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Problem characteristics
• To choose an appropriate method for a particular problem first we need to
categorize the problem based on the following characteristics.
• Is the problem decomposable into small sub-problems which are easy to
solve?
• Can solution steps be ignored or undone?
• Is the universe of the problem is predictable?
• Is a good solution to the problem is absolute or relative?
• Is the solution to the problem a state or a path?
• What is the role of knowledge in solving a problem using artificial
intelligence?
• Does the task of solving a problem require human interaction?
1. Is the problem decomposable into small sub-problems which are easy to solve?
Can the problem be broken down into smaller problems to be solved independently?
The decomposable problem can be solved easily.
Example: In this case, the problem is divided into smaller problems. The smaller
problems are solved independently. Finally, the result is merged to get the final result.
Is the problem decomposable
2. Can solution steps be ignored or undone?
In the Theorem Proving problem, a lemma that has been proved can be ignored for the next steps.
Such problems are called Ignorable problems.
In the 8-Puzzle, Moves can be undone and backtracked.
Such problems are called Recoverable problems.
In Playing Chess, moves can be retracted.
Such problems are called Irrecoverable problems.
Ignorable problems can be solved using a simple control structure that never backtracks. Recoverable
problems can be solved using backtracking. Irrecoverable problems can be solved by recoverable style
methods via planning.
3. Is the universe of the problem is predictable?
In Playing cards, We cannot know exactly where all the cards are or what the
other players will do on their turns.
Uncertain outcome!
For certain-outcome problems, planning can be used to generate a sequence of
operators that is guaranteed to lead to a solution.
For uncertain-outcome problems, a sequence of generated operators can only
have a good probability of leading to a solution. Plan revision is made as the plan
is carried out and the necessary feedback is provided.
4. Is a good solution to the problem is absolute or relative?
The Travelling Salesman Problem, we have to try all paths to find the shortest one.
Any path problem can be solved using heuristics that suggest good paths to explore.
For best-path problems, a much more exhaustive search will be performed.
5. Is the solution to the problem a state or a path
The Water Jug Problem, the path that leads to the goal must be reported.
A path-solution problem can be reformulated as a state-solution problem by describing a state as a partial path to a
solution. The question is whether that is natural or not.
6. What is the role of knowledge in solving a problem using artificial intelligence?
Playing Chess
Consider again the problem of playing chess. Suppose you had unlimited computing power available. How much
knowledge would be required by a perfect program? The answer to this question is very little—just the rules for
determining legal moves and some simple control mechanism that implements an appropriate search procedure.
Additional knowledge about such things as good strategy and tactics could of course help considerably to constrain
the search and speed up the execution of the program. Knowledge is important only to constrain the search for a
solution.
7. Does the task of solving a problem require human interaction?
Sometimes it is useful to program computers to solve problems in ways that the majority of people would
not be able to understand.
This is fine if the level of the interaction between the computer and its human users is problem-in solution-
out.
But increasingly we are building programs that require intermediate interaction with people, both to
provide additional input to the program and to provide additional reassurance to the user.
The solitary problem, in which there is no intermediate communication and no demand for an explanation
of the reasoning process.
The conversational problem, in which intermediate communication is to provide either additional
assistance to the computer or additional information to the user.
AI Problem Analysis
When analysing any given problems in AI, we go through a number of different stages. These stages are:
Defining the Problem
Gathering relevant Data
Designing the Model
Model Training
Evaluating the Model
Quality Assurance
Deployment
Maintenance of the Application
Problem Reduction
It is not an easy task to find the search space for all problems. When the problems get complex in
nature it becomes easy to solve the problem by breaking it into smaller problems which would be
easier to solve as compared to the problem as a whole. This is where problem reduction method
is used.
In problem reduction method, the given problem is divided or broken down into a set of sub
problems. Now, a solution to these sub problems is easy to obtain. Once the solutions to the sub
problems are derived, these solutions are hence combined back in order to get to the solution for
the problem as a whole.
The structure used to represent such problems is known as an AND OR Graph / Tree. In this graph,
we select successor nodes based on the branch. If the branch is an AND branch, then we find
solutions to all successors here. But, when we have an OR branch, then we find one best successor
as the solution. Hence this graph is named the AND OR graph (or tree).
Example for AND OR Graph
Let us assume a situation where you want to acquire a car for yourselves. Now, we would
represent this situation using the AND OR graph as follows.
