their games. Customer satisfaction is key to keeping fans around, and the amount of satisfaction can impact “social identification and the level of involvement towards sporting events and clubs” (Beccarini & Ferrand, 2006). There has been research done that is negative regarding satisfaction with a professional league’s marketing and operations. Using questionnaires, Bo Gong, Minkil Kim, Tyreal Qian, and James Zhang (2015) investigated fan satisfaction in the Chinese Soccer League to determine whether customer attention and involvement correlates with satisfaction. Their findings showed that in China, fans EMPHASIS ON EXPERIENCE 5
  • 79. became less satisfied with the league the more they became involved in it. Because they were able to see how the market and teams operated, they were turned off to the idea of attending more games. The fans of the Chinese Soccer League “perceive that the league has a number of problems. (Gong, et al. 2015). Findings like these are important for the MLS to consider because they want to create a league that can function properly, as well as increase the satisfaction and attendance of all fans. Target Market There are a variety of results from the studies conducted that can have an impact on the fan experience in Major League Soccer games. Even though the focus groups were based on NBA fans, the findings are applicable to all professional sports leagues. Most fans tend to plan their entire night based on a sporting event if they plan on attending. In order to encourage this, Major League Soccer teams should look to promote game packages that can allow for this. Offering ticket packages for “Guys Night Out” or “Girls Night Out” could be beneficial to
  • 80. attracting fans, especially young adults. The age of soccer fans “mostly ranges from 20-29 and 30-39 years” (Zorzou, et al. 2014). As pointed out in the study, “the majority of respondents focused on ‘the entire experience’ when discussing their perceptions of attending a game” (Mondello & Gordon, 2015). In addition, this specific study actually discovered that the Orlando Magic contacted a MLS franchise, Sporting Kansas City to learn how they have increased ticket sales. Sporting KC used sports analytics to find out in depth information about their average fans. This is one way to discover what the average fans wants in their sporting experience. Findings from other soccer cultures can be of importance when trying to increase ticket sales in the United States. Mariana Carvalho, Felip Boen, Jose Pedro Sarmento, and Jereon Scheerder (2015) looked into the attendance patterns in Portugal and Belgium to get a better understanding EMPHASIS ON EXPERIENCE
  • 81. 6 of predictors of soccer attendance. They focused on these two countries because they believed it was a “good opportunity to include two different soccer attendance cultures” in order to find patterns and profiles of fans (Carvalho, et al. 2015). Initially, Major League Soccer targeted the “soccer mom” in order to attract fans to the stadiums. Recently however, there has been a shift to young adults. Using surveys, Carvalho, et al (2015) suggests that there is a different market that soccer teams should target: teens. While the push for soccer moms was partially successful, Major League Soccer quickly learned that young adults were the best fans to try and attract for a variety of reasons. However, teens should be targeted because “they are considered to be trendsetters, because they influence their parents’ spending, and because they are a future market” (Carvalho, et al. 2015). Major League Soccer should try to attract more teenagers because they have a long term impact for game attendance. Teenagers and children tend to become fans at a young age, so it is important to capitalize on
  • 82. this time frame. Argeris and Nagel (20) further proved this theory when they found that “a weathly, young, white and male population is associated with higher MLS attendance.” In addition, Mondello and Gordon (2015) found that the main motives for attendance found in the study were centered on family influence. The responders in the focus groups who had children tended to use that as an influence to attend basketball games. In addition, some responders claimed games were used as a “family night out” or “date night” with a significant other (Mondello & Gordon, 2015). It is not surprising to see this, as many people use sporting events to get out of the house, as well as spend time with their family or partner. Friends and peer groups also influenced fan attendance in a noticeable way. Fans of Major League Soccer do no differ from those who are fans of the other four professional sports leagues in the United States; they “tend to be young, male professionals with disposable income” (Argeris & Nagel, 2013).
