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Respiratory System
by
M.NAGAPRADHEESH(U18BT2017)
3rd B.Sc., BIO TECHNOLOGY
JJ COLLEGE OF ARTS&SCIENCE(Autonomous)
PUDUKKOTTAI.
A SMALL QUESTION TO ALL?
WHY DO WE SNIFF & SNORT
(BREATHING IN AND OUT)? THINK OF
ALL REASONS.WHY WE NEED A
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.
SOME IMPORTANT TERMINOLOGIES
ABOUT RESPIRATORY SYSTEM:
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM:in Latin The Term is defined as
“Systema Respiratorium”or also known as Ventilation System
or Ventilation Apparatus.This system consists of respiratory
organs(like Blood vessels & Muscles)in Mammals & Animals
that exchange Gases with the Environment.
CELLULAR RESPIRATION:The Aerobic Breakdown of
Glucose in the Mitochondria to make ATP.
BREATHING:(or Respiration) is the process of moving air in
and out of the lungs to facilitate gas exchange with the
Environment.
THE HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
1.Pictorial Presentation: 2.Diagrammatic Presentation:
MAIN PARTS OF THE RESPIRATORY
SYSTEM PLAYS MAJOR ROLE IN
RESPIRATION PROCESS:
Lungs
Throat
Nostrils
Larynx
Trachea
Bronchiol Tube
Bronchioles
Alveoli
Diaphragm
THE PROCESS OF RESPIRATORY
SYSTEM:
1.The Upper resipiratory System: 2.The Lower Respiratory System
THE UPPER RESPIRATORY SYSTEM OR
TRACT:
The First Half of the airways in human
respiratory system.It consists of
(Nose,Nasal cavity,Mouth,Oral
Cavity,Pharyx&Larynx).
The Oral Cavity is the secondary
entrance of the respiratory tract,may be
included in the upper respiratory system.
THE NOSE AND NASAL CAVITIES:
The Nostris,the two round or oval holes below the
external nose are the primary entrance into the
human respiratory system.Lying just after the nostrils
are the nasal cavities,lined with mucus membrane
and tiny hair like projection called Cilia.
During Inhalation,the air passes into the nasal cavities
through the nostrils,where it is cleaned (of any
harmful dust particles or bacteria)and humidified by
the cilia and the sticky mucous.The purified air then
makes its way into the next parts of the resporatory
tract or system.
INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL
PROJECTION OF NOSE:
THE MOUTH AND ORAL CAVITY:
Despite not being one of the primary
organs making up the upper respiratory
system,the mouth is quite important in
breathing,serving as an alternate
pathway of air in case of a nasal blockage
THE PHARNYX:
Beginning from right after the nasal cavity,the
pharynx or “Voice Box”connects with Larynx
upcoming.The 4-5 inches long,funnel shaped
muscular tube is responsible for carrying both food
and air from the oral cavity down the digestive &
respiratory tracts respectively.
It also plays a Vital roles in speech
production,fighting infections (since it contains
adenoids,or a collection of lymphatic tissues).
THE LARYNX:
The Larynx extends from the inferior end of
the pharynx,continuing to the trachea and
connecting,the upper and lower tracts.Apart
from acting as the passage for air to flow into
the trachea to reach the lungs,the larynx also
house the vocal cords to produce sounds to
let us speak and sing.
REST OF THE PARTS IN THE UPPER
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM:
Like,the nasal cavity,the rest of the parts of the
upper respiratory system also have a mucous
lining to trap any remaining impurities or
pathogens from the inhaled air.
The Hair-like Cilia are also present to carry the
debris back into the nasal cavity or pharynx,to
be excreted through the nostrils or channeled
into digestive system.
SOME OF THE DISEASES ASSOCIATED WITH
THE UPPER RESPIRATORY SYSTEM:
 Upper Respiratory Tract infection(URTI)
 Influenza(Flu)
 Sinusitis
 Paranasal Sinusitis
 Pharyngitis
 Allergic Rhinitis
 Whooping Cough
 Epiglottis.
