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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan 1
Basic Wireline Operations Course
Mahmoud F. Radwan
Subsurface & Integrity Op. Act. Dept. Head
Presenter Name:
Mahmoud Farag Radwan
Short
Biography
Mahmoud Radwan is a Subsurface & Integrity Operations Acting Dept. Head at
AMAL Petroleum Company (AMAPETCO) with more than 12 years of
experience in oil & gas industry. Mahmoud worked in Well Engineering,
Intervention, Integrity & Work-over at several companies, including Badr El-Din
Pet. Co. (BAPETCO), Qarun Pet. Co. (QPC) and Wadi El-Sahel Petroleum Co.
(WASPETCO).
Also, a freelance instructor at upstream Oil & Gas in Egypt & UAE since 2008.
Mahmoud received a BSc degree in Petroleum Engineering from Al-Azhar
University in 2007.
Publications
• Evaluating Sustainable Annulus Pressure (SAP) in Sour Wells and the
Possible Causes to Avoid Recurrence to the Well Integrity Annual Middle
East Conference in Abu Dhabi; UAE in Apr 2015
• Implementing NDT methods for maintenance and inspection to the Asset
Integrity Management North Africa Conference in Cairo; Egypt in Nov 2015
• Feasibility Evaluation of Using Downhole Gas-water Separation Technology
in gas Reservoirs with Bottom Water; paper number: SPE-183739-MS to the
20th Middle East Oil & Gas Show and Conference in Mar 2017
http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/183739-MS
• Managing the Operational Challenges in Corroded Wells through Well
Integrity Management System to the Improving Brownfield Performance
Technical Convention, in Cairo; Egypt in Dec 2019
2
Course Objectives
• Provide a full understanding of wireline operations.
• Highlight the critical aspects of wireline and the
pressure control.
• Learn the function and use of a wide range of wireline
tools.
• Utilize a “hand-on” approach to learning in a workshop.
• Use cutaway tools to ensure a complete understanding
of downhole operation.
• Become proficient in the operation of the wireline unit.
• Learn the “job planning” aspects of a successful
wireline operation.
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan 3
Course Contents
• Pressure Basis & Well Completion
• Xmas Trees, Types of trees; single, dual, composite, solid block. Wireline, History
and development
• Uses and limitations of wireline. Wire types and strengths.
• Wireline Units, Design, function and operating procedures
• Surface equipment: Pressure control equipment.
• Braided line equipment
• Pressure Testing, Test Procedures and safety precautions, Tool string
Components
• Rig-up Procedures, Lifting options
• Plugs and Flow controls, Running and pulling procedures
• Sliding Side Doors, Description and use in the well and types
• Shifting tools and procedures, Additional Equipment
• Gas lift, Side Pocket mandrels uses, Gas lift valves – design, function and
procedures.
• Wireline Parameters.
• Safety Management at Workplace.
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan 4
PRESSURE BASIC
& BASIS
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
PRESSURE BASIC & BASIS
Conversion Factors
1 Bar = 14.5 psi
1 kPa = 0.1461 psi
1 Atmosphere = 14.7 psi
1 kg/sq m = 0.20 lb/sq ft
1 meter = 3.28 feet
1 foot = 0.30 meter
1 cu ft = 7.481 US Gallon
1 US Gallon = 231 cu ins
1 US Barrel = 5.6146 cu ft
1 US Barrel = 42 US Gallon
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
PRESSURE BASIC & BASIS
1 Fundamentals of Fluids & Pressure
Pressure is defined as Force per unit area exerted by fluid i.e.
Pressure = Force ÷ Area
Using  concept, the formula can be changed:
Force = Pressure × Area
Area = Force ÷ Pressure
2 Basic laws of physics concerning fluids & gas
• Liquids are not compressible
• Gases are compressible
• Liquids & gases are both FLUIDS
• Pressure in a fluid is transmitted equally in all directions.
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
PRESSURE BASIC & BASIS
3 Fresh Water
Fresh water weighs the same per unit volume anywhere in the world that is why it’s
called “Universal Fluid”& used as STANDARD for comparison with other
fluid.
Fresh Water Facts:
• Density of 62.4 lbs/ft3
• Density of 8.33 lbs/gal
• Density of 7.48 US gal/ft3
• PG of 0.433 psi/ft
• SG of 1
• API 10º
PG = Force (Density/ft3) ÷ Area (ins2)
= 7.48 gal/ft3 ÷ 144 ins2 = 0.052 psi/ft
= 62.4 lb/ft3 ÷ 144 ins2 = 0.433 psi/ft
Relationship between Density (ppg) & PG
(psi/ft) is always the same  0.052 is used as
constant for any calculation between them.
Formula of Density (ppg) = Density (lb/ft3)  Density (US gal/ft3)
 Density (ppg) = 62.4 ÷ 7.48 = 8.33 ppg
Formula of fresh water PG if density in ppg is given,
= 8.33 ppg × 0.052 (constant) = 0.433 psi/ft
PG = Density (ppg) × Constant
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
PRESSURE BASIC & BASIS
4 Specific Gravity (SG)
The ratio of the density of a substance compared to density of another substance
which is used as the standard (Fresh Water).
Many fluids in petroleum industry is expressed in SG as well as in wt ppg. It’s
necessary to convert SG to PG to find HP.
To find SG of fluid simply divide fluid wt by fresh water wt.
E.g. Salt water wt is 10 ppg.
 Salt water SG = 10 ppg ÷ 8.33 ppg = 1.2
To find PG of fluid simply multiply fresh water PG by fluid SG
E.g. Find the HP of brine at 5000 ft TVD with brine SG of 1.17.
HP of brine = 1.17 × 0.433 psi/ft × 5000 ft = 2533 psi
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
PRESSURE BASIC & BASIS
5 API Gravity
API gravity is another value used to express relative wt of fluids & was introduced by
American Petroleum Institute to standardized the wt of fluids at base
temperature of 60º F. Water as standard fluid had been assigned the value of
10º API gravity.
To convert API gravity to SG, the following formula is used.
SG = 141.5 ÷ (131.5 + APIº)
E.g. Find the SG of 30º API oil
SG = 141.5 ÷ (131.5 + 30º)
= 141.5 ÷ 161.5 = 0.875
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
PRESSURE BASIC & BASIS
6 Hydrostatic Pressure (HP)
HP is the pressure developed by column of fluid at given TVD. “Hydro” means fluid & “static”
means stationary.  HP is pressure created by stationary column of fluid.
To calculate HP in psi of any fluid simply multiply TVD in ft by PG of fluid.
E.g. Find HP in psi of fresh water at 500 ft TVD.
HP =500 ft × 0.433 psi/ft
= 216.5 psi
To calculate HP in kPa of any fluid simply multiply TVD in meter by SG by 9.81
E.g. Find HP in kPa of brine with SG of 1.32 at 1800 m TVD.
HP = 1800 m × 1.32 × 9.81
= 23 308.56 kPa
Bar = 23 308.56 kPa ÷ 100
= 233 Bar
To find BHA of 2 fluid column or more simply add the HP of the fluid column of the same unit
of measurement together.
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
PRESSURE BASIC & BASIS
7 Case Study
What is the differential pressure in psi exists between the tubing & annulus at the
SSD assembly located at 8960 ft MD (8200 ft TVD) in the tubing?
Available Information:
 The tubing/casing annulus is filled with 9.2 ppg brine full.
 The well is S/I at surface with CITHP of 600 psi.
 There is a gas cap of 0.6 SG gas down to 4000 ft fluid level
 32° API oil from fluid level’ to 12000 ft.
Steps:
1 Sketch your information.
2 Calculate HP @ 8200 ft TVD brine in annulus
3 Calculate HP of gas cap @ 4000’
4 Calculate HP of oil column from 4000 ft to 8200 ft
5 BHP of tubing @ SSD, Gas HP + 32° API oil HP
6 Calculate the differential pressure at 8200 ft.
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
CITHP 600 psi
9.2 ppg brine
SSD @ 8200’ TVD
32º API Oil
STEP 1 Always draw a sketch with all relevant information
0.6 Gravity Gas
4000 ft Fluid Level
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Case Study
1 HP of brine in annulus; = SG × WPG × TVD
HP = 9.2  8.33 × 0.433 × 8200
= 3919.6 psi
2 HP of gas = CITHP × GCF
GCF from table = 1.087
CITHP x GCF = 600 × 1.087 = 652.2 psi
3 HP of oil column; = SG × WPG × TVD
HP = 141.5  (131.5 + 32° API) × 0.433 × 4200
= 1573.9 psi
4 BHP in tubing @ SSD = 652.2 + 1573.9 = 2226.1 psi
5  Differential Pressure @ SSD = Annulus HP – Tubing BHP
= 3919.6 - 2226.1
= 1693.5 psi
Direction of flow is from Annulus to Tubing.
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Well COMPLETION
Objective:
Provide general knowledge of design philosophy, types,
functional requirements & accessories.
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
WELL COMPLETION
WC is the “hardware” of the outflow system & final stage of a drilled well.
The design philosophy of WC is to “Maximize Profitability”.
 by maximizing well hydrocarbon recovery.
 by considering the full hydrocarbon resource life cycle.
Quality concepts for WC is;
“A Quality Well is a well which contributes, over its life cycle, maximum
monetary value, without compromising safety & environmental
standards”
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
1. PRODUCER
2. INJECTOR
3. KILL
The well is either Vertically & Horizontally completed.
 Open Hole Completion
 Uncemented Liner Completion
 Gravel Pack / WWS Completion
 Tubingless Completion
 Cemented & Perforated Completion
 Single String or Multiple String Completion
 Convectional or Monobore Completion
WELL COMPLETION TYPE
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Well Completion design is dictated by the type of well to be completed.
1. Producer
2. Injector
3. Kill
The 3 considerations of designing well completions are;
1. Inflow system
2. Outflow system
3. Number of zones to be produced
WELL COMPLETION
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
WELLBORE PRODUCING
ZONE
PRODUCING
ZONE
Interface between Producing
Zones & Wellbore
1 INFLOW
2 OUTLOW
Interface between Wellbore
& Surface Facility No of Zones
3 PRODUCING ZONE
ZONE 1
ZONE 2 ZONE 2
ZONE 3
ZONE 3
ZONE 1
COMPLETION Design
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
1. Inflow system - VERTICAL
OPEN HOLE
SLOTTED
LINER
WWS or
PREPACK
SCREEN
GRAVEL PACK
Technological advances allow boosting of the well inflow to a considerable extent
– albeit at a cost.
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
1. Inflow system - vertical
STD CEMENTED &
PERF PROD CASING
INTERNAL GRAVEL
PACK
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
1. Inflow system - horizontal
Open Hole Section
Cement Sheath
Production
Casing
OPEN HOLE
Slotted Liner Pre-Pack Screen
◦
◦ ◦
◦
◦ ◦
◦ ◦ ◦
◦ ◦
◦
◦
◦
◦ ◦
◦
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
••• •
• •• •
••
•
••
•
•
•
• •
•
•
Gravel Pack Screen
Graded Gravel
SLOTTED LINER PRE-PACK SCREEN
GRAVEL PACK
Perforations
CMT & PERF LINER
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
2. OUTFLOW – PRI RECOVERY
It’s essentially a conduit with flow controls & where necessary artificial lift or
pressure boosting facilities.
TUBINGLESS
With out tubing.
HIGH PRESSURE
Cemented, perforated &
completed with tubing &
accessories.