  • 83. EMPHASIS ON EXPERIENCE 7 Designated Players Delving into the deep web of fan satisfaction can be a daunting task. There are a variety of issues that have been shown to influence fan attendance at sporting events, and previous research has found many different factors that can have an effect on a fan’s motivation to attend games. One of the topics of influence that has been studied carefully is the work based around the introduction of the “designated player” in Major League Soccer recently. Studies has shown that attendance will increase with the presence of designated players, regardless of whether the team is successful or not. When the Los Angeles Galaxy were able to convince David Beckham to join their MLS franchise in 2007, the league discovered a new trend. Bringing in established, well-known soccer players from around the world could have a positive impact on fan attendance. Steve Argeris and Mark Nagel (2013) studied the effects of the “designated player”
  • 84. on average fan attendance and they found that “Beckham’s inclusion on the Galaxy roster nearly doubled attendance figures.” The MLS instituted the “Beckham Rule” because previous research has shown that “MLS attendance is dependent upon the presence of ‘better players’” (Parrish, 2013). After the designated player rule was instituted, more teams were looking to attract highly marketable superstars so that they could increase ticket sales and merchandise revenue. Charles Parrish (2013) wanted to discover whether the presence of these new, attractive superstars had a noticeable effect on fan attendance for franchises. By looking at the attendance records for matches that had one or multiple designated players participating versus games without any, results showed that there was a relationship present between fan attendance and the amount of designated players participating in a match. In order to sell more tickets, Major League Soccer franchises need to be able to sign quality soccer players from around the world, preferably ones that are house hold names. It does not matter their age, but rather the recognition they have
  • 85. EMPHASIS ON EXPERIENCE 8 globally. The MLS has succeeded in implementing the strategy to make “it possible for teams to pay market value to high profile players without having these salaries count against a team’s salary cap” (Parrish, 2013). Fans want to see star players involved in their league, and allowing franchises to sign more can increase attendance and ticket sales. Game Atmosphere/Team Success By looking at the designated player rule, Major League Soccer can learn a lot about their product on the field when determining fan satisfaction. Fans do not necessarily care about the product on the field, but rather about the atmosphere at the stadium and star players they will get to see. For some teams, a major negative for season ticket holders is also the overall atmosphere at games. Even though some teams’ “roster lacked genuine star power,” fans were still willing to
  • 86. attend if the energy in the building was “electric” (Mondello & Gordon, 2015). Fans want to experience something exciting and energetic. If the fans are not into the game, then it takes away from the entire sporting experience. The product on the court or field is not as important as the energy of the fans. It is of the utmost importance to provide an energetic game atmosphere, as this was a strong predictor of fan satisfaction. Research has been conducted in Germany to determine whether or not fans stay loyal when their teams get relegated to a lower division. The study is important because it further proves that fans do not care if their team wins or loses, but rather the emotional connection they feel with their favorite team. Previous research has shown that “soccer fans tend to claim to maintain a deep relationship with their club” (Koenigstorfer, Groeppel-Klein, & Schmitt, 2010). Using a longitudinal field study and applying an inner- subject design, Koenigstorfer, Groeppel-Klein, & Schmitt (2010), were able to examine if fan’s loyalty changes when their team gets relegated. Surprisingly, they found that “highly committed
  • 87. fans and their clubs are strongly bound to each other—and this connection becomes even EMPHASIS ON EXPERIENCE 9 stronger after relegation” (Koenigstorfer, et al. 2010). Major League Soccer can look at this and put it to use in a marketing strategy. Providing a great team atmosphere will have a greater impact on fan loyalty than just success. Fans want to feel a connection to their club, and they can achieve this by creating intimate connections throughout the franchise. If fans are able to have this connection, then they will stand by the club, even in bad times. Fan passion has always been described as a key componenet of intimidating franchises. A loyal fan base can help a team achieve success and can thrive off the atmosphere provided by fans. Kirk Wakefield (2016) wanted to investigate the role that passion plays in the consumption of fans. He wanted to know if passion lead to an increase in fans’ desire to attend games or consume more information about
