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Project Procurement
Management
Learning Objectives
 Understand the importance of project procurement
management and the increasing use of outsourcing
for information technology projects
 Describe the procurement planning process,
procurement planning tools and techniques, types
of contracts, and statements of work
 Discuss what is involved in solicitation planning
and the difference between a request for proposal
and a request for quote
 Explain what occurs during the solicitation process
Learning Objectives
 Describe the source selection process and
different approaches for evaluating
proposals or selecting suppliers
 Discuss the importance of good contract
administration
 Describe the contract close-out process
 Discuss types of software available to
assist in project procurement
management
Importance of Project Procurement
Management
 Procurement means acquiring goods
and/or services from an outside source
 Other terms include purchasing and
outsourcing
Why Outsource?
 To reduce both fixed and recurrent
costs
 To allow the client organization to
focus on its core business
 To access skills and technologies
 To provide flexibility
 To increase accountability
Project Procurement Management
Processes
 Procurement planning: determining what to
procure and when
 Solicitation planning: documenting product
requirements and identifying potential sources
 Solicitation: obtaining quotations, bids, offers,
or proposals as appropriate
 Source selection: choosing from among
potential vendors
 Contract administration: managing the
relationship with the vendor
 Contract close-out: completion and settlement
of the contract
Project Procurement Management
Processes and Key Outputs
Procurement Planning
 Procurement planning involves
identifying which project needs
can be best met by using products
or services outside the
organization. It includes deciding
 whether to procure
 how to procure
 what to procure
 how much to procure
 when to procure
Procurement Planning Tools and
Techniques
 Make-or-buy analysis: determining
whether a particular product or
service should be made or
performed inside the organization or
purchased from someone else.
Often involves financial analysis
 Experts, both internal and external,
can provide valuable inputs in
procurement decisions
Make-or Buy Example
 Assume you can lease an item you
need for a project for $150/day. To
purchase the item, the investment
cost is $1,000, and the daily cost
would be another $50/day.
 How long will it take for the lease
cost to be the same as the
purchase cost?
 If you need the item for 12 days,
should you lease it or purchase it?
Make-or Buy Solution
 Set up an equation so the “make” is equal to the
“buy”
 In this example, use the following equation. Let d
be the number of days to use the item.
$150d = $1,000 + $50d
 Solve for d as follows:
 Subtract $50d from the right side of the equation to get
$100d = $1,000
 Divide both sides of the equation by $100
d = 10 days
 The lease cost is the same as the purchase cost at
10 days
 If you need the item for 12 days, it would be more
economical to purchase it
Types of Contracts
 Fixed-price or lump-sum: involve a fixed
total price for a well-defined product or
service
 Cost-reimbursable: involve payment to
the seller for direct and indirect costs
 Time and material contracts: hybrid of
both fixed-price and cost-reimbursable,
often used by consultants
 Unit price contracts: require the buyer to
pay the seller a predetermined amount
per unit of service
Cost Reimbursable Contracts
 Cost plus incentive fee (CPIF): the buyer pays
the seller for allowable performance costs plus
a predetermined fee and an incentive bonus
 Cost plus fixed fee (CPFF): the buyer pays the
seller for allowable performance costs plus a
fixed fee payment usually based on a
percentage of estimated costs
 Cost plus percentage of costs (CPPC): the
buyer pays the seller for allowable
performance costs plus a predetermined
percentage based on total costs
Contract Types Versus Risk
Statement of Work (SOW)
 A statement of work is a description
of the work required for the
procurement
 Many contracts, or mutually binding
agreements, include SOWs
 A good SOW gives bidders a better
understanding of the buyer’s
expectations
Statement of Work (SOW) Template
I. Scope of Work: Describe the work to be done to detail. Specify the hardware and
software involved and the exact nature of the work.
II. Location of Work: Describe where the work must be performed. Specify the
location of hardware and software and where the people must perform the work
III. Period of Performance: Specify when the work is expected to start and end,
working hours, number of hours that can be billed per week, where the work must
be performed, and related schedule information.
IV. Deliverables Schedule: List specific deliverables, describe them in detail, and
specify when they are due.
V. Applicable Standards: Specify any company or industry-specific standards that
are relevant to performing the work.
VI. Acceptance Criteria: Describe how the buyer organization will determine if the
work is acceptable.
VII. Special Requirements: Specify any special requirements such as hardware or
software certifications, minimum degree or experience level of personnel, travel
requirements, and so on.
