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Problematic Citations
Jodi Schneider
@jschneider
jschneider@pobox.com
ISSA
Workshop on Open Citations
Bologna, Italy
2018-09-03
Problematic Citation
• Citation of retracted literature
• Bibliographic ghosts
• Misrepresenting cited work
• Cherry picking
• Ignoring related work outside a clique
• Playing telephone with review papers
Citing retracted papers
A visual analytic study of retracted articles in scientific literature
78 citations to a retracted clinical trial
with faked data
Schneider & Yi in preparation,
updating Fulton et al 2015
2700 citations of citations
to clinical trial with faked data
Schneider & Yi in preparation,
updating Fulton et al 2015
Bibliographic ghosts
• “no such article was ever published”
The most influential paper Gerard Salton never wrote
Cherry picking
How citation distortions create unfounded authority:
analysis of a citation network
Misrepresenting cited work
Misrepresentation of health research in exertion games literature
Ignoring related work outside a
clique
Selective citation in the literature on swimming in chlorinated water and
childhood asthma: a network analysis
Playing telephone with review
papers
Understanding belief using citation networks
Problematic Citation
• Citation of retracted literature
• Bibliographic ghosts
• Misrepresenting cited work
• Cherry picking
• Ignoring related work outside a clique
• Playing telephone with review papers
What is required to address
Problematic Citation?
• Attributes of cited work (retracted?)
• Attributes of citing work (exists?)
• Attributes of the topic & author
networks (consistent or inconsistent?)
• Citation sentences (citances)
What is needed to address
Problematic Citation?
• Citation of retracted literature
– Attributes of cited work (retracted?)
• Bibliographic ghosts
– Attributes of citing work (exists?)
• Misrepresenting cited work
– Citing sentence(s)
– Cited sentence(s)
– Relationship between them
Problematic Citation
• Cherry picking
– Attributes of the topic network (consistent
on this?)
• Ignoring related work outside a clique
– Attributes of the author network (consistent
on this?)
• Playing telephone with review papers
– Citations to review papers
– Citations from review papers
Chen, Chaomei, Zhigang Hu, Jared Milbank, and Timothy Schultz. (2013) "A visual
analytic study of retracted articles in scientific literature." Journal of the American
Society for Information Science and Technology 64(2): 234-253.
https://doi.org/10.1002/asi.22755
Dubin, David. (2004) "The most influential paper Gerard Salton never wrote." Library
Trends 52(4):748–764. https://www.ideals.illinois.edu/handle/2142/1697
Duyx, Bram, Miriam JE Urlings, Gerard MH Swaen, Lex M. Bouter, and Maurice P.
Zeegers. (2017) "Selective citation in the literature on swimming in chlorinated
water and childhood asthma: a network analysis." Research Integrity and Peer
Review 2(1): 17. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41073-017-0041-z
Fulton, Ashley S., Alison M. Coates, Marie T. Williams, Peter RC Howe, and Alison M.
Hill. (2015) "Persistent citation of the only published randomised controlled trial
of omega-3 supplementation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease six years
after its retraction." Publications 3(1): 17-26.
https://10.3390/publications3010017
Greenberg, Steven A. (2009) "How citation distortions create unfounded authority:
analysis of a citation network." BMJ 339: b2680.
https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.b2680
Greenberg, Steven A. (2011) "Understanding belief using citation networks." Journal
of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17(2): 389-393. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-
2753.2011.01646.x
Marshall, Joe, and Conor Linehan. (2017) "Misrepresentation of health research in
exertion games literature." Proceedings of the 2017 CHI Conference on Human
Factors in Computing Systems. 4899-4910.
https://doi.org/10.1145/3025453.3025691

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Problematic citations--Workshop-on-Open-Citations--2018-09-03