THE LOWER RESPIRATORY SYSTEM OR
TRACT:
 The second half of the human airways continuing after the
larynx,including the trachea,bronchi and the respiratory
structures within the lungs-the bronchioles,alveoli and
diaphragm,is referred to as the Lower Respiratory Tract or
System.
 The organs making up the lower respiratory tract are all
protected and kept in place by the rib cage and the
sternum,whole the diaphragm and the intercoastal muscles
and vital to their functioning as well.
THE LUNGS:
The spongy air-filled conical organs occupying most
of the thoraic(Chest)cavity in humans are known as
the Lungs.
It is one of the primary respiratory organs where the
gas exchange occurs after the inhaled air enters the
lungs via the trachea,through the bronchi and
bronchioles.
The Structures in the lungs directly responsible for
the function of the respiration collectively form the
lung parenchyma.It includes the bronchiol
tubes,blood vessels,alveoli and alveolar ducts
THE TRACHEA:
Beginning from the inferior end of the
larnyx,it is flexible pipe,like structure and it is
4-5 inches in length, primarily responsible for
getting the inhaled air travel down the
airways to reach the lungs.
The Muscular pipe has small cartilaginous
rings surrounding and supporting
it,presenting it from collapsing under the
changing air pressure during inhalation and
exhalation.
THE BRONCHI:
The Trachea branches into the left and
right bronchi which then enters the left
and right lungs respectively.
The short flexible bronchi are also
surrounded by rings of cartilage.
THE BRONCHIOLES:
Once the bronchi enter the lungs they start
branching further into smaller airways-first into the
secondary bronchi,then the tertiary bronchi to finally
divide into the smallest branches of the airways the
Bronchioles.
THE ALVEOLI:
Alveoli (Alveolus)and the diaphragm is the last part of the
lower respiratory tract,are the tiny,sacs located in clusters at
the end of the bronchioles.
Collectively referred to art the alveolar sacs,these are
surrounded by an intricate network of blood capillaries.
This is the primary respiratory area within the human
body,where the inhaled air travels through the trachea,bronchi
and bronchioles and comes in contact with the blood
capillaries so the oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange takes
place.
The oxygen from the inhaled air passed into the blood cells to
be carried throughout the body,while the carbon dioxide from
different parts of the body reacts the lungs to be carried out
with the air during exhalation.
STRUCTURE OF THE ALVEOLI:
THE DIAPHRAGM:
The thoraic diaphragm is a large flat muscle that plays a vital
role in the respiratory system,and is located beneath the two
lungs,dividing the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity.
With its characterstic dome shape,it is the primary respiratory
muscle,also supporting the lungs and and heart.
Despite being a skeletol muscle,the diaphragm is unique as it
can work both voluntary and unvoluntary muscle
Humans do have some control over it,as we can increase or
decrease the rate of inhalation,or hold our breath.However,it
functions on its own most of the time.
STRUCTURE OF DIAPHRAGM:
DISEASES ASSOCIATED WITH THE
LOWER RESPIRATORY SYSTEM:
Lower Respiratory Tract Infection(LRTI)
Pneumonia
Bronchitis
Acute Bronchitis
Severe Acute Respiratory
Syndrome(SARS).
OVER ALL FUNCTIONS OF THE
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM:
Right,Thats we seen these overall parts
work together to moves Oxygen
throughout the body and clean out waste
particles gases like Carbon dioxide.
SUMMARY:
 We saw about some important terminologies in the respiratory system like Respiratory system,Cellular Respiration,Breathing.
 Some of the Main Parts:Lungs,Throat,Nostrils,Larynx,Trachea,Bronchial tube,Bronchioles,Alveoli&Diaphragm.
 The First half of the airways in human respiratory system is uppee respiratory system which consists of(Nose,Nasal Cavity,Mouth,Oral
Cavity,Pharynx,Larynx)
 During Inhalation,the nose and nasal cavities passes the air(without harmful bacteria)which humidified by the cilia and mucous
membrane.