Solicitation Planning
 Solicitation planning involves preparing
several documents:
 Request for Proposals: used to solicit
proposals from prospective sellers
 Requests for Quotes: used to solicit quotes
for well-defined procurements
 Invitations for bid or negotiation and initial
contractor responses are also part of
solicitation planning
Outline for a Request for Proposal
(RFP)
I. Purpose of RFP
II. Organization’s Background
III. Basic Requirements
IV. Hardware and Software Environment
V. Description of RFP Process
VI. Statement of Work and Schedule Information
VII. Possible Appendices
A. Current System Overview
B. System Requirements
C. Volume and Size Data
D. Required Contents of Vendor’s Response to RFP
E. Sample Contract
Solicitation
 Solicitation involves obtaining proposals
or bids from prospective sellers
 Organizations can advertise to procure
goods and services in several ways
 approaching the preferred vendor
 approaching several potential vendors
 advertising to anyone interested
 A bidders’ conference can help clarify
the buyer’s expectations
Source Selection
 Source selection involves
 evaluating bidders’ proposals
 choosing the best one
 negotiating the contract
 awarding the contract
 It is helpful to prepare formal evaluation
procedures for selecting vendors
 Buyers often create a “short list”
Sample Proposal Evaluation Sheet
Detailed Criteria for Selecting
Suppliers
Be Careful in Selecting Suppliers
and Writing Their Contracts
 Many dot-com companies were created to
meet potential market needs, but many
went out of business, mainly due to poor
business planning, lack of senior
management operations experience, lack of
leadership, and lack of visions. Check the
stability of suppliers
 Even well-known suppliers can impede
project success. Be sure to write and
manage contracts well with all suppliers
Contract Administration
 Contract administration ensures that the seller’s
performance meets contractual requirements
 Contracts are legal relationships, so it is
important that legal and contracting
professionals be involved in writing and
administering contracts
 Many project managers ignore contractual
issues, which can result in serious problems
Suggestions on Change Control
for Contracts
 Changes to any part of the project need to be
reviewed, approved, and documented by the
same people in the same way that the original
part of the plan was approved
 Evaluation of any change should include an
impact analysis. How will the change affect the
scope, time, cost, and quality of the goods or
services being provided?
 Changes must be documented in writing.
Project team members should also document
all important meetings and telephone calls
Contract Close-out
 Contract close-out includes
 product verification to determine if all work
was completed correctly and satisfactorily
 administrative activities to update records to
reflect final results
 archiving information for future use
 Procurement audits identify lessons
learned in the procurement process
Using Software to Assist in Project
Procurement Management
 Word processing software helps in writing proposals
and contracts, spreadsheets help in evaluating
suppliers, databases help track suppliers, and
presentation software aids in presenting procurement-
related information
 In the late 1990s and early 2000s, many companies
started using e-procurement software to do many
procurement functions electronically
 Companies such as Commerce One, Ariba, Concur
Technologies, SAS, and Baan provide corporate
procurement services over the Internet
 Organizations also use other Internet tools to help find
information on suppliers or auction goods and services

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Project procurement Management.ppt

  • 2. Learning Objectives  Understand the importance of project procurement management and the increasing use of outsourcing for information technology projects  Describe the procurement planning process, procurement planning tools and techniques, types of contracts, and statements of work  Discuss what is involved in solicitation planning and the difference between a request for proposal and a request for quote  Explain what occurs during the solicitation process
  • 3. Learning Objectives  Describe the source selection process and different approaches for evaluating proposals or selecting suppliers  Discuss the importance of good contract administration  Describe the contract close-out process  Discuss types of software available to assist in project procurement management
  • 4. Importance of Project Procurement Management  Procurement means acquiring goods and/or services from an outside source  Other terms include purchasing and outsourcing
  • 5. Why Outsource?  To reduce both fixed and recurrent costs  To allow the client organization to focus on its core business  To access skills and technologies  To provide flexibility  To increase accountability
  • 6. Project Procurement Management Processes  Procurement planning: determining what to procure and when  Solicitation planning: documenting product requirements and identifying potential sources  Solicitation: obtaining quotations, bids, offers, or proposals as appropriate  Source selection: choosing from among potential vendors  Contract administration: managing the relationship with the vendor  Contract close-out: completion and settlement of the contract
  • 8. Procurement Planning  Procurement planning involves identifying which project needs can be best met by using products or services outside the organization. It includes deciding  whether to procure  how to procure  what to procure  how much to procure  when to procure
  • 9. Procurement Planning Tools and Techniques  Make-or-buy analysis: determining whether a particular product or service should be made or performed inside the organization or purchased from someone else. Often involves financial analysis  Experts, both internal and external, can provide valuable inputs in procurement decisions
  • 10. Make-or Buy Example  Assume you can lease an item you need for a project for $150/day. To purchase the item, the investment cost is $1,000, and the daily cost would be another $50/day.  How long will it take for the lease cost to be the same as the purchase cost?  If you need the item for 12 days, should you lease it or purchase it?