  • 2. Problematic Citation • Citation of retracted literature • Bibliographic ghosts • Misrepresenting cited work • Cherry picking • Ignoring related work outside a clique • Playing telephone with review papers
  • 3. Citing retracted papers A visual analytic study of retracted articles in scientific literature
  • 4. 78 citations to a retracted clinical trial with faked data Schneider & Yi in preparation, updating Fulton et al 2015
  • 5. 2700 citations of citations to clinical trial with faked data Schneider & Yi in preparation, updating Fulton et al 2015
  • 6. Bibliographic ghosts • “no such article was ever published” The most influential paper Gerard Salton never wrote
  • 7. Cherry picking How citation distortions create unfounded authority: analysis of a citation network
  • 8. Misrepresenting cited work Misrepresentation of health research in exertion games literature
  • 9. Ignoring related work outside a clique Selective citation in the literature on swimming in chlorinated water and childhood asthma: a network analysis
  • 10. Playing telephone with review papers Understanding belief using citation networks
  • 11. Problematic Citation • Citation of retracted literature • Bibliographic ghosts • Misrepresenting cited work • Cherry picking • Ignoring related work outside a clique • Playing telephone with review papers
  • 12. What is required to address Problematic Citation? • Attributes of cited work (retracted?) • Attributes of citing work (exists?) • Attributes of the topic & author networks (consistent or inconsistent?) • Citation sentences (citances)
  • 13. What is needed to address Problematic Citation? • Citation of retracted literature – Attributes of cited work (retracted?) • Bibliographic ghosts – Attributes of citing work (exists?) • Misrepresenting cited work – Citing sentence(s) – Cited sentence(s) – Relationship between them
  • 14. Problematic Citation • Cherry picking – Attributes of the topic network (consistent on this?) • Ignoring related work outside a clique – Attributes of the author network (consistent on this?) • Playing telephone with review papers – Citations to review papers – Citations from review papers
  • 15. Chen, Chaomei, Zhigang Hu, Jared Milbank, and Timothy Schultz. (2013) "A visual analytic study of retracted articles in scientific literature." Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 64(2): 234-253. https://doi.org/10.1002/asi.22755 Dubin, David. (2004) "The most influential paper Gerard Salton never wrote." Library Trends 52(4):748–764. https://www.ideals.illinois.edu/handle/2142/1697 Duyx, Bram, Miriam JE Urlings, Gerard MH Swaen, Lex M. Bouter, and Maurice P. Zeegers. (2017) "Selective citation in the literature on swimming in chlorinated water and childhood asthma: a network analysis." Research Integrity and Peer Review 2(1): 17. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41073-017-0041-z Fulton, Ashley S., Alison M. Coates, Marie T. Williams, Peter RC Howe, and Alison M. Hill. (2015) "Persistent citation of the only published randomised controlled trial of omega-3 supplementation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease six years after its retraction." Publications 3(1): 17-26. https://10.3390/publications3010017 Greenberg, Steven A. (2009) "How citation distortions create unfounded authority: analysis of a citation network." BMJ 339: b2680. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.b2680 Greenberg, Steven A. (2011) "Understanding belief using citation networks." Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17(2): 389-393. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365- 2753.2011.01646.x Marshall, Joe, and Conor Linehan. (2017) "Misrepresentation of health research in exertion games literature." Proceedings of the 2017 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. 4899-4910. https://doi.org/10.1145/3025453.3025691

Editor's Notes

  1. The structure of citation networks provides evidence about how scientific information is diffused. Problematic citation patterns include the selective citation of positive findings, citation bias, as well as the continued citation of retracted literature (i.e. literature formally withdrawn due to error, fraud, or ethical problems). For instance, there is some evidence that positive results tend to receive more citations. The public domain licensing of the Open Citations Corpus makes it possible, in principle, to estimate the likelihood that any network of research papers suffers from problematic citation. To-date, problematic citation been documented ad-hoc, in several striking studies. In Alzheimer's disease research, biased citation, ignoring critical findings, was used to support successful U.S. NIH grant proposals (Greenberg 2009). Mistranslation of obesity research has been used to justify exertion game research (Marshall & Linehan 2017). Citation of fraudulent research about Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease continued after its retraction (Fulton et al. 2015). The data resulting from such studies is of great use to my lab in replicating and determining how to generalize the detection of problematic citation patterns. Previously, the detection of problematic citation patterns has been a side effect of astute researchers, noticing suspicious findings while conducting systematic literature reviews. This talk will describe work-in-progress in my lab detecting problematic citation patterns using natural language processing, combined with network analysis on the Open Citations Corpus.
  2. 2698 2nd generation citations
  3. https://www.ideals.illinois.edu/bitstream/handle/2142/1697/Dubin748764.pdf?sequence=2 “An often cited overview paper titled “A Vector Space Model for Information Retrieval” (alleged to have been published in 1975) does not exist, and citations to it represent a confusion of two 1975 articles, neither of which were overviews of the VSM as a model of information retrieval.” “In giving credit to Salton for the vector model, a number of authors cite an overview paper titled “A Vector Space Model for Information Retrieval,” which some show as published in the JASIS in 1975 and others as published in the Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery (CACM) in 1975. In fact, no such article was ever published, and citations to it usually represent a confusion of two 1975 articles (Salton, Wong, & Yang, 1975; Salton, Yang, & Yu, 1975), neither of which were overviews of the VSM as it is generally understood " “locating papers containing the mistaken citation is very dif- ficult using conventional citation databases such as the Web of Science. But discovery of the errors is greatly aided by search engines such as Google and CiteSeer—systems that employ techniques similar to those that Salton himself refined and recommended.”
  4. Citing supportive but not critical data