Low pressure gas reservoir
MONOBORE
With high rate liner
Restriction Free
Susceptible for WI
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
2. OUTFLOW – SEC RECOVERY
Pumping Unit
Production Casing
Tubing
Gas
Gas Anchor
Oil
Operating Fluid Level
Tubing Anchor
Sump
Perforations
Plunger
Pump Barrel
Travelling Valve
Stationary Valve
Sucker Rod String
ROD PUMPING
HYDRAULIC PUMPING
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
2. OUTFLOW – SEC RECOVERY
Operating
Gas Lift
Valve (OGLV)
Gas Supply
Control And
Metering System
Unloading
Valves
Unloading
Valves
Continuous
Gas Lift
Standing Valve
Intermittent
Gas Lift
Motorised
Flowline Valve
Water Oil
Gas
Surge
Tank
Manifold
Compression
GAS LIFT
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
3. PRODUCING ZONES – SINGLE
Single
Completion
Single
Selective
Interval
Single
Commingle
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
3. PRODUCING ZONES – MULTIPLE
Multiple
Completion
Concentric
Completion
Multiple
Commingle
Completion
Multiple
Selective
Completion
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Casing Design : Basic Construction
1
2
3
6
7
9
11
10
1. 30” conductor
2. Conductor setting depth
3. 20” surface casing
4. 20” shoe
5. Cement
6. Formation open to C annulus
7. 13 3/8” casing
8. Formation open to B annulus
9. 9 5/8” production casing
10.Liner hanger
11.7” Liner
12.TD – Total Depth
12
4
5
8
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Completion Components – What’s installed
1
2
4
7
9 10
11
12
6
1. Tubing hanger (Upper annulus
barrier)
2. SC-SSSV (Sub-surface barrier)
3. Control line
4. Tubing (Vertical barrier)
5. A annulus (tubing-casing)
6. Gas lift valves (in SPMs)
7. Expansion joint: Tubing Seal
Receptacle
8. Anchor seal assembly
9. Production packer
10. Packer sealing element (Lower
barrier)
11. Tailpipe
12. WEG
5
3
9 5/8”
Production
Casing
8
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Well COMPLETION
1 Anchoring Device
 Landing Nipples
2 Circulation Device
 SSD
 SPM
3 Isolation Device
 Packer
 Tubing Seal Assembly, PBR
4 Anti-Erosion Device
 Blast Joint
 Flow Coupling
5 Others
 WLEG
 Perforated Joint
 Control Line
 Tubing Hanger
Tubing Hanger
Flow Coupling
SCSSV Landing Nipple
SPM
Top Packer
Producing Zone 2
Producing Zone 1
WL Entry Guide
Top No-Go Nipple
Bottom No-Go Nipple
Top No-Go Nipple
Perforated Joint
SSD
SSD
PRODUCER COMPLETION SCHEMATIC
Blast Joint
Control Line
COMPLETION ACCESSORY:
Btm Packer
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Well COMPLETION
Short tubular with 3 main features;
Shoulder,
Seal Bores
Profiles.
1.1 Ported Nipple
 Provides communication & receptacle.
1.2 Top No-Go
 Receptacle for selective locks.
1.3 Bottom No-Go
 Receptacle for No-Go locks & prevent WL
tools drop into rat-hole.
1.4 SV Nipple
 Provides receptacle for SV locks & hydraulic
fluid.
1. ANCHORING DEVICE
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
DHSV
TRSV
WRSV
1. PASSV
2. SCSSV
- WRSV
- TRSV
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
2.1 Sliding Side Door (SSD)
 Provide communication between tubing & annulus.
 Incorporate nipple profile. inner sleeve with packing,
& seal bores.
 Advantage & Disadvantage
2.2 Side Pocket Mandrel
 Provide communication between tubing & annulus.
 Incorporate orienting sleeve, discriminator,
receptacle with profile & seal bores for 1” or 11/2”
valves.
 Advantage & Disadvantage
2. CIRCULATION DEVICE
Well COMPLETION
Discriminator
Profile
Seal Bore
Inner Sleeve
3 Positions
Ports
Releasing
Shoulder
Receptacle
Orienting Sleeve
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
SPM ACCESSORIES
Dummy Valve
• Blank off the communication port
Gas Lift Valve
• Annulus injection pressure activated
• Production pressure activated
Latches
• Lock in receptacle profile
Locking & Releasing Mechanism
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Well COMPLETION
PRODUCTION PACKER
3.1 Permanent Packer
 Integral casing part & run independently.
 Tubing run with connector & seal elements.
 Remove by milling.
 Electrically WL set.
3.2 Retrievable Packer
 Integral part of tubing & run on production tubing.
 Hydraulically set.
3.3 Inflatable Packer
 Well Intervention applications
Hold-Down Buttons
Slips
Elements
3. ISOLATION DEVICE
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Well COMPLETION
4.1 Blast Joint
 Heavy-walled tubular.
 Installed opposite perforations (non-gravel pack)
where abrasive action & external cutting occurs
caused by formation fluids or sand.
4.2 Flow Coupling
 Heavy-walled tubular.
 Installed DS FCD which caused turbulence e.g.
Nipple, SSD, SCSSV.
 High velocity & high pressures wells installed
both US & DS.
4. ANTI-EROSION DEVICE
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Well COMPLETION
5.1 Wireline Entry Guide (WLEG)
 Bottom most tubing accessories.
 Provide easy access for WL tools into tubing.
5.2 Perforated Joint
 Eliminate flow restrictions.
 Provide true downhole flow readings.
5.3 Control Line
 Transport hydraulic fluid to SCSSV
 Continuous length & securely clamped on tubing
wall.
5.4 Tubing Hanger
 Set in THS , suspend tubing weight & provide
sealing.
 BPV Receptacle
5. OTHERS
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Well COMPLETION
1 DHSV
 HP of control line fluid
 Earth crater depth
2 Landing Nipple
 Below kick off point for deviation.
 Check well integrity
 Hanging depth for FCD.
3 SPM
 Hydrostatic head of hydrocarbon & communication
4 SSD
 Depth of required communication
5 Packer
 Determined by reservoir depths.
6 Anti-Erosion Device
 Determined by reservoirs & flow characteristics
COMPLETION ACCESSORY DEPTH RATIONALIZATION 1
2
2
2
3
4
5
5
6
6
4
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
WELLHEAD & XMAS
TREE
Objective:
Provide general knowledge of types, functional requirements
& accessories.
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Wellhead
Provides the following functions:
Anchor & connections for each individual casing
Pressure isolation of individual casing
Connection for Xmas tree
Connections for completion string
Isolation of production annulus
Access to annulus for pressure monitoring and/or
pumping.
Types of Wellheads:
Compact Wellhead (sub-sea)
Conventional Wellhead
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
WELLHEAD & XMAS TREE
It’s positioned on the seabed. During drilling sub-sea BOP is installed
above it.
COMPACT WELLHEAD
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
WELLHEAD & XMAS TREE
It’s a built up of modules. During drilling BOP is installed
above it & it must be removed each time a new
module to be installed & replaced the BOP on top of it
before commence drilling.
Features:
1 Starter Spool (Conductor Pipe)
2 Surface Casing Head
3 Surface Casing Hanger
4 Production Casing Head
5 Production Casing Hanger
6 Tubing Head
7 Tubing Hanger
CONVENTIONAL WELLHEAD
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
WELLHEAD & XMAS TREE
XMAS TREE
Surface valves manifold to control flow of well fluids & access for well
intervention activities.
Features:
1 LMV
Manual, NOT working valve optimum conditions.
2 UMV
Emergency valve (Hyd/Pneu) & cut wire.
3 FWV
Permits passage of well fluids to CV.
4 CHOKE VALVE (CV)
Restrict, control or regulate flow of well fluids.
5 KWV
Permits entry of kill fluids into tubing or equalize.
6 SV/CV
Permits entry of well interventions.
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Xmas Tree Type
Xmas Tree type:
Solid Block (Mono Block) Xmas Tree
- Contains fewer components (for
high pressure wells)
Composite Block Xmas Tree
- Valves are located on
separate block & joined by API flange.
Horizontal Xmas Tree
- New concept used for sub-sea
completion.
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Dual Solid Block Xmas Tree
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
WELLHEAD & XMAS TREE
Wellhead Connection Types;
 Screwed type (low press <1 000psi).
 API Flanged type (high press <5 000psi).
 API Flanged type are mostly used by OPCO –
because it’s less susceptible & easier oriented.
Example of API Flange specification:
9⅛” – 5000 psi API Flange.
9⅛” is the ID of the flange & 5000 psi is the
working pressure.
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Wireline
Well Intervention technique of conveying tools & instrument downhole.
The most efficient & practical method to diagnose well problems.
Easily junk wells if not properly manage.
Wireline Category:
1. Slickline or Solidline or Pianoline
2. Digital Slickline
3. Braidedline
4. Electricline
Introduction to Wireline
 Slickline - Mechanical wireline
 Method of conveying tools
into a wellbore under
pressure
 Operations conducted in
cased hole
 Performed during all phases
of a well’s life
 Quick turn around operation
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Introduction to Wireline - history
 Cross-circular Slickline – around
1930’s
 Hand powered - wells were
shallow
 Measuring device hand held
against the wire
 Tension in line – felt by
operators leather covered hand
on the wire
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Wireline - development
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Wireline Operations
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Wireline Operations
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Wireline Operations
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Slickline, Braided Line and E-Line
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
SLICKLINE
Single strand wire with wire OD range from 0.105”, 0.108”, 0.125” & 0.190
(0.092”, 0.082”, 0.072” & 0.066”).
• Wire selection depends on the severity of the operation load.
• It’s robust & versatile in service
Mechanical application;
• Removal of well obstruction
• Repair mechanical failure
• Bringing other zones in-line
• Setting downhole FCD
Advance application by running;
• Recorded Real Time Data Acquisition Instrument
• Recorded Tubing Caliper
• Perforators
• Tubing Cutter
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Basic Wireline Operations /
M.F.Radwan
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Basic Wireline Operations /
M.F.Radwan
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M.F.Radwan
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BRAIDEDLINE
Multi-strands wire cable OD range from 3⁄16”, 7⁄32”, ¼” & 5 ⁄16”.
• Wire selection depends on the severity of the operation load required.
Application:
• Retrieval of downhole tools with slickline failure.
• Fishing job
• Swabbing
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
ELECTRICLINE
Multi-strands wire cable range from 3⁄16”, 7⁄32”, ¼” & 5 ⁄16”, 7⁄16” & ¾” OD
with single or multiple conductors.
Application by running;
• SRO Pressure & Temperature Recorder
• SRO Electronic Logging Instrument for open hole & cased hole.
• Coring Services
• Packer setting
• Perforations etc.
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
What is Slickline
 Small diameter wire with sufficient strength to accomplish the
operation without breaking – why small?
 Minimize the load of its own weight
 Minimizing the cross-sectional area reduces the effect of wellhead
pressure
 Enables the use of smaller diameter spools, reels and sheaves without
overstressing the material when bending
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Typical Slickline Rig-up
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
What is Slickline
When selecting Slickline, several factors should be considered
 Minimum breaking stress
 Resistance to corrosion
 Effects of bending
 Environmental conditions, desert dust, seawater, temperature
 Well Pressure
 Effecting the magnitude of force on the line diameter
 Influencing the effects of H2S
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Nominal Weight of Wire
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Types of Slickline
 Most popular material I.P.S. (Improved Plow Steel)
 High ultimate tensile strength, good ductility, low cost
 Minimum Breaking strain 0.125” – 2840lbs
 Not suitable for H2S and CO2 conditions
 Must be protected when not in use – line wiper used when removing
from well, protective coating when stored on drum
 Use of inhibitor subs and protective inhibitors
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Types of Slickline
 For wells with high H2S and CO2
 Alloy and Stainless Steel lines
 Materials not as strong as IPS (alloy 0.125” – 2220lbs)
 Excellent resistance to corrosion
 Line wiper still used when pulling out of the well, less need form
immediate protection when not in used
 Cost…..IPS x 12+
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Selecting Wireline
67
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
68
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Slickline - testing
Testing of Slicklines
 Before each operation, during the operation, when finished
 Three methods in use
Torsion, wrap and straight pull
testing
 Other indicators
 Coil of the wire
 Marking, pitting of the line
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Care of Wireline
How to Reduce the Odds
Taking Care of The Wireline
Carbon Steel
Special Alloy/SS
Torsion Test
One End Fixed
Other End Rotated.
Wrap test
Wire Wrapped Around
it’s Own Diameter
70
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Slickline - testing
Torsion testing
 Used to test IPS
 Set length of line
 The rotations counted
 Fracture inspected
 Four different scenarios possible
71
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
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Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Care of Wireline
How to Reduce the Odds
Taking Care of The Wireline
Test Good
Test Good
Test Bad
Test Bad
73
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Slickline - Wrapping testing
 Used to determine condition of alloy
and stainless lines
 Line wrapped around its own diameter
 Number of rotations – inspect for
fractures
 Cost…….
74
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Approx. Specs. & Load Limits for Slickline and Braided Line
75
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Wireline Fatigue
76
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Slickline – line spooling
 Initial spooling
 Marking of flat wraps
 Spooling during the operation
 Spread evenly across the drum
 Tension on line when running
in/out of hole – loose wraps?
 Oiling of line
77
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Slickline – bending cycles
 Bending stresses are
created whenever wire
deviates from the a
straight line condition
 This in conjunction with
sheave size is the most
common reason for line
failure
 14 bending cycles to run
in and out of the hole
78
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Slickline – wire management
 Critical in Slickline operations
 Total length on drum / amount cut off
 Well condition / H2S, drilling fluid, etc.,…..