AND-OR Graph
If we take a look at the graph, we come to know that if we pursue the AND branch then we will
have to consider both the successor nodes as a combined solution for the parent node. Hence as
a result we will first have to earn money first and then buy a car. But in case of an OR branch we
simply select one alternate which is to steal here.
problem characterstics.pptx
problem characterstics.pptx
problem characterstics.pptx
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problem characterstics.pptx

  • 2. • To choose an appropriate method for a particular problem first we need to categorize the problem based on the following characteristics. • Is the problem decomposable into small sub-problems which are easy to solve? • Can solution steps be ignored or undone? • Is the universe of the problem is predictable? • Is a good solution to the problem is absolute or relative? • Is the solution to the problem a state or a path? • What is the role of knowledge in solving a problem using artificial intelligence? • Does the task of solving a problem require human interaction?
  • 3. 1. Is the problem decomposable into small sub-problems which are easy to solve? Can the problem be broken down into smaller problems to be solved independently? The decomposable problem can be solved easily. Example: In this case, the problem is divided into smaller problems. The smaller problems are solved independently. Finally, the result is merged to get the final result. Is the problem decomposable
  • 4. 2. Can solution steps be ignored or undone? In the Theorem Proving problem, a lemma that has been proved can be ignored for the next steps. Such problems are called Ignorable problems. In the 8-Puzzle, Moves can be undone and backtracked. Such problems are called Recoverable problems. In Playing Chess, moves can be retracted. Such problems are called Irrecoverable problems. Ignorable problems can be solved using a simple control structure that never backtracks. Recoverable problems can be solved using backtracking. Irrecoverable problems can be solved by recoverable style methods via planning.
  • 5. 3. Is the universe of the problem is predictable? In Playing cards, We cannot know exactly where all the cards are or what the other players will do on their turns. Uncertain outcome! For certain-outcome problems, planning can be used to generate a sequence of operators that is guaranteed to lead to a solution. For uncertain-outcome problems, a sequence of generated operators can only have a good probability of leading to a solution. Plan revision is made as the plan is carried out and the necessary feedback is provided.
  • 6. 4. Is a good solution to the problem is absolute or relative? The Travelling Salesman Problem, we have to try all paths to find the shortest one. Any path problem can be solved using heuristics that suggest good paths to explore. For best-path problems, a much more exhaustive search will be performed. 5. Is the solution to the problem a state or a path The Water Jug Problem, the path that leads to the goal must be reported. A path-solution problem can be reformulated as a state-solution problem by describing a state as a partial path to a solution. The question is whether that is natural or not. 6. What is the role of knowledge in solving a problem using artificial intelligence? Playing Chess Consider again the problem of playing chess. Suppose you had unlimited computing power available. How much knowledge would be required by a perfect program? The answer to this question is very little—just the rules for determining legal moves and some simple control mechanism that implements an appropriate search procedure. Additional knowledge about such things as good strategy and tactics could of course help considerably to constrain the search and speed up the execution of the program. Knowledge is important only to constrain the search for a solution.
  • 7. 7. Does the task of solving a problem require human interaction? Sometimes it is useful to program computers to solve problems in ways that the majority of people would not be able to understand. This is fine if the level of the interaction between the computer and its human users is problem-in solution- out. But increasingly we are building programs that require intermediate interaction with people, both to provide additional input to the program and to provide additional reassurance to the user. The solitary problem, in which there is no intermediate communication and no demand for an explanation of the reasoning process. The conversational problem, in which intermediate communication is to provide either additional assistance to the computer or additional information to the user.
  • 8. AI Problem Analysis When analysing any given problems in AI, we go through a number of different stages. These stages are: Defining the Problem Gathering relevant Data Designing the Model Model Training Evaluating the Model Quality Assurance Deployment Maintenance of the Application
  • 9. Problem Reduction It is not an easy task to find the search space for all problems. When the problems get complex in nature it becomes easy to solve the problem by breaking it into smaller problems which would be easier to solve as compared to the problem as a whole. This is where problem reduction method is used. In problem reduction method, the given problem is divided or broken down into a set of sub problems. Now, a solution to these sub problems is easy to obtain. Once the solutions to the sub problems are derived, these solutions are hence combined back in order to get to the solution for the problem as a whole. The structure used to represent such problems is known as an AND OR Graph / Tree. In this graph, we select successor nodes based on the branch. If the branch is an AND branch, then we find solutions to all successors here. But, when we have an OR branch, then we find one best successor as the solution. Hence this graph is named the AND OR graph (or tree).
  • 10. Example for AND OR Graph Let us assume a situation where you want to acquire a car for yourselves. Now, we would represent this situation using the AND OR graph as follows. AND-OR Graph If we take a look at the graph, we come to know that if we pursue the AND branch then we will have to consider both the successor nodes as a combined solution for the parent node. Hence as a result we will first have to earn money first and then buy a car. But in case of an OR branch we simply select one alternate which is to steal here.