 The Mouth and Oral Cavity severs as the alternate pathway of air in case of a nasal breakage.
 The Pharynx or Voice Box Connects with Larynx where long funnel shaped muscular tube is responsible carrying for food and air from
thr oral cavity.
 The Larynx is the inferior end of the pharnyx,connecting the air with the upper and lower tracts with the help of trachea.It is mainly
used as the Vocal cords to speak and Sing.
 The Rest of the parts like nasal cavity,the rest will trap the mucous lining to trap the remaining impurities from the inhaled air.
 The Hair-like cilia carry the debris back into the cavity or pharynx to be excreted through the the another nostrils.
 Some of the diseases Associated with the the lower respiratory system are Influenza(Flu),Sinusitis etc...
 The lower respiratory system or tract is the second half of the human respiratory
system,includes lungs(onlyorgan),Bronchi,Trachea,Bronchioles,Alveoli and Diaphragm.
 The Lungs are the only organ that used in the gas exchange occurs after the inhaled air
enters the lungs via the trachea through the bronchi and bronchioles.
 The trachea (4-5inches) in length primarily responsible for getting the inhaled air travel
down the airways to reach the lungs.
 The short flexible bronchi are surrounded by rings created by Trachea and it is called the
rings of cartilage is used in inhale and exhale of air.
 The tertiary bronchi to be finally divide into the smallest branches of the airways called
the Bronchioles.
 The Alveoli makes the inhaled air to pass through the blood cells to be carried
throughout the body,while the carbon dioxide from the different parts of the body react
with lungs.
 The lungs make carried out with the air during exhalation.
 The diaphragm is a flat muscle can be control by the humans by increase and decrease
the rate of inhalation or hold our breath.It may also works on its own.
 Some of the disease associated with lower respiratory system SARS,Bronchitis,Pneminia
etc...
 The overall function of respiratory system to move oxygen (Inhalation)into the body
cells to remove the carbon dioxide (Exhalation) from that cells.
REFERENCES:
☆ WEBSITIES:
1.www.wou.edu
2.www.carman.k12.mi.us
3.www.therespiratorysystem.com
4.www.sciencedirect.com
☆ BOOKS:
12th Biology Books
STAY HOME!!!
STAY SAFE!!!

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Respiratory system(M.NAGAPRADHEESH).pptx

  • 1. Respiratory System by M.NAGAPRADHEESH(U18BT2017) 3rd B.Sc., BIO TECHNOLOGY JJ COLLEGE OF ARTS&SCIENCE(Autonomous) PUDUKKOTTAI.
  • 2. A SMALL QUESTION TO ALL? WHY DO WE SNIFF & SNORT (BREATHING IN AND OUT)? THINK OF ALL REASONS.WHY WE NEED A RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.
  • 3. SOME IMPORTANT TERMINOLOGIES ABOUT RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: RESPIRATORY SYSTEM:in Latin The Term is defined as “Systema Respiratorium”or also known as Ventilation System or Ventilation Apparatus.This system consists of respiratory organs(like Blood vessels & Muscles)in Mammals & Animals that exchange Gases with the Environment. CELLULAR RESPIRATION:The Aerobic Breakdown of Glucose in the Mitochondria to make ATP. BREATHING:(or Respiration) is the process of moving air in and out of the lungs to facilitate gas exchange with the Environment.
  • 4. THE HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 1.Pictorial Presentation: 2.Diagrammatic Presentation:
  • 5. MAIN PARTS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM PLAYS MAJOR ROLE IN RESPIRATION PROCESS: Lungs Throat Nostrils Larynx Trachea Bronchiol Tube Bronchioles Alveoli Diaphragm
  • 6. THE PROCESS OF RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: 1.The Upper resipiratory System: 2.The Lower Respiratory System
  • 7. THE UPPER RESPIRATORY SYSTEM OR TRACT: The First Half of the airways in human respiratory system.It consists of (Nose,Nasal cavity,Mouth,Oral Cavity,Pharyx&Larynx). The Oral Cavity is the secondary entrance of the respiratory tract,may be included in the upper respiratory system.