 Max line tension
 Operating depth
 Line test results / line condition
 Records controlled in base
79
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
80
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Added Weight Necessary to Pull Slickline
81
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Slickline units
 Conveyance method for deploying and
recovering tools and devices from the well
 Units are broken into two different hydraulic
drive systems, open or closed loop
 Open loop - The open loop system has been
in use for several decades and provides a
good control of the line force over line speed
 Closed loop - This type of system has a more
refined approach to the control of Line speed
over line force
82
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
WIRELINE EQUIPMENT
1 Surface Equipment
1.1 WL Unit
1.2 Power Pack
1.3 Hoisting Unit
2 PCE
2.1 Quick Union
2.2 Stuffing Box / GIH
2.3 Lubricator
2.4 BOP
2.5 Tree Adapter
3 Subsurface Equipment (SSE)
3.1 Toolstring
3.2 Service Tools
3.3 Tubing Conditioning Tools
3.4 Running Tools
3.5 Pulling Tools
3.6 Shifting Tool
3.7 Kick Over Tool
3.8 Overshot
3.9 Spear
3.10 Flow Control Device
Optional PCE
2.6 Tool Trap
2.7 Tool Catcher
2.8 Injection Sub
2.8 SCU
2.9 Pumping Tee
83
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Surface EQUIPMENT
Zone 0 – Continuous present of flammable agent.
Zone 1 – Flammable agent likely to occur in normal operation.
Zone 2 – Flammable agent not likely to occur in normal operation.
1.1 Wireline Unit
• Single Drum or Dual Drum
• Skid Mounted / Containerized / Helicopter Unit
Component
• Operating Panel – Direction Lever, Brake, Hydraulic Valve,
Gauges etc
• Measuring Device
• Weighing Device
• Level Wind
1.2 Power Pack
• Diesel or Electrical Powered
• Zoning Classification
84
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
SURFACE EQUIPMENT
1.3 Hoisting Unit
• Pedestal Crane
• Mast
• ‘A’ Frame
• Derrick
• Gin Pole
• Rig
Operational Considerations:
• Length of Lubricators, Risers & Stack Up.
• Height of Hoisting Unit
• Fishing Job
• Toolstring Length
85
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
86
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
87
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Slickline units
 Designed specific
 Location
 Climate
 Operation
 Client/industry needs
 New technologies
88
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Slickline units – power supply
 Either diesel or electric
 Drive hydraulic motor
 Can be one piece e.g. ASEP
 Maintenance routines
 Safety when starting
89
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Slickline Equip. – Positioning
 Zone restrictions
 Wind direction – H2S
 Distance between wellhead and unit
 Access – egress
 Location limitations
 Securing
90
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Slickline Surface Equip. Lay-out
Pump Unit
Toolbox
Remote ESD
Power Pack
Independent
Control Panel
WL Unit
Fire Extinguisher
Portable Winch
Working Platform
Wellhead
HAZARDOUS
ZONE (15 m)
91
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Slickline units – controls
 4 way lever – direction control
 Speed controlled by selecting correct
gear
 Force controlled by adjusting the fluid
bypass (double A valve)
 Hand brake – mechanical or air
 Wire Spooler
92
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Unit controls
 Engine start / shut down
 RPM adjustment
 Engine diagnostics
 BOP operation
 Operation recording system
 Auto spooling / wire oiling
93
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Unit controls - odometer
 Usually in feet
 Takes reading from counterhead
 Zero taken at start of operation
 Matched to counterhead
 Key fully retracted
 Cable condition
94
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Unit – controls – weight indicator
 Reads pressure changes from the
load cell
 Needle movements combined with
the odometer reading indicate
depth in well
 Zero, hose condition, cell gap
 Temperature can affect readings
 Certification
95
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Slickline unit – counter head
 Pressure wheels hold wire against
counter wheel
 Wire angle of exit
 Three wheel system
 Load cell built into counterhead
 Wire spooled by moving
counterhead
96
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
97
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
98
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Slickline – sheaves / line wiper
 Diameter sized to wire size
 Holes in wheel
 Line wiper connection
 Pre job checks
 Certification
99
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Slickline – correction factors
 Critical angle at lower sheave
 Load cell connects below lower
sheave
 What if the angle is greater than 90
degrees
 ASEP 3 wheel counterhead – no K
factor – wire must leave
counterhead laterally
100
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
How to Reduce the Odds
Care of Wireline
1 Counter Wheel
Assembly
2 Pressure Wheels
3 Hay Pulley
4 Stuffing Box
5 Weight Indicator
101
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Load Cell Calibration
Load cells are calibrated at a 900.
To get a true reading on the gauge the wire
must also make a 900 angle around the
wheel.
Care of Wireline
How to Reduce the Odds
102
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Angle Factor Multiplication Factor
5 1.998 0.71
10 1.992 0.71
15 1.983 0.71
20 1.970 0.72
25 1.953 0.72
30 1.932 0.73
35 1.907 0.74
40 1.879 0.75
45 1.848 0.77
50 1.813 0.78
55 1.774 0.80
60 1.732 0.82
65 1.687 0.84
70 1.638 0.86
75 1.587 0.89
80 1.532 0.92
85 1.475 0.96
90 1.414 1.00
95 1.351 1.05
100 1.286 1.10
105 1.218 1.16
110 1.147 1.23
115 1.075 1.32
120 1.000 1.41
125 0.923 1.53
130 0.845 1.67
135 0.765 1.85
140 0.684 2.07
145 0.601 2.35
150 0.518 2.73
155 0.433 3.27
160 0.347 4.07
165 0.261 5.42
170 0.174 8.11
175 0.087 16.21
180 0.000 0.000
Actual Load = Gauge Reading x 1.414 / Factor for Angle
Actual Load = Gauge Reading x Multiplication Factor
Correction Factors for
Martin Decker Weight
Indicators
103
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Slickline – wire clamp
 Secure the wire without damage
 Normally attached above the lower
sheave
 Used when rigging up/down
 During non routine occurrences
 Securing to rig up
104
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Pressure control equipment - why
 Enables servicing of a live well
 Seals with wire static or moving
 Provides an access for deployment
 Provides a chamber for recovery
 Protection due to quality control of Equipment
 Safety devices in the rig up
105
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Pressure control - rating and service type
 Equipment must be suitable for the type of operation
 Pressure rating
 Working pressure / Test pressure
 Safety factor
 Service type
 Standard service and H2S service
106
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Pressure control equipment - rig up components
 Main components
 Ancillary components
 Equipment selection
 Factor affecting changes in rig up
 Hoisting methods
 Wire selection
107
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Quick unions dimensions
 All pressure control connections use this system
 Pressure not dependent on how tight the connection is
 O ring retains the pressure
 Nomenclature
 Types of connection available
 Sizes comparison
108
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Quick Unions – Otis and Bowen
 Components
 Thread type
 Identification
 Connecting together
 Safety issues
 Holes in collar
109
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
O rings
 O Ring material
 Sizing of O ring
 Sealing faces
 Back up rings
 Non extrusion rings
 Tolerance of pin/box
110
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
PCE - QUICK UNION
BOWEN
OTIS
Box End
Pin End
O-Ring
•Thread Connection:
5¾ - 4 ACME Thread
•Hand Tight NO wrench
•O-Ring seal
•To be kept clean at all time.
•Check thread & o-ring before make-up.
111
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Pressure control equipment - riser
 Spacer lubricator – tree to work level
 Internal Diameter
 Lengths
 Ports
 Communications
 Handling
112
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Wireline valves – BOP’s
Must be installed on all rig ups
Surface barrier
Enables remedial repairs to be
done
Manual or hydraulic
Different ram configurations
Choice dependant on well
conditions and operation
Responsibility
113
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Wireline valves – rams, seals and guides
Two types of seals – inner and outer
Two types of inner seals
Guide selection
Inner seals for 0.092” / 0.125”
Ram/body tolerance
Maintenance
Safety
114
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
115
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Wireline valves – hydraulic – single ram
Used on wells with or without H2S
Up to 10000psi WP (8,333psi MPWHP)
Hydraulic oil chambers
Manual handles – close only
Fittings
Bridles
Maintenance
116
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Wireline valves – hydraulic – single ram
 Used on wells with or without H2S
 Over 10000psi WP (8,333psi MPWHP)
 Ram orientation
 Panel or pump to operate
 Indicator rods
 Lifting caps / test caps
117
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Pressure control equipment - lubricator
Chamber to deploy and recover tools
Length required
Internal sizes
Ports – ½” NPT maximum
Thread tape – safety
Positioning – pull line
Safety – hand awareness
118
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Lubricator Length
119
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Wireline Fishing/Jarring Best Practices
120
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Stuffing box – manual pack off
 Allows for sealing when line is
stationary of moving
 Cylinder packing – how many
 Packing glands
 Sheave guard
 Blow out plunger
 Manual nut
121
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Stuffing box – hydraulic pack off
 Hydraulic packing nut
 Piston position
 Staff movement
 Sheave bearings
 Holes in sheaves
 Line tracking
122
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Manual Stuffing Box
PCE - STUFFING BOX
Hydraulic Stuffing Box
123
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Top Sheave with Isolation
124
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Liquid seal head (Grease Injection Head GIH)
 Developed by Camco for work in Alaska
 Improved sealing at higher pressure
 5,000, 10,000 and 15,000 WP
 Low friction – no stuffing box packings
 Separate pump to operate
125
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
PCE - GREASE INJECTION HEAD
GIH
GREASE SYSTEM
Grease Pump
Contaminated
Grease Tank
Pack Off Hand Pump
GIH
SCU
Flow Tube
Flow Tube
& Cable
Flow Tube,
Cable &
Grease
Lubricator
BOP
Flow Tube Range:
2 Tubes: <2K psi
3 Tubes: <10K psi
4 Tubes: <15K psi
Clearance: 0.004” –
0.006”
126
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
PCE - LUBRICATOR
Lower Section Top Section
127
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Slickline PCE
Blind Ram
Shear & Seal Ram
Stuffing Box Stuffing Box
0.125 Ram BOP
0.108 Ram BOP
Shear & Seal Ram
SLICKLINE OPERATION
SLICKLINE FISHING
OPERATION
Lubricator
Lubricator
128
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
BRAIDEDLINE PCE
SCU
Lubricator
2 Braidedline Inverted Ram
3 Blind Ram
Shear & Seal Ram
TERTIARY BARRIER
1
2
3
4
1 Braidedline Ram
4 Shear Ram
GIH
PRIMARY BARRIER
SECONDARY BARRIER
129
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
WIRELINE EQUIPMENT
1 Surface Equipment
1.1 WL Unit
1.2 Power Pack
1.3 Hoisting Unit
2 PCE
2.1 Quick Union
2.2 Stuffing Box / GIH
2.3 Lubricator
2.4 BOP
2.5 Tree Adapter
3 Subsurface Equipment (SSE)
3.1 Toolstring
3.2 Service Tools
3.3 Tubing Conditioning Tools
3.4 Running Tools
3.5 Pulling Tools
3.6 Shifting Tool
3.7 Kick Over Tool
3.8 Overshot
3.9 Spear
3.10 Flow Control Device
Optional PCE
2.6 Tool Trap
2.7 Tool Catcher
2.8 Injection Sub
2.8 SCU
2.9 Pumping Tee
130
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Sub Surface Equipment
Int FN
Ext FN
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 11
12
All sub surface tools must incorporate ‘Fishing Neck’ a
recovery feature.
3.1 Toolstring
1. Rope Socket
2. Stem
3. Jar
4. Knuckle Joint
Optional Tools
5. Roller Stem
6. High Density Stem
7. Hydraulic Jar
8. Spring Jar
9. Knuckle Jar
10. QLS
11. Swivel Joint
12. Accelerator
131
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
SSSV 10°-20° Angle 20°-30° Angle 30°-50° Angle 50° Angle & Above
Rope Socket
Swivel Joint
Accelerator
Stem
Knuckle Joint
Upstroke Jar
Spang Jar
6 ft
6 ft
2½ ft
4 ft
4 ft
4 ft
2½ ft
3 ft
3 ft
3 ft
2½ ft
2½ ft
3 ft
3 ft
3 ft
2½ ft
2½ ft
TOOLSTRING CONFIGURATIONS
Roller Stem
132
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
SUB-SURFACE EQUIPMENT
3.2 Service Tool
1. Gauge Cutter
2. Blind Box
3. Lead Impression Block (LIB)
4. Wire Scratcher
5. Tubing End Locator
6. Pump Bailer
7. Hydrostatic Bailer
1 2 3
4 5
6 7
133
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
SUB-SURFACE EQUIPMENT
3.3 Tubing Conditioning Tool
1. Swage
2. Broach
1 2
- To restore light tubing collapse.