  • 11. Make-or Buy Solution  Set up an equation so the “make” is equal to the “buy”  In this example, use the following equation. Let d be the number of days to use the item. $150d = $1,000 + $50d  Solve for d as follows:  Subtract $50d from the right side of the equation to get $100d = $1,000  Divide both sides of the equation by $100 d = 10 days  The lease cost is the same as the purchase cost at 10 days  If you need the item for 12 days, it would be more economical to purchase it
  • 12. Types of Contracts  Fixed-price or lump-sum: involve a fixed total price for a well-defined product or service  Cost-reimbursable: involve payment to the seller for direct and indirect costs  Time and material contracts: hybrid of both fixed-price and cost-reimbursable, often used by consultants  Unit price contracts: require the buyer to pay the seller a predetermined amount per unit of service
  • 13. Cost Reimbursable Contracts  Cost plus incentive fee (CPIF): the buyer pays the seller for allowable performance costs plus a predetermined fee and an incentive bonus  Cost plus fixed fee (CPFF): the buyer pays the seller for allowable performance costs plus a fixed fee payment usually based on a percentage of estimated costs  Cost plus percentage of costs (CPPC): the buyer pays the seller for allowable performance costs plus a predetermined percentage based on total costs
  • 15. Statement of Work (SOW)  A statement of work is a description of the work required for the procurement  Many contracts, or mutually binding agreements, include SOWs  A good SOW gives bidders a better understanding of the buyer’s expectations
  • 16. Statement of Work (SOW) Template I. Scope of Work: Describe the work to be done to detail. Specify the hardware and software involved and the exact nature of the work. II. Location of Work: Describe where the work must be performed. Specify the location of hardware and software and where the people must perform the work III. Period of Performance: Specify when the work is expected to start and end, working hours, number of hours that can be billed per week, where the work must be performed, and related schedule information. IV. Deliverables Schedule: List specific deliverables, describe them in detail, and specify when they are due. V. Applicable Standards: Specify any company or industry-specific standards that are relevant to performing the work. VI. Acceptance Criteria: Describe how the buyer organization will determine if the work is acceptable. VII. Special Requirements: Specify any special requirements such as hardware or software certifications, minimum degree or experience level of personnel, travel requirements, and so on.
  • 17. Solicitation Planning  Solicitation planning involves preparing several documents:  Request for Proposals: used to solicit proposals from prospective sellers  Requests for Quotes: used to solicit quotes for well-defined procurements  Invitations for bid or negotiation and initial contractor responses are also part of solicitation planning
  • 18. Outline for a Request for Proposal (RFP) I. Purpose of RFP II. Organization’s Background III. Basic Requirements IV. Hardware and Software Environment V. Description of RFP Process VI. Statement of Work and Schedule Information VII. Possible Appendices A. Current System Overview B. System Requirements C. Volume and Size Data D. Required Contents of Vendor’s Response to RFP E. Sample Contract
  • 19. Solicitation  Solicitation involves obtaining proposals or bids from prospective sellers  Organizations can advertise to procure goods and services in several ways  approaching the preferred vendor  approaching several potential vendors  advertising to anyone interested  A bidders’ conference can help clarify the buyer’s expectations
  • 20. Source Selection  Source selection involves  evaluating bidders’ proposals  choosing the best one  negotiating the contract  awarding the contract  It is helpful to prepare formal evaluation procedures for selecting vendors  Buyers often create a “short list”
  • 22. Detailed Criteria for Selecting Suppliers
  • 23. Be Careful in Selecting Suppliers and Writing Their Contracts  Many dot-com companies were created to meet potential market needs, but many went out of business, mainly due to poor business planning, lack of senior management operations experience, lack of leadership, and lack of visions. Check the stability of suppliers  Even well-known suppliers can impede project success. Be sure to write and manage contracts well with all suppliers
  • 24. Contract Administration  Contract administration ensures that the seller’s performance meets contractual requirements  Contracts are legal relationships, so it is important that legal and contracting professionals be involved in writing and administering contracts  Many project managers ignore contractual issues, which can result in serious problems
  • 25. Suggestions on Change Control for Contracts  Changes to any part of the project need to be reviewed, approved, and documented by the same people in the same way that the original part of the plan was approved  Evaluation of any change should include an impact analysis. How will the change affect the scope, time, cost, and quality of the goods or services being provided?  Changes must be documented in writing. Project team members should also document all important meetings and telephone calls
  • 26. Contract Close-out  Contract close-out includes  product verification to determine if all work was completed correctly and satisfactorily  administrative activities to update records to reflect final results  archiving information for future use  Procurement audits identify lessons learned in the procurement process
  • 27. Using Software to Assist in Project Procurement Management  Word processing software helps in writing proposals and contracts, spreadsheets help in evaluating suppliers, databases help track suppliers, and presentation software aids in presenting procurement- related information  In the late 1990s and early 2000s, many companies started using e-procurement software to do many procurement functions electronically  Companies such as Commerce One, Ariba, Concur Technologies, SAS, and Baan provide corporate procurement services over the Internet  Organizations also use other Internet tools to help find information on suppliers or auction goods and services