  • 8. THE NOSE AND NASAL CAVITIES: The Nostris,the two round or oval holes below the external nose are the primary entrance into the human respiratory system.Lying just after the nostrils are the nasal cavities,lined with mucus membrane and tiny hair like projection called Cilia. During Inhalation,the air passes into the nasal cavities through the nostrils,where it is cleaned (of any harmful dust particles or bacteria)and humidified by the cilia and the sticky mucous.The purified air then makes its way into the next parts of the resporatory tract or system.
  • 10. THE MOUTH AND ORAL CAVITY: Despite not being one of the primary organs making up the upper respiratory system,the mouth is quite important in breathing,serving as an alternate pathway of air in case of a nasal blockage
  • 11. THE PHARNYX: Beginning from right after the nasal cavity,the pharynx or “Voice Box”connects with Larynx upcoming.The 4-5 inches long,funnel shaped muscular tube is responsible for carrying both food and air from the oral cavity down the digestive & respiratory tracts respectively. It also plays a Vital roles in speech production,fighting infections (since it contains adenoids,or a collection of lymphatic tissues).
  • 12. THE LARYNX: The Larynx extends from the inferior end of the pharynx,continuing to the trachea and connecting,the upper and lower tracts.Apart from acting as the passage for air to flow into the trachea to reach the lungs,the larynx also house the vocal cords to produce sounds to let us speak and sing.
  • 13. REST OF THE PARTS IN THE UPPER RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: Like,the nasal cavity,the rest of the parts of the upper respiratory system also have a mucous lining to trap any remaining impurities or pathogens from the inhaled air. The Hair-like Cilia are also present to carry the debris back into the nasal cavity or pharynx,to be excreted through the nostrils or channeled into digestive system.
  • 14. SOME OF THE DISEASES ASSOCIATED WITH THE UPPER RESPIRATORY SYSTEM:  Upper Respiratory Tract infection(URTI)  Influenza(Flu)  Sinusitis  Paranasal Sinusitis  Pharyngitis  Allergic Rhinitis  Whooping Cough  Epiglottis.
  • 15. THE LOWER RESPIRATORY SYSTEM OR TRACT:  The second half of the human airways continuing after the larynx,including the trachea,bronchi and the respiratory structures within the lungs-the bronchioles,alveoli and diaphragm,is referred to as the Lower Respiratory Tract or System.  The organs making up the lower respiratory tract are all protected and kept in place by the rib cage and the sternum,whole the diaphragm and the intercoastal muscles and vital to their functioning as well.
  • 16. THE LUNGS: The spongy air-filled conical organs occupying most of the thoraic(Chest)cavity in humans are known as the Lungs. It is one of the primary respiratory organs where the gas exchange occurs after the inhaled air enters the lungs via the trachea,through the bronchi and bronchioles. The Structures in the lungs directly responsible for the function of the respiration collectively form the lung parenchyma.It includes the bronchiol tubes,blood vessels,alveoli and alveolar ducts
  • 17. THE TRACHEA: Beginning from the inferior end of the larnyx,it is flexible pipe,like structure and it is 4-5 inches in length, primarily responsible for getting the inhaled air travel down the airways to reach the lungs. The Muscular pipe has small cartilaginous rings surrounding and supporting it,presenting it from collapsing under the changing air pressure during inhalation and exhalation.
  • 18. THE BRONCHI: The Trachea branches into the left and right bronchi which then enters the left and right lungs respectively. The short flexible bronchi are also surrounded by rings of cartilage.
  • 19. THE BRONCHIOLES: Once the bronchi enter the lungs they start branching further into smaller airways-first into the secondary bronchi,then the tertiary bronchi to finally divide into the smallest branches of the airways the Bronchioles.