- Always use with Pulling Tool
-To remove scale /paraffin deposits
134
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
SUB-SURFACE EQUIPMENT
5
6
3.4 Running Tools
1 External Fishing Neck
2 Internal Fishing Neck
3 Selective Running Tool
4 Non-Selective Running Tool
Latching Mechanism:
5 Shear Pins
6 Dogs
RT Accessories:
7 Shank, Probe, Guide & Prong.
3
1
2
4
(Jar ▲ or ▼to free)
7
135
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
C-1 Running Sequence
RIH Locating Nipple Shearing Top Pin Shearing Bottom Pin
Locating
Ring
▼ Dog
Retract
Tubing
▲ Dog
Trailing
▲ Dog
Expand
Nipple
Stop at
No-Go Pin
Sheared
Shank
Move ▲
▼ Dog
Expand
136
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
RUNNING TOOLS
BAKER “G” R/T
(S-Lock)
CAMCO “DT” R/T
(C-Lock)
CAMCO “Z-6” R/T
(DB-Lock)
CAMCO “W-1” R/T
(M-Lock)
OTIS “X” R/T
(X-Lock)
137
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
3.5 Pulling Tools
1. External Fishing Neck
2. Internal Fishing Neck
Shear Direction:
3. Jar ▲ (Large Pin)
4. Jar ▼ (Small Pin)
1 2
3 3
SUB-SURFACE EQUIPMENT
138
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Reach
“R” Series Pulling Tool (▲)
“S” Series Pulling Tool (▼)
139
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
SHEARING MECHANISM
Jar ▲ Pulling Tools (R)
Top Sub
Body
Core
Dog
Dog Spring
Core Nut
Main Spring
Sleeve
FCD
Ring
Shear Pin
Jar ▼ Pulling Tools (S)
140
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Pulling Tools
CAMCO “JD” P/T
CAMCO “JU” P/T
OTIS “GS” P/T
OTIS “GR” P/T
CAMCO “PRS” P/T
CAMCO “PRS-2” P/T
141
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
SSD Applications
 Displacing annulus and tubing fluid after completion
 Selective production, testing or treating of various zones
 Production of multiple zones
 Circulation to kill a well or introduce corrosion inhibitors
 Positioning co-mingling chokes in dual zone flow
 Gas lifting ( in the absence of suitable gas lift mandrels)
142
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Otis SSD’s
 Original Otis SSD’s - O, D and A
 O – open down
 D – open down – larger flow area – heavy crude
 A – open up
 If SSD had leak, completion had to be pulled
 Installation of nipple profile at SSD
 XO, XD and XA (higher pressure – RD and RA
143
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Otis XO SSD
 Otis SSD’s use V packings in body to
seal
 Sleeve has to be moved down to open
communication with annulus
 To open sleeve Otis B shifting tool is
used
 All sleeves with X in their title have X
nipple as part of device
 2 x seal bores (same size) one above
sleeve and one below
144
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
145
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
146
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
147
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
148
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
149
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
SUB-SURFACE EQUIPMENT
3.6 Shifting Tool
1. Serves to open or close Sliding Sleeve.
2. Selective & Non-Selective
3. Pressure equalization is compulsory prior opening SSD
4. Feature
 Key or Dog
 Self Releasing
 Safety Release
150
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Shifting Operation
RIH & Locate Equalizing Fully Open Pass Through
SSD
151
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Safety RELEASE Feature
Closing Shearing Pin Pin Sheared
152
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Shifting Tool
OTIS “B” Positioning Tool
(OTIS SSD)
Top Sub
Body
Key
Collets
Key Spring
Key
Retainer
Shear Pin
OTIS “BO” Downshift Tool
(OTIS SSD)
Main Mandrel
Key Spring
Key
Spring Housing
Dog Retainer
Locating Dog
Main Spring
Spring
Split Ring
BAKER “D-2” Shifting Tool
(BAKER “L” SSD)
Shifting Dog
Shear Pins
Control Sleeve
Collets
Thread Protector
Main Spring
Mandrel
Connecting
Adjuster
153
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
154
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
155
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
156
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
157
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
158
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
159
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
160
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
SUB-SURFACE EQUIPMENT
3.7 Kick Over Tools
1. Serves to set or pull valve from Side Pocket Mandrel
2. Pressure equalization is compulsory prior pulling valve from SPM
3. Feature:
 Locating Finger
 Self Orient-able
 Kickable Arm Assembly
 Safety Release
161
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Kick Over Tool
CAMCO “OK “ Series KOT CAMCO “OM “ Series KOT
Locating Finger
Spring
Shear Pin
Leaf Spring Arm Assembly
Catcher Sub
Set Screw
Guide
MERLA KOT
162
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Orienting Sleeve Guide
GLV Pocket
BK-2 Latch
E Dummy
Oval Cross Section
Tubing
ID
Discriminator
Side Pocket
Gas-lift Dummy Valve
Communication Port
Side Pocket Mandrel
163
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
(a) (b) (c) (d) (e)
Kick-Over Tool Running Sequence
OK Series KOT MERLA KOT
(a) RIH
(b) Locate & orienting
(c) Trigger
(d) Setting valve in pocket
(e) Release RT & POOH
164
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
3.8 Overshot
To latch on downhole tools without External
Fishing Neck
3.9 Spear
To latch on downhole tools without Internal
Fishing Neck
SUB-SURFACE EQUIPMENT
165
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
3.10 Flow Control Device
Lock Mandrel + Type of Plug + Equalizing Sub
Type of Lock: Slip Lock,
Type of Plugs: Hold pressure ▼,
SUB-SURFACE EQUIPMENT
Collar Lock & Nipple Lock
Hold ▲, Hold ▼&▲
166
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Wireline Parameters
Five considerations required serious attention prior wireline operations.
1. Job Planning
2. Rig-up & Rig-down
3. Pressure Testing
4. RIH Considerations
5. Emergency Response
167
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Wireline Parameters
1. Job Planning:
• Obtain Well Information
• Study Well History
• Tools & Equipment Inventory
• Pre-Run Checks on Tools & Equipment
• Personnel Knowledge & Skills
• Safety Devices & Equipment
1 Husband
& 4 Wives
168
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Wireline Parameters
2. Rig Up & Rig Down:
• Effective Communication
• Working Location
• Weather Condition
• Hazardous Environment for Material Selection
• Pre-Run Checks on Tools & Equipment
• Back Up & Spares for Tools & Consumables
169
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Wireline Parameters
3 Pressure Testing
• Max CITHP + Safety Factor (500 psi) & apply in stages.
• PT medium; 60:40 ratio by volume of fresh water & glycol respectively.
(This would prevents “Emulsion” formation in oil wells or “Hydrates” if it
would be discharged into wells)
De-Pressurize
• Bleed off through production process venting system.
• If not possible, bleed off with extreme care, no personnel & source of
ignition down wind.
• De-pressurizing must be a Controlled Operation.
• PATIENCE is the virtue of this case & NO ACCELERATION is
permitted. Ensure that equipment is earthed to prevent ignition by
static electricity.
170
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Pressure Testing
Xmas Tree
Valve
Isolation
P/Testing BOP
Open BOP
Open Master Valve
Pull T/String
All Way Up
Close WV
Close MV
Close SV
Open SSV
RU on Xmas Tree
Apply
Press
P/Testing
Lubricator & BOP
Depress
Above BOP
Monitor
Press
Close
Ram
Monitor
Press Open
Equal
Valve
Open
Ram
Open MV
Open Swab Valve
Open
SV
171
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Wireline Parameters
4. RIH Considerations
Wireline Philosophy:
“Achieve WL Objective with Minimum Run”
172
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Safety Management at Workplace
1. Attitude
- Awareness of one’s action on health, property & environment all day &
everyday.
2. Anticipation
- Expecting or predicting dangerous situations & allows you to be
prepared.
3. Hazard Identification
- Source of danger.
4. Risk Assessment
- Probability that hazard may cause damage, loss or injury.
5. Risk Control & Implementation
6. Review
- Continual updating.
173
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Safety Management Tool
Work Permit
 Manage & control risks related to individual work tasks.
 Control work activities in order to prevent incidents due to interface work
conflicts.
 Provide clear information to eliminate misunderstanding of work tasks hazards.
 Document appropriate approvals.
 Communicate activities to all affected personnel.
Work Permit Provides:
 Nature of work
 Safety Management
 Safety Administration
Job Safety Analysis (JSA)
 Sequence of Job Steps
 Potential Hazards
 Recommended SOP
174
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Location & Equipment
to be worked on
1a
Precise Description
of work
1b
Requested By:
1d
Tools & Equipment
to be used
1c
Hazards Identified
2a
Precautions
2b
Personal Protection
2c
Isolation Certificates
2d
Conflict of Work
(Persons made aware)
3a
Permit Approved
(PIC)
3b
Acceptance
(Performing Authority)
3c
Permit Issued
(Area Authority)
Revalidation
Permit Suspended
Permit Completed
3f
3e
3g
Gas Testing
2e
3d
NATURE OF
WORK
SAFETY
ADMIN
SAFETY
MGT
COLOR CODE:
Principle Flow Chart of Work Permit
175
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Supplementary Document
176
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
WL Emergency Response Plan
IN THE EVENT OF EMERGENCY – If the toolstring is in
lubricator
1 Close UM Valve
2 Shut off Power Pack
3 Depressurize Lubricator
4 Install WL Clamp
5 Secure & make safe work area.
6 Refer to Installation Supervisor for further
instruction with regards to evacuation.
177
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
WL Emergency Response Plan
IN THE EVENT OF EMERGENCY – If the toolstring is
suspended in well.
1 Shut off Power Pack
2 Close BOP & Depressurize
3 Install WL Clamp
4 Secure & make safe work area & proceed to fire drill.
5 Refer to Installation Supervisor for further instruction
with regards to evacuation.
178
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S)
H2S Characteristic
Deadly – Extremely Toxic Gas.
Colorless
Heavier than air, tends to settle in low lying areas.
Readily dispersed by wind movement or air currents.
Odor of rotten eggs only in low concentrations rapidly deadens the
sense of smell.
Highly corrosive to certain metals.
More deadly than Carbon Monoxide (CO), and almost toxic as
Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) gas.
Guidelines for Working in H2S Environment
 A pre-work safety briefing must be held in which all departments
concerned should be involved, Job Safety Analysis (JSA) is to be
exercised in this pre-work meeting.
 All persons involved in the work shall be conversant with H2S
procedures for recognition, escape, and first aid treatment.
 Barriers and warning notices must be erected and PA
announcements made as appropriate.
 A job site H2S monitor will be provided and personnel involved in the
work shall be conversant on the uses of this monitor.
 The responsible person planning the work and organizing the
worksite must be aware of wind direction and prevailing weather
conditions throughout the duration of the job.
 A sufficient number of Breathing Apparatus (BA) sets must be readily
available at the worksite.
179
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Pressure Control Equipment Test and Maintenance Record
180
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Generic RU Sequence
 Study program & well history.
 Exercise JSA & apply PTW.
 Toolbox meeting & position SE.
 Conduct & analyze wire test.
 MU RS in redressed S/Box.
 MU & Slide inspected toolstring
in lubricator, connect RS & clamp
wire.
 Close Wing Valve, depressurized
Xmas tree, RD tree cap & RU tree
connection.
 Install fusible cap on SSV conn
c/panel to SCSSV & open SCSSV,
well tag & signage.
 Stack up riser, BOP & hoses.
 Lift up lubricator vertically &
release clamp.
 MU service tool into toolstring &
zero at THF
 Pull wire slowly to the S/Box & SU
lubricator on BOP.
 Hook-up pump unit to pump-tee,
p/test to spec & monitor press.
 Close BOP rams, depressurized
above ram & monitor press BU.
 Open BOP equalize valve & fully
open rams.
 Open master & crown valve
respectively slowly & RIH.
181
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Safety Tips During RU
NEVER hammer or climb
pressurized lubricators (PCE)
Know the pressure before
work on it.
Hold 2 hands on wire & cut
in between hands.
Open mouth & turn head
away from needle valve
during depressurizing.
In making or breaking,
off-set wrenches ± 8” apart.
NEVER use inflammable
mixtures without proper
ventilation (read MSDS)
PCE to be pressure & function
tested prior RIH.