  • 88. the team. Through his research, he found that “passion strongly predicted attendance” and the more passionate a fan is, the more likely they are to attend (Wakefield, 2016). Fan passion has always influenced leisure activites, but this is of particular importance to Major League Soccer because they can use these findings to their advantage. By connecting fans to the franchise, they will in turn become more passionate about it. The more passionate a fan is, the less likely they are to desert the team in bad times. Adam Karg, Heath McDonald, and Geoff Schoenberg (2015) wanted to prove this further by investigating whether coaching changes had a negative effect on fan attendance. This topic is particulary important regarding season ticket holders, because it would impact whether or not they choose to renew their tickets. Previous research has shown that the product on the field or court does not necessarily influence season ticket holders’ decision to renew each year, but coaching changes have not been investigated. Since “less than 5% of coaches across the four
  • 89. major US professional leagues have tenure longer than a decade,” changes could have an adverse effect on fan attendance (Karg, McDonald, & Schoenberg, 2015). Using an online questionnaire EMPHASIS ON EXPERIENCE 10 to determine fan satisfaction regarding coaching changes, they discovered that “appointing a new coach was met with increases in positive attitudes toward almost every aspect of the season ticket holder experience” (Karg, et al. 2015). Major League Soccer can use research like this to its advantage because coaching changes occur rapidly for new professional teams. As the league continues to expand, new coaches will be introduced, while other will be removed. The coaching carousel will be in full effect, and it is important to know how season ticket holders will respond to coaching changes. Professional franchises need to have coaching plans in place and know who the successor will be. When teams hesitate after firing their head coach, season ticket holders
  • 90. may be skeptical to renew. Attitudes can be expected to change positively “when the succession cycle is completed—through the appointment of the successor’ (Karg, et al. 2015). Soccer Specific Stadiums When looking at the success of Major League Soccer recently, it is important to consider the markets that have been chosen for expansion. Previous research by Charles Parrish (2013) has shown that “soccer specific stadia provide a more appealing atmosphere for spectators.” Using attendance figures and determining which teams have soccer specific stadiums, Parrish was able to determine whether attendance is affected by the type of stadium used. When teams used soccer specific stadiums, attendance actually increased. To back up this theory, Steve Argeris and Mark Nagel (2013) investigated Major League Soccer attendance to determine the effects of stadiums (soccer versus football specific), location, and designated players on fan attendance. It is necessary to delve into these topics because these findings could play a major
  • 91. role in where a new expansion team may choose to play, as well as who teams might try to sign in the transfer market. As Major League Soccer continues to expand, the need for facilities becomes more and more important. In the past, when expansion teams were joining the league, EMPHASIS ON EXPERIENCE 11 they usually tried to share football specific stadiums for their home soccer games. The problem with this, however, is that soccer games did not attract as many fans as football games, therefore the stadiums would usually look empty. Recently, though, a trend has begun where MLS teams are “moving from large, American football-oriented multipurpose facilities into soccer-specific venues” (Argeris & Nagel, 2013). When deciding expansion teams, Major League Soccer now looks at whether teams are willing to build their own soccer specific stadium when they join the league. Investigating this trend is key to determining fan satisfaction at games. When games are
  • 92. held at soccer specific stadiums, it can make the fans feel more important, and that their teams value their attendance. It is not a shared stadium, but rather their own home venue they can feel attached to. Using a survey regarding on-field performance and stadium quality, Argeris and Nagel (2013) were able to find that “the building of soccer- specific stadiums typically offered fans a better on-site experience.” Major League Soccer can use this to create better fan experiences by using soccer venues as home fields. The number of teams that have soccer venues has increased, but it can only benefit Major League Soccer’s ticket sales if they require all stadiums to have their own home field. Marko Sarstedt, Christian Ringle, Sascha Raithel, and Siegfried Gudergan (2014) investigated the soccer specific stadium trend in Germany, using online questionnaires and forums to determine that “satisfaction with the club stadium affects fan satisfaction.” While the team on the field might have an impact on the experience, they found that new stadiums could have an increase in attendance, even if performances on the field do not