  • 20. THE ALVEOLI: Alveoli (Alveolus)and the diaphragm is the last part of the lower respiratory tract,are the tiny,sacs located in clusters at the end of the bronchioles. Collectively referred to art the alveolar sacs,these are surrounded by an intricate network of blood capillaries. This is the primary respiratory area within the human body,where the inhaled air travels through the trachea,bronchi and bronchioles and comes in contact with the blood capillaries so the oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange takes place. The oxygen from the inhaled air passed into the blood cells to be carried throughout the body,while the carbon dioxide from different parts of the body reacts the lungs to be carried out with the air during exhalation.
  • 21. STRUCTURE OF THE ALVEOLI:
  • 22. THE DIAPHRAGM: The thoraic diaphragm is a large flat muscle that plays a vital role in the respiratory system,and is located beneath the two lungs,dividing the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity. With its characterstic dome shape,it is the primary respiratory muscle,also supporting the lungs and and heart. Despite being a skeletol muscle,the diaphragm is unique as it can work both voluntary and unvoluntary muscle Humans do have some control over it,as we can increase or decrease the rate of inhalation,or hold our breath.However,it functions on its own most of the time.
  • 24. DISEASES ASSOCIATED WITH THE LOWER RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: Lower Respiratory Tract Infection(LRTI) Pneumonia Bronchitis Acute Bronchitis Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome(SARS).
  • 25. OVER ALL FUNCTIONS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: Right,Thats we seen these overall parts work together to moves Oxygen throughout the body and clean out waste particles gases like Carbon dioxide.
  • 26. SUMMARY:  We saw about some important terminologies in the respiratory system like Respiratory system,Cellular Respiration,Breathing.  Some of the Main Parts:Lungs,Throat,Nostrils,Larynx,Trachea,Bronchial tube,Bronchioles,Alveoli&Diaphragm.  The First half of the airways in human respiratory system is uppee respiratory system which consists of(Nose,Nasal Cavity,Mouth,Oral Cavity,Pharynx,Larynx)  During Inhalation,the nose and nasal cavities passes the air(without harmful bacteria)which humidified by the cilia and mucous membrane.  The Mouth and Oral Cavity severs as the alternate pathway of air in case of a nasal breakage.  The Pharynx or Voice Box Connects with Larynx where long funnel shaped muscular tube is responsible carrying for food and air from thr oral cavity.  The Larynx is the inferior end of the pharnyx,connecting the air with the upper and lower tracts with the help of trachea.It is mainly used as the Vocal cords to speak and Sing.  The Rest of the parts like nasal cavity,the rest will trap the mucous lining to trap the remaining impurities from the inhaled air.  The Hair-like cilia carry the debris back into the cavity or pharynx to be excreted through the the another nostrils.  Some of the diseases Associated with the the lower respiratory system are Influenza(Flu),Sinusitis etc...
  • 27.  The lower respiratory system or tract is the second half of the human respiratory system,includes lungs(onlyorgan),Bronchi,Trachea,Bronchioles,Alveoli and Diaphragm.  The Lungs are the only organ that used in the gas exchange occurs after the inhaled air enters the lungs via the trachea through the bronchi and bronchioles.  The trachea (4-5inches) in length primarily responsible for getting the inhaled air travel down the airways to reach the lungs.  The short flexible bronchi are surrounded by rings created by Trachea and it is called the rings of cartilage is used in inhale and exhale of air.  The tertiary bronchi to be finally divide into the smallest branches of the airways called the Bronchioles.  The Alveoli makes the inhaled air to pass through the blood cells to be carried throughout the body,while the carbon dioxide from the different parts of the body react with lungs.  The lungs make carried out with the air during exhalation.  The diaphragm is a flat muscle can be control by the humans by increase and decrease the rate of inhalation or hold our breath.It may also works on its own.  Some of the disease associated with lower respiratory system SARS,Bronchitis,Pneminia etc...  The overall function of respiratory system to move oxygen (Inhalation)into the body cells to remove the carbon dioxide (Exhalation) from that cells.