 Make certain of proper
footing when climbing
around Xmas tree.
 Function test all down-hole
tool prior RIH.
 2 WL personnel onsite
during operation.
 WL unit to be anchored
securely.
 Barriers & Signs to be
posted.
 All work permits are
approved & displayed.
 Worksite to be left in SAFE
condition during
suspension or completion.
182
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
References
 M.F.Radwan “IWCF Well Intervention Hand-outs in
Dec. 2018”.
 Halliburton Slickline Services Manual in 2010.
 Schlumberger Slickline Training Manual in 2004.
 Matt Billingham; Schlumberger, Digital Trigger: Safe,
On-Demand, Efficient and Recordable Perforating on
Slickline in 2012.EWAPS
 George E. King Engineering Slickline Basics
Presentation (www.GEKEngineering.com)
 http://www.taylormadetc.com/
 American Petroleum Institute Exploration & Production
Department. Wireline Operations and Procedures.
(June, 2000). Third Edition. Washington, DC.
183
Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
Thank
You
184

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basic-wireline-operations-course-mahmoud-f-radwan.pdf

  • 1. Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan 1 Basic Wireline Operations Course Mahmoud F. Radwan Subsurface & Integrity Op. Act. Dept. Head
  • 2. Presenter Name: Mahmoud Farag Radwan Short Biography Mahmoud Radwan is a Subsurface & Integrity Operations Acting Dept. Head at AMAL Petroleum Company (AMAPETCO) with more than 12 years of experience in oil & gas industry. Mahmoud worked in Well Engineering, Intervention, Integrity & Work-over at several companies, including Badr El-Din Pet. Co. (BAPETCO), Qarun Pet. Co. (QPC) and Wadi El-Sahel Petroleum Co. (WASPETCO). Also, a freelance instructor at upstream Oil & Gas in Egypt & UAE since 2008. Mahmoud received a BSc degree in Petroleum Engineering from Al-Azhar University in 2007. Publications • Evaluating Sustainable Annulus Pressure (SAP) in Sour Wells and the Possible Causes to Avoid Recurrence to the Well Integrity Annual Middle East Conference in Abu Dhabi; UAE in Apr 2015 • Implementing NDT methods for maintenance and inspection to the Asset Integrity Management North Africa Conference in Cairo; Egypt in Nov 2015 • Feasibility Evaluation of Using Downhole Gas-water Separation Technology in gas Reservoirs with Bottom Water; paper number: SPE-183739-MS to the 20th Middle East Oil & Gas Show and Conference in Mar 2017 http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/183739-MS • Managing the Operational Challenges in Corroded Wells through Well Integrity Management System to the Improving Brownfield Performance Technical Convention, in Cairo; Egypt in Dec 2019 2
  • 3. Course Objectives • Provide a full understanding of wireline operations. • Highlight the critical aspects of wireline and the pressure control. • Learn the function and use of a wide range of wireline tools. • Utilize a “hand-on” approach to learning in a workshop. • Use cutaway tools to ensure a complete understanding of downhole operation. • Become proficient in the operation of the wireline unit. • Learn the “job planning” aspects of a successful wireline operation. Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan 3
  • 4. Course Contents • Pressure Basis & Well Completion • Xmas Trees, Types of trees; single, dual, composite, solid block. Wireline, History and development • Uses and limitations of wireline. Wire types and strengths. • Wireline Units, Design, function and operating procedures • Surface equipment: Pressure control equipment. • Braided line equipment • Pressure Testing, Test Procedures and safety precautions, Tool string Components • Rig-up Procedures, Lifting options • Plugs and Flow controls, Running and pulling procedures • Sliding Side Doors, Description and use in the well and types • Shifting tools and procedures, Additional Equipment • Gas lift, Side Pocket mandrels uses, Gas lift valves – design, function and procedures. • Wireline Parameters. • Safety Management at Workplace. Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan 4
  • 5. PRESSURE BASIC & BASIS 5 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 6. PRESSURE BASIC & BASIS Conversion Factors 1 Bar = 14.5 psi 1 kPa = 0.1461 psi 1 Atmosphere = 14.7 psi 1 kg/sq m = 0.20 lb/sq ft 1 meter = 3.28 feet 1 foot = 0.30 meter 1 cu ft = 7.481 US Gallon 1 US Gallon = 231 cu ins 1 US Barrel = 5.6146 cu ft 1 US Barrel = 42 US Gallon 6 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 7. PRESSURE BASIC & BASIS 1 Fundamentals of Fluids & Pressure Pressure is defined as Force per unit area exerted by fluid i.e. Pressure = Force ÷ Area Using  concept, the formula can be changed: Force = Pressure × Area Area = Force ÷ Pressure 2 Basic laws of physics concerning fluids & gas • Liquids are not compressible • Gases are compressible • Liquids & gases are both FLUIDS • Pressure in a fluid is transmitted equally in all directions. 7 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 8. PRESSURE BASIC & BASIS 3 Fresh Water Fresh water weighs the same per unit volume anywhere in the world that is why it’s called “Universal Fluid”& used as STANDARD for comparison with other fluid. Fresh Water Facts: • Density of 62.4 lbs/ft3 • Density of 8.33 lbs/gal • Density of 7.48 US gal/ft3 • PG of 0.433 psi/ft • SG of 1 • API 10º PG = Force (Density/ft3) ÷ Area (ins2) = 7.48 gal/ft3 ÷ 144 ins2 = 0.052 psi/ft = 62.4 lb/ft3 ÷ 144 ins2 = 0.433 psi/ft Relationship between Density (ppg) & PG (psi/ft) is always the same  0.052 is used as constant for any calculation between them. Formula of Density (ppg) = Density (lb/ft3)  Density (US gal/ft3)  Density (ppg) = 62.4 ÷ 7.48 = 8.33 ppg Formula of fresh water PG if density in ppg is given, = 8.33 ppg × 0.052 (constant) = 0.433 psi/ft PG = Density (ppg) × Constant 8 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 9. PRESSURE BASIC & BASIS 4 Specific Gravity (SG) The ratio of the density of a substance compared to density of another substance which is used as the standard (Fresh Water). Many fluids in petroleum industry is expressed in SG as well as in wt ppg. It’s necessary to convert SG to PG to find HP. To find SG of fluid simply divide fluid wt by fresh water wt. E.g. Salt water wt is 10 ppg.  Salt water SG = 10 ppg ÷ 8.33 ppg = 1.2 To find PG of fluid simply multiply fresh water PG by fluid SG E.g. Find the HP of brine at 5000 ft TVD with brine SG of 1.17. HP of brine = 1.17 × 0.433 psi/ft × 5000 ft = 2533 psi 9 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 10. PRESSURE BASIC & BASIS 5 API Gravity API gravity is another value used to express relative wt of fluids & was introduced by American Petroleum Institute to standardized the wt of fluids at base temperature of 60º F. Water as standard fluid had been assigned the value of 10º API gravity. To convert API gravity to SG, the following formula is used. SG = 141.5 ÷ (131.5 + APIº) E.g. Find the SG of 30º API oil SG = 141.5 ÷ (131.5 + 30º) = 141.5 ÷ 161.5 = 0.875 10 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 11. PRESSURE BASIC & BASIS 6 Hydrostatic Pressure (HP) HP is the pressure developed by column of fluid at given TVD. “Hydro” means fluid & “static” means stationary.  HP is pressure created by stationary column of fluid. To calculate HP in psi of any fluid simply multiply TVD in ft by PG of fluid. E.g. Find HP in psi of fresh water at 500 ft TVD. HP =500 ft × 0.433 psi/ft = 216.5 psi To calculate HP in kPa of any fluid simply multiply TVD in meter by SG by 9.81 E.g. Find HP in kPa of brine with SG of 1.32 at 1800 m TVD. HP = 1800 m × 1.32 × 9.81 = 23 308.56 kPa Bar = 23 308.56 kPa ÷ 100 = 233 Bar To find BHA of 2 fluid column or more simply add the HP of the fluid column of the same unit of measurement together. 11 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 12. PRESSURE BASIC & BASIS 7 Case Study What is the differential pressure in psi exists between the tubing & annulus at the SSD assembly located at 8960 ft MD (8200 ft TVD) in the tubing? Available Information:  The tubing/casing annulus is filled with 9.2 ppg brine full.  The well is S/I at surface with CITHP of 600 psi.  There is a gas cap of 0.6 SG gas down to 4000 ft fluid level  32° API oil from fluid level’ to 12000 ft. Steps: 1 Sketch your information. 2 Calculate HP @ 8200 ft TVD brine in annulus 3 Calculate HP of gas cap @ 4000’ 4 Calculate HP of oil column from 4000 ft to 8200 ft 5 BHP of tubing @ SSD, Gas HP + 32° API oil HP 6 Calculate the differential pressure at 8200 ft. 12 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 13. CITHP 600 psi 9.2 ppg brine SSD @ 8200’ TVD 32º API Oil STEP 1 Always draw a sketch with all relevant information 0.6 Gravity Gas 4000 ft Fluid Level 13 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 14. Case Study 1 HP of brine in annulus; = SG × WPG × TVD HP = 9.2  8.33 × 0.433 × 8200 = 3919.6 psi 2 HP of gas = CITHP × GCF GCF from table = 1.087 CITHP x GCF = 600 × 1.087 = 652.2 psi 3 HP of oil column; = SG × WPG × TVD HP = 141.5  (131.5 + 32° API) × 0.433 × 4200 = 1573.9 psi 4 BHP in tubing @ SSD = 652.2 + 1573.9 = 2226.1 psi 5  Differential Pressure @ SSD = Annulus HP – Tubing BHP = 3919.6 - 2226.1 = 1693.5 psi Direction of flow is from Annulus to Tubing. 14 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 15. Well COMPLETION Objective: Provide general knowledge of design philosophy, types, functional requirements & accessories. 15 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 16. WELL COMPLETION WC is the “hardware” of the outflow system & final stage of a drilled well. The design philosophy of WC is to “Maximize Profitability”.  by maximizing well hydrocarbon recovery.  by considering the full hydrocarbon resource life cycle. Quality concepts for WC is; “A Quality Well is a well which contributes, over its life cycle, maximum monetary value, without compromising safety & environmental standards” 16 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 17. 1. PRODUCER 2. INJECTOR 3. KILL The well is either Vertically & Horizontally completed.  Open Hole Completion  Uncemented Liner Completion  Gravel Pack / WWS Completion  Tubingless Completion  Cemented & Perforated Completion  Single String or Multiple String Completion  Convectional or Monobore Completion WELL COMPLETION TYPE 17 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 18. Well Completion design is dictated by the type of well to be completed. 1. Producer 2. Injector 3. Kill The 3 considerations of designing well completions are; 1. Inflow system 2. Outflow system 3. Number of zones to be produced WELL COMPLETION 18 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 19. WELLBORE PRODUCING ZONE PRODUCING ZONE Interface between Producing Zones & Wellbore 1 INFLOW 2 OUTLOW Interface between Wellbore & Surface Facility No of Zones 3 PRODUCING ZONE ZONE 1 ZONE 2 ZONE 2 ZONE 3 ZONE 3 ZONE 1 COMPLETION Design 19 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 20. 1. Inflow system - VERTICAL OPEN HOLE SLOTTED LINER WWS or PREPACK SCREEN GRAVEL PACK Technological advances allow boosting of the well inflow to a considerable extent – albeit at a cost. 20 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 21. 1. Inflow system - vertical STD CEMENTED & PERF PROD CASING INTERNAL GRAVEL PACK 21 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 22. 1. Inflow system - horizontal Open Hole Section Cement Sheath Production Casing OPEN HOLE Slotted Liner Pre-Pack Screen ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ••• • • •• • •• • •• • • • • • • • Gravel Pack Screen Graded Gravel SLOTTED LINER PRE-PACK SCREEN GRAVEL PACK Perforations CMT & PERF LINER 22 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 23. 2. OUTFLOW – PRI RECOVERY It’s essentially a conduit with flow controls & where necessary artificial lift or pressure boosting facilities. TUBINGLESS With out tubing. HIGH PRESSURE Cemented, perforated & completed with tubing & accessories. Low pressure gas reservoir MONOBORE With high rate liner Restriction Free Susceptible for WI 23 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 24. 2. OUTFLOW – SEC RECOVERY Pumping Unit Production Casing Tubing Gas Gas Anchor Oil Operating Fluid Level Tubing Anchor Sump Perforations Plunger Pump Barrel Travelling Valve Stationary Valve Sucker Rod String ROD PUMPING HYDRAULIC PUMPING 24 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 25. 2. OUTFLOW – SEC RECOVERY Operating Gas Lift Valve (OGLV) Gas Supply Control And Metering System Unloading Valves Unloading Valves Continuous Gas Lift Standing Valve Intermittent Gas Lift Motorised Flowline Valve Water Oil Gas Surge Tank Manifold Compression GAS LIFT 25 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 26. 3. PRODUCING ZONES – SINGLE Single Completion Single Selective Interval Single Commingle 26 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 27. 3. PRODUCING ZONES – MULTIPLE Multiple Completion Concentric Completion Multiple Commingle Completion Multiple Selective Completion 27 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 28. Casing Design : Basic Construction 1 2 3 6 7 9 11 10 1. 30” conductor 2. Conductor setting depth 3. 20” surface casing 4. 20” shoe 5. Cement 6. Formation open to C annulus 7. 13 3/8” casing 8. Formation open to B annulus 9. 