  • 93. change. As long as basic needs are filled in the stadium, most fans will be pleased to have their own venue to cheer on their favorite team. Advertising EMPHASIS ON EXPERIENCE 12 Also important is the advertising and availability of ticket packages. Using more social media platforms could result in reaching more fans. If fans are not aware of the ticket plans that are offered by the MLS franchise, then they will not be able to attend games. “Passion produced the strongest effects on attendance, media consumption, Facebook usage, and Twitter usage (Wakefield, 2016). For many fans, promotional nights often influence their desire to attend one of the games. When there are promotional ticket offerings, or when there is a giveaway at the arena, fans are more likely to attend the game. Especially when talking about fans with children,
  • 94. this could be a useful tool to get parents to bring their children to the games if they know their child might get a toy or poster for attending. In contrast, however, some of the reasons fans did not attend games were due to the time commitment, scheduling conflicts, finance problems, and affordability of tickets. Offering promotions that increase fan identification can have a positive impact on attendance and viewership. Anne Wan-Ling Hu and Lin-Ru Tang (2010) used questionnaires to determine that entertainment and perceived fan identification “positively affected length of viewing behavior.” This shows that the happier fans are at games, the longer they will stay. Offering promotional value will only increase the satisfaction of fans. In addition, if concession prices were lower or if the tickets were more valuable (i.e. receiving a souvenir or all-inclusive tickets), then fans might be more inclined to attend. One of the major problems that the study by Mondello and Gordon (2015) found regarding attendance was the lack of awareness for ticket plans. Almost all of the participants were not aware that there were ticket packages
  • 95. available. The ticket plans gave fans the ability to overcome both the financial and scheduling problems, both of which were the two biggest attendance constraints. The general awareness of these plans was lacking, therefore more advertising can be done in order to sell more packages. Since technology has continued to expand astronomically over the past decade, the use of it has EMPHASIS ON EXPERIENCE 13 become important to professional sports leagues. Social media can be used to advertise ticket packages in order to reach the target market of teenagers and young professionals. Passionate fans are more likely to use social media accounts to monitor their favorite team because “passion strongly predicts social media behavior related to the team” (Wakefield, 2016). Almost every young fan is on social media today, therefore using this could be of great value to Major League Soccer to increase fan attendance.
  • 96. Implications The studies discussed can have a positive impact moving forward for Major League Soccer. As the league grows, it needs to be able to continue to sell tickets, as well as develop the fan experience into something truly memorable. From previous research, franchises have learned that most fans care more about the experience rather than the product on the field or court. Major League Soccer must move forward and try to use all soccer- specific venues, as this leads to increased fan satisfaction. In addition, teams must try to target a new market: teenagers. Teens are the future of fans; therefore, they must be pursued to increase fan loyalty at a young age. Young adults usually have disposable income as well, and research has shown that focusing on this demographic can have positive effects on ticket sales. Rules might have to be changed in order to allow more franchises to sign designated players because that is who fans want to see playing. Designated players can increase attendance as well as quality of the team. It also adds value in marketing as teams will be able to create a face to
  • 97. associate with the franchise. It is necessary to create marketing campaigns to advertise game plans, increase attendance, and create the best overall experience so that fans will keep coming back for more. Major League Soccer can learn from other professional leagues’ ticketing plans, as well as other soccer leagues around the globe, and they can increase and sustain fan attendance in the future. EMPHASIS ON EXPERIENCE 14 References Anne Wan-Ling, H., & Lin-Ru, T. (2010). Factors motivating sports broadcast viewership with fan identification as a mediator. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal, 38(5), 681-689. Argeris, S., & Nagel, M. (2013). An investigation of Major League Soccer attendance. Journal of Venue & Event Management, 4(2), 64-75.
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  • 99. Koenigstorfer, J., Groeppel-Klein, A., & Schmitt, M. (2010). “You’ll never walk alone”—How loyal are soccer fans when their clubs are struggling against relegation?. Journal of Sport Management, 24(6), 649-675. Mondello, M., & Gordon, B. (2015). The NBA fan experience: A case study of a professional sport franchise. Journal of Contemporary Athletics, 9(4), 285- 298. Parrish, C. (2013). Soccer specific stadiums and designated players: Exploring the Major League Soccer attendance assumption. International Journal of Sport Management, Recreation, & Tourism, 1257-1270. Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C., Raithel, S., & Gudergan, S. (2014). In pursuit of understanding what drives fan satisfaction. Journal of Leisure Research, 46(4), 419- 447. Wakefield, K. (2016). Using fan passion to predict attendance, media consumption, and social
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