9 5/8” production casing 10.Liner hanger 11.7” Liner 12.TD – Total Depth 12 4 5 8 28 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 29. Completion Components – What’s installed 1 2 4 7 9 10 11 12 6 1. Tubing hanger (Upper annulus barrier) 2. SC-SSSV (Sub-surface barrier) 3. Control line 4. Tubing (Vertical barrier) 5. A annulus (tubing-casing) 6. Gas lift valves (in SPMs) 7. Expansion joint: Tubing Seal Receptacle 8. Anchor seal assembly 9. Production packer 10. Packer sealing element (Lower barrier) 11. Tailpipe 12. WEG 5 3 9 5/8” Production Casing 8 29 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 30. Well COMPLETION 1 Anchoring Device  Landing Nipples 2 Circulation Device  SSD  SPM 3 Isolation Device  Packer  Tubing Seal Assembly, PBR 4 Anti-Erosion Device  Blast Joint  Flow Coupling 5 Others  WLEG  Perforated Joint  Control Line  Tubing Hanger Tubing Hanger Flow Coupling SCSSV Landing Nipple SPM Top Packer Producing Zone 2 Producing Zone 1 WL Entry Guide Top No-Go Nipple Bottom No-Go Nipple Top No-Go Nipple Perforated Joint SSD SSD PRODUCER COMPLETION SCHEMATIC Blast Joint Control Line COMPLETION ACCESSORY: Btm Packer 30 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 31. Well COMPLETION Short tubular with 3 main features; Shoulder, Seal Bores Profiles. 1.1 Ported Nipple  Provides communication & receptacle. 1.2 Top No-Go  Receptacle for selective locks. 1.3 Bottom No-Go  Receptacle for No-Go locks & prevent WL tools drop into rat-hole. 1.4 SV Nipple  Provides receptacle for SV locks & hydraulic fluid. 1. ANCHORING DEVICE 31 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 32. DHSV TRSV WRSV 1. PASSV 2. SCSSV - WRSV - TRSV 32 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 33. 2.1 Sliding Side Door (SSD)  Provide communication between tubing & annulus.  Incorporate nipple profile. inner sleeve with packing, & seal bores.  Advantage & Disadvantage 2.2 Side Pocket Mandrel  Provide communication between tubing & annulus.  Incorporate orienting sleeve, discriminator, receptacle with profile & seal bores for 1” or 11/2” valves.  Advantage & Disadvantage 2. CIRCULATION DEVICE Well COMPLETION Discriminator Profile Seal Bore Inner Sleeve 3 Positions Ports Releasing Shoulder Receptacle Orienting Sleeve 33 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 34. SPM ACCESSORIES Dummy Valve • Blank off the communication port Gas Lift Valve • Annulus injection pressure activated • Production pressure activated Latches • Lock in receptacle profile Locking & Releasing Mechanism 34 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 35. Well COMPLETION PRODUCTION PACKER 3.1 Permanent Packer  Integral casing part & run independently.  Tubing run with connector & seal elements.  Remove by milling.  Electrically WL set. 3.2 Retrievable Packer  Integral part of tubing & run on production tubing.  Hydraulically set. 3.3 Inflatable Packer  Well Intervention applications Hold-Down Buttons Slips Elements 3. ISOLATION DEVICE 35 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 36. Well COMPLETION 4.1 Blast Joint  Heavy-walled tubular.  Installed opposite perforations (non-gravel pack) where abrasive action & external cutting occurs caused by formation fluids or sand. 4.2 Flow Coupling  Heavy-walled tubular.  Installed DS FCD which caused turbulence e.g. Nipple, SSD, SCSSV.  High velocity & high pressures wells installed both US & DS. 4. ANTI-EROSION DEVICE 36 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 37. Well COMPLETION 5.1 Wireline Entry Guide (WLEG)  Bottom most tubing accessories.  Provide easy access for WL tools into tubing. 5.2 Perforated Joint  Eliminate flow restrictions.  Provide true downhole flow readings. 5.3 Control Line  Transport hydraulic fluid to SCSSV  Continuous length & securely clamped on tubing wall. 5.4 Tubing Hanger  Set in THS , suspend tubing weight & provide sealing.  BPV Receptacle 5. OTHERS 37 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 38. Well COMPLETION 1 DHSV  HP of control line fluid  Earth crater depth 2 Landing Nipple  Below kick off point for deviation.  Check well integrity  Hanging depth for FCD. 3 SPM  Hydrostatic head of hydrocarbon & communication 4 SSD  Depth of required communication 5 Packer  Determined by reservoir depths. 6 Anti-Erosion Device  Determined by reservoirs & flow characteristics COMPLETION ACCESSORY DEPTH RATIONALIZATION 1 2 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 6 4 38 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 39. WELLHEAD & XMAS TREE Objective: Provide general knowledge of types, functional requirements & accessories. 39 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 40. Wellhead Provides the following functions: Anchor & connections for each individual casing Pressure isolation of individual casing Connection for Xmas tree Connections for completion string Isolation of production annulus Access to annulus for pressure monitoring and/or pumping. Types of Wellheads: Compact Wellhead (sub-sea) Conventional Wellhead 40 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 41. WELLHEAD & XMAS TREE It’s positioned on the seabed. During drilling sub-sea BOP is installed above it. COMPACT WELLHEAD 41 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 42. WELLHEAD & XMAS TREE It’s a built up of modules. During drilling BOP is installed above it & it must be removed each time a new module to be installed & replaced the BOP on top of it before commence drilling. Features: 1 Starter Spool (Conductor Pipe) 2 Surface Casing Head 3 Surface Casing Hanger 4 Production Casing Head 5 Production Casing Hanger 6 Tubing Head 7 Tubing Hanger CONVENTIONAL WELLHEAD 42 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 43. WELLHEAD & XMAS TREE XMAS TREE Surface valves manifold to control flow of well fluids & access for well intervention activities. Features: 1 LMV Manual, NOT working valve optimum conditions. 2 UMV Emergency valve (Hyd/Pneu) & cut wire. 3 FWV Permits passage of well fluids to CV. 4 CHOKE VALVE (CV) Restrict, control or regulate flow of well fluids. 5 KWV Permits entry of kill fluids into tubing or equalize. 6 SV/CV Permits entry of well interventions. 43 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 44. Xmas Tree Type Xmas Tree type: Solid Block (Mono Block) Xmas Tree - Contains fewer components (for high pressure wells) Composite Block Xmas Tree - Valves are located on separate block & joined by API flange. Horizontal Xmas Tree - New concept used for sub-sea completion. 44 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 45. Dual Solid Block Xmas Tree 45 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 46. WELLHEAD & XMAS TREE Wellhead Connection Types;  Screwed type (low press <1 000psi).  API Flanged type (high press <5 000psi).  API Flanged type are mostly used by OPCO – because it’s less susceptible & easier oriented. Example of API Flange specification: 9⅛” – 5000 psi API Flange. 9⅛” is the ID of the flange & 5000 psi is the working pressure. 46 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 47. Wireline Well Intervention technique of conveying tools & instrument downhole. The most efficient & practical method to diagnose well problems. Easily junk wells if not properly manage. Wireline Category: 1. Slickline or Solidline or Pianoline 2. Digital Slickline 3. Braidedline 4. Electricline
  • 48. Introduction to Wireline  Slickline - Mechanical wireline  Method of conveying tools into a wellbore under pressure  Operations conducted in cased hole  Performed during all phases of a well’s life  Quick turn around operation 48 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 49. Introduction to Wireline - history  Cross-circular Slickline – around 1930’s  Hand powered - wells were shallow  Measuring device hand held against the wire  Tension in line – felt by operators leather covered hand on the wire 49 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 50. Wireline - development 50 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 51. Wireline Operations 51 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 52. Wireline Operations 52 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 53. Wireline Operations 53 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 54. Slickline, Braided Line and E-Line 54 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 55. SLICKLINE Single strand wire with wire OD range from 0.105”, 0.108”, 0.125” & 0.190 (0.092”, 0.082”, 0.072” & 0.066”). • Wire selection depends on the severity of the operation load. • It’s robust & versatile in service Mechanical application; • Removal of well obstruction • Repair mechanical failure • Bringing other zones in-line • Setting downhole FCD Advance application by running; • Recorded Real Time Data Acquisition Instrument • Recorded Tubing Caliper • Perforators • Tubing Cutter 55 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 56. Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan 56
  • 57. Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan 57
  • 58. Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan 58
  • 59. BRAIDEDLINE Multi-strands wire cable OD range from 3⁄16”, 7⁄32”, ¼” & 5 ⁄16”. • Wire selection depends on the severity of the operation load required. Application: • Retrieval of downhole tools with slickline failure. • Fishing job • Swabbing 59 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 60. ELECTRICLINE Multi-strands wire cable range from 3⁄16”, 7⁄32”, ¼” & 5 ⁄16”, 7⁄16” & ¾” OD with single or multiple conductors. Application by running; • SRO Pressure & Temperature Recorder • SRO Electronic Logging Instrument for open hole & cased hole. • Coring Services • Packer setting • Perforations etc. 60 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 61. What is Slickline  Small diameter wire with sufficient strength to accomplish the operation without breaking – why small?  Minimize the load of its own weight  Minimizing the cross-sectional area reduces the effect of wellhead pressure  Enables the use of smaller diameter spools, reels and sheaves without overstressing the material when bending 61 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 62. Typical Slickline Rig-up 62 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 63. What is Slickline When selecting Slickline, several factors should be considered  Minimum breaking stress  Resistance to corrosion  Effects of bending  Environmental conditions, desert dust, seawater, temperature  Well Pressure  Effecting the magnitude of force on the line diameter  Influencing the effects of H2S 63 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 64. Nominal Weight of Wire 64 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 65. Types of Slickline  Most popular material I.P.S. (Improved Plow Steel)  High ultimate tensile strength, good ductility, low cost  Minimum Breaking strain 0.125” – 2840lbs  Not suitable for H2S and CO2 conditions  Must be protected when not in use – line wiper used when removing from well, protective coating when stored on drum  Use of inhibitor subs and protective inhibitors 65 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 66. Types of Slickline  For wells with high H2S and CO2  Alloy and Stainless Steel lines  Materials not as strong as IPS (alloy 0.125” – 2220lbs)  Excellent resistance to corrosion  Line wiper still used when pulling out of the well, less need form immediate protection when not in used  Cost…..IPS x 12+ 66 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 67. Selecting Wireline 67 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 69. Slickline - testing Testing of Slicklines  Before each operation, during the operation, when finished  Three methods in use Torsion, wrap and straight pull testing  Other indicators  Coil of the wire  Marking, pitting of the line 69 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 70. Care of Wireline How to Reduce the Odds Taking Care of The Wireline Carbon Steel Special Alloy/SS Torsion Test One End Fixed Other End Rotated. Wrap test Wire Wrapped Around it’s Own Diameter 70 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 71. Slickline - testing Torsion testing  Used to test IPS  Set length of line  The rotations counted  Fracture inspected  Four different scenarios possible 71 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 73. Care of Wireline How to Reduce the Odds Taking Care of The Wireline Test Good Test Good Test Bad Test Bad 73 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 74. Slickline - Wrapping testing  Used to determine condition of alloy and stainless lines  Line wrapped around its own diameter  Number of rotations – inspect for fractures  Cost……. 74 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 75. Approx. Specs. & Load Limits for Slickline and Braided Line 75 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 76. Wireline Fatigue 76 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 77. Slickline – line spooling  Initial spooling  Marking of flat wraps  Spooling during the operation  Spread evenly across the drum  Tension on line when running in/out of hole – loose wraps?  Oiling of line 77 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 78. Slickline – bending cycles  Bending stresses are created whenever wire deviates from the a straight line condition  This in conjunction with sheave size is the most common reason for line failure  14 bending cycles to run in and out of the hole 78 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 79. Slickline – wire management  Critical in Slickline operations  Total length on drum / amount cut off  Well condition / H2S, drilling fluid, etc.,…..  Max line tension  Operating depth  Line test results / line condition  Records controlled in base 79 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 81. Added Weight Necessary to Pull Slickline 81 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 82. Slickline units  Conveyance method for deploying and recovering tools and devices from the well  Units are broken into two different hydraulic drive systems, open or closed loop  Open loop - The open loop system has been in use for several decades and provides a good control of the line force over line speed  Closed loop - This type of system has a more refined approach to the control of Line speed over line force 82 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 83. WIRELINE EQUIPMENT 1 Surface Equipment 1.1 WL Unit 1.2 Power Pack 1.3 Hoisting Unit 2 PCE 2.1 Quick Union 2.2 Stuffing Box / GIH 2.3 Lubricator 2.4 BOP 2.5 Tree Adapter 3 Subsurface Equipment (SSE) 3.1 Toolstring 3.2 Service Tools 3.3 Tubing Conditioning Tools 3.4 Running Tools 3.5 Pulling Tools 3.6 Shifting Tool 3.7 Kick Over Tool 3.8 Overshot 3.9 Spear 3.10 Flow Control Device Optional PCE 2.6 Tool Trap 2.7 Tool Catcher 2.8 Injection Sub 2.8 SCU 2.9 Pumping Tee 83 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 84. Surface EQUIPMENT Zone 0 – Continuous present of flammable agent. Zone 1 – Flammable agent likely to occur in normal operation. Zone 2 – Flammable agent not likely to occur in normal operation. 1.1 Wireline Unit • Single Drum or Dual Drum • Skid Mounted / Containerized / Helicopter Unit Component • Operating Panel – Direction Lever, Brake, Hydraulic Valve, Gauges etc • Measuring Device • Weighing Device • Level Wind 1.2 Power Pack • Diesel or Electrical Powered • Zoning Classification 84 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 85. SURFACE EQUIPMENT 1.3 Hoisting Unit • Pedestal Crane • Mast • ‘A’ Frame • Derrick • Gin Pole • Rig Operational Considerations: • Length of Lubricators, Risers & Stack Up. • Height of Hoisting Unit • Fishing Job • Toolstring Length 85 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 88. Slickline units  Designed specific  Location  Climate  Operation  Client/industry needs  New technologies 88 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 89. Slickline units – power supply  Either diesel or electric  Drive hydraulic motor  Can be one piece e.g. ASEP  Maintenance routines  Safety when starting 89 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 90. Slickline Equip. – Positioning  Zone restrictions  Wind direction – H2S  Distance between wellhead and unit  Access – egress  Location limitations  Securing 90 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 91. Slickline Surface Equip. Lay-out Pump Unit Toolbox Remote ESD Power Pack Independent Control Panel WL Unit Fire Extinguisher Portable Winch Working Platform Wellhead HAZARDOUS ZONE (15 m) 91 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 92. Slickline units – controls  4 way lever – direction control  Speed controlled by selecting correct gear  Force controlled by adjusting the fluid bypass (double A valve)  Hand brake – mechanical or air  Wire Spooler 92 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 93. Unit controls  Engine start / shut down  RPM adjustment  Engine diagnostics  BOP operation  Operation recording system  Auto spooling / wire oiling 93 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 94. Unit controls - odometer  Usually in feet  Takes reading from counterhead  Zero taken at start of operation  Matched to counterhead  Key fully retracted  Cable condition 94 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 95. Unit – controls – weight indicator  Reads pressure changes from the load cell  Needle movements combined with the odometer reading indicate depth in well  Zero, hose condition, cell gap  Temperature can affect readings  Certification 95 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 96. Slickline unit – counter head  Pressure wheels hold wire against counter wheel  Wire angle of exit  Three wheel system  Load cell built into counterhead  Wire spooled by moving counterhead 96 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 99. Slickline – sheaves / line wiper  Diameter sized to wire size  Holes in wheel  Line wiper connection  Pre job checks  Certification 99 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 100. Slickline – correction factors  Critical angle at lower sheave  Load cell connects below lower sheave  What if the angle is greater than 90 degrees  ASEP 3 wheel counterhead – no K factor – wire must leave counterhead laterally 100 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 101. How to Reduce the Odds Care of Wireline 1 Counter Wheel Assembly 2 Pressure Wheels 3 Hay Pulley 4 Stuffing Box 5 Weight Indicator 101 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 102. Load Cell Calibration Load cells are calibrated at a 900. To get a true reading on the gauge the wire must also make a 900 angle around the wheel. Care of Wireline How to Reduce the Odds 102 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 103. Angle Factor Multiplication Factor 5 1.998 0.71 10 1.992 0.71 15 1.983 0.71 20 1.970 0.72 25 1.953 0.72 30 1.932 0.73 35 1.907 0.74 40 1.879 0.75 45 1.848 0.77 50 1.813 0.78 55 1.774 0.80 60 1.732 0.82 65 1.687 0.84 70 1.638 0.86 75 1.587 0.89 80 1.532 0.92 85 1.475 0.96 90 1.414 1.00 95 1.351 1.05 100 1.286 1.10 105 1.218 1.16 110 1.147 1.23 115 1.075 1.32 120 1.000 1.41 125 0.923 1.53 130 0.845 1.67 135 0.765 1.85 140 0.684 2.07 145 0.601 2.35 150 0.518 2.73 155 0.433 3.27 160 0.347 4.07 165 0.261 5.42 170 0.174 8.11 175 0.087 16.21 180 0.000 0.000 Actual Load = Gauge Reading x 1.414 / Factor for Angle Actual Load = Gauge Reading x Multiplication Factor Correction Factors for Martin Decker Weight Indicators 103 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 104. Slickline – wire clamp  Secure the wire without damage  Normally attached above the lower sheave  Used when rigging up/down  During non routine occurrences  Securing to rig up 104 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 105. Pressure control equipment - why  Enables servicing of a live well  Seals with wire static or moving  Provides an access for deployment  Provides a chamber for recovery  Protection due to quality control of Equipment  Safety devices in the rig up 105 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 106. Pressure control - rating and service type  Equipment must be suitable for the type of operation  Pressure rating  Working pressure / Test pressure  Safety factor  Service type  Standard service and H2S service 106 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 107. Pressure control equipment - rig up components  Main components  Ancillary components  Equipment selection  Factor affecting changes in rig up  Hoisting methods  Wire selection 107 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 108. Quick unions dimensions  All pressure control connections use this system  Pressure not dependent on how tight the connection is  O ring retains the pressure  Nomenclature  Types of connection available  Sizes comparison 108 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 109. Quick Unions – Otis and Bowen  Components  Thread type  Identification  Connecting together  Safety issues  Holes in collar 109 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 110. O rings  O Ring material  Sizing of O ring  Sealing faces  Back up rings  Non extrusion rings  Tolerance of pin/box 110 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 111. PCE - QUICK UNION BOWEN OTIS Box End Pin End O-Ring •Thread Connection: 5¾ - 4 ACME Thread •Hand Tight NO wrench •O-Ring seal •To be kept clean at all time. •Check thread & o-ring before make-up. 111 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 112. Pressure control equipment - riser  Spacer lubricator – tree to work level  Internal Diameter  Lengths  Ports  Communications  Handling 112 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 113. Wireline valves – BOP’s Must be installed on all rig ups Surface barrier Enables remedial repairs to be done Manual or hydraulic Different ram configurations Choice dependant on well conditions and operation Responsibility 113 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 114. Wireline valves – rams, seals and guides Two types of seals – inner and outer Two types of inner seals Guide selection Inner seals for 0.092” / 0.125” Ram/body tolerance Maintenance Safety 114 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 116. Wireline valves – hydraulic – single ram Used on wells with or without H2S Up to 10000psi WP (8,333psi MPWHP) Hydraulic oil chambers Manual handles – close only Fittings Bridles Maintenance 116 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 117. Wireline valves – hydraulic – single ram  Used on wells with or without H2S  Over 10000psi WP (8,333psi MPWHP)  Ram orientation  Panel or pump to operate  Indicator rods  Lifting caps / test caps 117 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 118. Pressure control equipment - lubricator Chamber to deploy and recover tools Length required Internal sizes Ports – ½” NPT maximum Thread tape – safety Positioning – pull line Safety – hand awareness 118 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 119. Lubricator Length 119 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 120. Wireline Fishing/Jarring Best Practices 120 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 121. Stuffing box – manual pack off  Allows for sealing when line is stationary of moving  Cylinder packing – how many  Packing glands  Sheave guard  Blow out plunger  Manual nut 121 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 122. Stuffing box – hydraulic pack off  Hydraulic packing nut  Piston position  Staff movement  Sheave bearings  Holes in sheaves  Line tracking 122 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 123. Manual Stuffing Box PCE - STUFFING BOX Hydraulic Stuffing Box 123 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 124. Top Sheave with Isolation 124 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 125. Liquid seal head (Grease Injection Head GIH)  Developed by Camco for work in Alaska  Improved sealing at higher pressure  5,000, 10,000 and 15,000 WP  Low friction – no stuffing box packings  Separate pump to operate 125 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 126. PCE - GREASE INJECTION HEAD GIH GREASE SYSTEM Grease Pump Contaminated Grease Tank Pack Off Hand Pump GIH SCU Flow Tube Flow Tube & Cable Flow Tube, Cable & Grease Lubricator BOP Flow Tube Range: 2 Tubes: <2K psi 3 Tubes: <10K psi 4 Tubes: <15K psi Clearance: 0.004” – 0.006” 126 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 127. PCE - LUBRICATOR Lower Section Top Section 127 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 128. Slickline PCE Blind Ram Shear & Seal Ram Stuffing Box Stuffing Box 0.125 Ram BOP 0.108 Ram BOP Shear & Seal Ram SLICKLINE OPERATION SLICKLINE FISHING OPERATION Lubricator Lubricator 128 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 129. BRAIDEDLINE PCE SCU Lubricator 2 Braidedline Inverted Ram 3 Blind Ram Shear & Seal Ram TERTIARY BARRIER 1 2 3 4 1 Braidedline Ram 4 Shear Ram GIH PRIMARY BARRIER SECONDARY BARRIER 129 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 130. WIRELINE EQUIPMENT 1 Surface Equipment 1.1 WL Unit 1.2 Power Pack 1.3 Hoisting Unit 2 PCE 2.1 Quick Union 2.2 Stuffing Box / GIH 2.3 Lubricator 2.4 BOP 2.5 Tree Adapter 3 Subsurface Equipment (SSE) 3.1 Toolstring 3.2 Service Tools 3.3 Tubing Conditioning Tools 3.4 Running Tools 3.5 Pulling Tools 3.6 Shifting Tool 3.7 Kick Over Tool 3.8 Overshot 3.9 Spear 3.10 Flow Control Device Optional PCE 2.6 Tool Trap 2.7 Tool Catcher 2.8 Injection Sub 2.8 SCU 2.9 Pumping Tee 130 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 131. Sub Surface Equipment Int FN Ext FN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 All sub surface tools must incorporate ‘Fishing Neck’ a recovery feature. 3.1 Toolstring 1. Rope Socket 2. Stem 3. Jar 4. Knuckle Joint Optional Tools 5. Roller Stem 6. High Density Stem 7. Hydraulic Jar 8. Spring Jar 9. Knuckle Jar 10. QLS 11. Swivel Joint 12. Accelerator 131 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 132. SSSV 10°-20° Angle 20°-30° Angle 30°-50° Angle 50° Angle & Above Rope Socket Swivel Joint Accelerator Stem Knuckle Joint Upstroke Jar Spang Jar 6 ft 6 ft 2½ ft 4 ft 4 ft 4 ft 2½ ft 3 ft 3 ft 3 ft 2½ ft 2½ ft 3 ft 3 ft 3 ft 2½ ft 2½ ft TOOLSTRING CONFIGURATIONS Roller Stem 132 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 133. SUB-SURFACE EQUIPMENT 3.2 Service Tool 1. Gauge Cutter 2. Blind Box 3. Lead Impression Block (LIB) 4. Wire Scratcher 5. Tubing End Locator 6. Pump Bailer 7. Hydrostatic Bailer 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 133 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 134. SUB-SURFACE EQUIPMENT 3.3 Tubing Conditioning Tool 1. Swage 2. Broach 1 2 - To restore light tubing collapse. - Always use with Pulling Tool -To remove scale /paraffin deposits 134 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 135. SUB-SURFACE EQUIPMENT 5 6 3.4 Running Tools 1 External Fishing Neck 2 Internal Fishing Neck 3 Selective Running Tool 4 Non-Selective Running Tool Latching Mechanism: 5 Shear Pins 6 Dogs RT Accessories: 7 Shank, Probe, Guide & Prong. 3 1 2 4 (Jar ▲ or ▼to free) 7 135 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 136. C-1 Running Sequence RIH Locating Nipple Shearing Top Pin Shearing Bottom Pin Locating Ring ▼ Dog Retract Tubing ▲ Dog Trailing ▲ Dog Expand Nipple Stop at No-Go Pin Sheared Shank Move ▲ ▼ Dog Expand 136 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 137. RUNNING TOOLS BAKER “G” R/T (S-Lock) CAMCO “DT” R/T (C-Lock) CAMCO “Z-6” R/T (DB-Lock) CAMCO “W-1” R/T (M-Lock) OTIS “X” R/T (X-Lock) 137 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 138. 3.5 Pulling Tools 1. External Fishing Neck 2. Internal Fishing Neck Shear Direction: 3. Jar ▲ (Large Pin) 4. Jar ▼ (Small Pin) 1 2 3 3 SUB-SURFACE EQUIPMENT 138 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 139. Reach “R” Series Pulling Tool (▲) “S” Series Pulling Tool (▼) 139 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 140. SHEARING MECHANISM Jar ▲ Pulling Tools (R) Top Sub Body Core Dog Dog Spring Core Nut Main Spring Sleeve FCD Ring Shear Pin Jar ▼ Pulling Tools (S) 140 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 141. Pulling Tools CAMCO “JD” P/T CAMCO “JU” P/T OTIS “GS” P/T OTIS “GR” P/T CAMCO “PRS” P/T CAMCO “PRS-2” P/T 141 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 142. SSD Applications  Displacing annulus and tubing fluid after completion  Selective production, testing or treating of various zones  Production of multiple zones  Circulation to kill a well or introduce corrosion inhibitors  Positioning co-mingling chokes in dual zone flow  Gas lifting ( in the absence of suitable gas lift mandrels) 142 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 143. Otis SSD’s  Original Otis SSD’s - O, D and A  O – open down  D – open down – larger flow area – heavy crude  A – open up  If SSD had leak, completion had to be pulled  Installation of nipple profile at SSD  XO, XD and XA (higher pressure – RD and RA 143 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 144. Otis XO SSD  Otis SSD’s use V packings in body to seal  Sleeve has to be moved down to open communication with annulus  To open sleeve Otis B shifting tool is used  All sleeves with X in their title have X nipple as part of device  2 x seal bores (same size) one above sleeve and one below 144 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 150. SUB-SURFACE EQUIPMENT 3.6 Shifting Tool 1. Serves to open or close Sliding Sleeve. 2. Selective & Non-Selective 3. Pressure equalization is compulsory prior opening SSD 4. Feature  Key or Dog  Self Releasing  Safety Release 150 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 151. Shifting Operation RIH & Locate Equalizing Fully Open Pass Through SSD 151 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 152. Safety RELEASE Feature Closing Shearing Pin Pin Sheared 152 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 153. Shifting Tool OTIS “B” Positioning Tool (OTIS SSD) Top Sub Body Key Collets Key Spring Key Retainer Shear Pin OTIS “BO” Downshift Tool (OTIS SSD) Main Mandrel Key Spring Key Spring Housing Dog Retainer Locating Dog Main Spring Spring Split Ring BAKER “D-2” Shifting Tool (BAKER “L” SSD) Shifting Dog Shear Pins Control Sleeve Collets Thread Protector Main Spring Mandrel Connecting Adjuster 153 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 161. SUB-SURFACE EQUIPMENT 3.7 Kick Over Tools 1. Serves to set or pull valve from Side Pocket Mandrel 2. Pressure equalization is compulsory prior pulling valve from SPM 3. Feature:  Locating Finger  Self Orient-able  Kickable Arm Assembly  Safety Release 161 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 162. Kick Over Tool CAMCO “OK “ Series KOT CAMCO “OM “ Series KOT Locating Finger Spring Shear Pin Leaf Spring Arm Assembly Catcher Sub Set Screw Guide MERLA KOT 162 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 163. Orienting Sleeve Guide GLV Pocket BK-2 Latch E Dummy Oval Cross Section Tubing ID Discriminator Side Pocket Gas-lift Dummy Valve Communication Port Side Pocket Mandrel 163 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 164. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Kick-Over Tool Running Sequence OK Series KOT MERLA KOT (a) RIH (b) Locate & orienting (c) Trigger (d) Setting valve in pocket (e) Release RT & POOH 164 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 165. 3.8 Overshot To latch on downhole tools without External Fishing Neck 3.9 Spear To latch on downhole tools without Internal Fishing Neck SUB-SURFACE EQUIPMENT 165 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 166. 3.10 Flow Control Device Lock Mandrel + Type of Plug + Equalizing Sub Type of Lock: Slip Lock, Type of Plugs: Hold pressure ▼, SUB-SURFACE EQUIPMENT Collar Lock & Nipple Lock Hold ▲, Hold ▼&▲ 166 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 167. Wireline Parameters Five considerations required serious attention prior wireline operations. 1. Job Planning 2. Rig-up & Rig-down 3. Pressure Testing 4. RIH Considerations 5. Emergency Response 167 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 168. Wireline Parameters 1. Job Planning: • Obtain Well Information • Study Well History • Tools & Equipment Inventory • Pre-Run Checks on Tools & Equipment • Personnel Knowledge & Skills • Safety Devices & Equipment 1 Husband & 4 Wives 168 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 169. Wireline Parameters 2. Rig Up & Rig Down: • Effective Communication • Working Location • Weather Condition • Hazardous Environment for Material Selection • Pre-Run Checks on Tools & Equipment • Back Up & Spares for Tools & Consumables 169 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 170. Wireline Parameters 3 Pressure Testing • Max CITHP + Safety Factor (500 psi) & apply in stages. • PT medium; 60:40 ratio by volume of fresh water & glycol respectively. (This would prevents “Emulsion” formation in oil wells or “Hydrates” if it would be discharged into wells) De-Pressurize • Bleed off through production process venting system. • If not possible, bleed off with extreme care, no personnel & source of ignition down wind. • De-pressurizing must be a Controlled Operation. • PATIENCE is the virtue of this case & NO ACCELERATION is permitted. Ensure that equipment is earthed to prevent ignition by static electricity. 170 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 171. Pressure Testing Xmas Tree Valve Isolation P/Testing BOP Open BOP Open Master Valve Pull T/String All Way Up Close WV Close MV Close SV Open SSV RU on Xmas Tree Apply Press P/Testing Lubricator & BOP Depress Above BOP Monitor Press Close Ram Monitor Press Open Equal Valve Open Ram Open MV Open Swab Valve Open SV 171 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 172. Wireline Parameters 4. RIH Considerations Wireline Philosophy: “Achieve WL Objective with Minimum Run” 172 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 173. Safety Management at Workplace 1. Attitude - Awareness of one’s action on health, property & environment all day & everyday. 2. Anticipation - Expecting or predicting dangerous situations & allows you to be prepared. 3. Hazard Identification - Source of danger. 4. Risk Assessment - Probability that hazard may cause damage, loss or injury. 5. Risk Control & Implementation 6. Review - Continual updating. 173 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 174. Safety Management Tool Work Permit  Manage & control risks related to individual work tasks.  Control work activities in order to prevent incidents due to interface work conflicts.  Provide clear information to eliminate misunderstanding of work tasks hazards.  Document appropriate approvals.  Communicate activities to all affected personnel. Work Permit Provides:  Nature of work  Safety Management  Safety Administration Job Safety Analysis (JSA)  Sequence of Job Steps  Potential Hazards  Recommended SOP 174 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 175. Location & Equipment to be worked on 1a Precise Description of work 1b Requested By: 1d Tools & Equipment to be used 1c Hazards Identified 2a Precautions 2b Personal Protection 2c Isolation Certificates 2d Conflict of Work (Persons made aware) 3a Permit Approved (PIC) 3b Acceptance (Performing Authority) 3c Permit Issued (Area Authority) Revalidation Permit Suspended Permit Completed 3f 3e 3g Gas Testing 2e 3d NATURE OF WORK SAFETY ADMIN SAFETY MGT COLOR CODE: Principle Flow Chart of Work Permit 175 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 176. Supplementary Document 176 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 177. WL Emergency Response Plan IN THE EVENT OF EMERGENCY – If the toolstring is in lubricator 1 Close UM Valve 2 Shut off Power Pack 3 Depressurize Lubricator 4 Install WL Clamp 5 Secure & make safe work area. 6 Refer to Installation Supervisor for further instruction with regards to evacuation. 177 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 178. WL Emergency Response Plan IN THE EVENT OF EMERGENCY – If the toolstring is suspended in well. 1 Shut off Power Pack 2 Close BOP & Depressurize 3 Install WL Clamp 4 Secure & make safe work area & proceed to fire drill. 5 Refer to Installation Supervisor for further instruction with regards to evacuation. 178 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 179. Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) H2S Characteristic Deadly – Extremely Toxic Gas. Colorless Heavier than air, tends to settle in low lying areas. Readily dispersed by wind movement or air currents. Odor of rotten eggs only in low concentrations rapidly deadens the sense of smell. Highly corrosive to certain metals. More deadly than Carbon Monoxide (CO), and almost toxic as Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) gas. Guidelines for Working in H2S Environment  A pre-work safety briefing must be held in which all departments concerned should be involved, Job Safety Analysis (JSA) is to be exercised in this pre-work meeting.  All persons involved in the work shall be conversant with H2S procedures for recognition, escape, and first aid treatment.  Barriers and warning notices must be erected and PA announcements made as appropriate.  A job site H2S monitor will be provided and personnel involved in the work shall be conversant on the uses of this monitor.  The responsible person planning the work and organizing the worksite must be aware of wind direction and prevailing weather conditions throughout the duration of the job.  A sufficient number of Breathing Apparatus (BA) sets must be readily available at the worksite. 179 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 180. Pressure Control Equipment Test and Maintenance Record 180 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 181. Generic RU Sequence  Study program & well history.  Exercise JSA & apply PTW.  Toolbox meeting & position SE.  Conduct & analyze wire test.  MU RS in redressed S/Box.  MU & Slide inspected toolstring in lubricator, connect RS & clamp wire.  Close Wing Valve, depressurized Xmas tree, RD tree cap & RU tree connection.  Install fusible cap on SSV conn c/panel to SCSSV & open SCSSV, well tag & signage.  Stack up riser, BOP & hoses.  Lift up lubricator vertically & release clamp.  MU service tool into toolstring & zero at THF  Pull wire slowly to the S/Box & SU lubricator on BOP.  Hook-up pump unit to pump-tee, p/test to spec & monitor press.  Close BOP rams, depressurized above ram & monitor press BU.  Open BOP equalize valve & fully open rams.  Open master & crown valve respectively slowly & RIH. 181 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 182. Safety Tips During RU NEVER hammer or climb pressurized lubricators (PCE) Know the pressure before work on it. Hold 2 hands on wire & cut in between hands. Open mouth & turn head away from needle valve during depressurizing. In making or breaking, off-set wrenches ± 8” apart. NEVER use inflammable mixtures without proper ventilation (read MSDS) PCE to be pressure & function tested prior RIH.  Make certain of proper footing when climbing around Xmas tree.  Function test all down-hole tool prior RIH.  2 WL personnel onsite during operation.  WL unit to be anchored securely.  Barriers & Signs to be posted.  All work permits are approved & displayed.  Worksite to be left in SAFE condition during suspension or completion. 182 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan
  • 183. References  M.F.Radwan “IWCF Well Intervention Hand-outs in Dec. 2018”.  Halliburton Slickline Services Manual in 2010.  Schlumberger Slickline Training Manual in 2004.  Matt Billingham; Schlumberger, Digital Trigger: Safe, On-Demand, Efficient and Recordable Perforating on Slickline in 2012.EWAPS  George E. King Engineering Slickline Basics Presentation (www.GEKEngineering.com)  http://www.taylormadetc.com/  American Petroleum Institute Exploration & Production Department. Wireline Operations and Procedures. (June, 2000). Third Edition. Washington, DC. 183 Basic Wireline Operations / M.F.Radwan