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Preventive	
  Paediatric	
  Osteopathy	
  	
  
Luc	
  Peeters,	
  MSc.Ost.	
  &	
  Grégoire	
  Lason,	
  MSc.Ost.	
  
The	
  International	
  Academy	
  of	
  Osteopathy	
  -­‐	
  IAO	
  

	
  
www.osteopathy.eu	
  	
  

Osteopaths often treat children with different kinds of disorders.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), restlessness, food intolerance,
behaviour problems, motoric retardation, sleep disorders, Minimal Brain Damage
(MBD)… are all familiar disorders on which osteopathy, and craniosacral osteopathy
in particular, tries to have a positive influence.

Sometimes osteopaths have an effect on the health and functioning of these children
(or they think they do), and sometimes they don’t.

The well trained osteopath, who keeps up with recent scientific findings, must be
aware that there is more and more proof that several of these disorders are caused
during pregnancy and that information towards pregnant women and towards women
who want to get pregnant is of the outmost importance to have the maximum chance
on a healthy and happy baby that grows up with all possible chances to get a happy
and healthy life.




When a mother doesn’t consume enough essential fatty acids during pregnancy and
lactation, brain, eyes and liver of a child will not develop properly. Long-chain
polyunsaturated fatty acids from biosynthesis in the mothers’ liver are essential
components of the cell membranes of the brain, retina and liver, foetal and new-born
heart. (Bautista and Zambrano 2010) The mother’s liver must therefore work
properly.

Glucose deficiency is the starting signal for childbirth. When a child uses some 15%
of the mothers’ metabolism, childbirth is near. It is shown that girls that suffer from
eating disturbances such as anorexia, bulimia had often problems around childbirth.
One can ask the question whether their hippocampus couldn’t sufficiently cope with
glucose levels at that time. (Swaab 2010) Could the carbohydrate metabolism of the


	
                                                                                   1	
  
mother play a role? Even childhood adversities versus certain food that leads to
weight problems during adolescence and early adulthood can be caused by parental
behaviour. (Johnson et al 2002)

Thyroid hormones are related with brain development and metabolic regulation.
Mothers that have insufficient intake of Iodine increase the risk of neonatal mortality,
decrease of intelligence, delayed growth and congenital deformities. Iodine
supplementation during pregnancy decreases these phenomena. (de Luis et al 2005)

The antigens in the mother’s diet influence the risk of developing allergies during
pregnancy and therefore a high intake of carbohydrates and lipids may accelerate
allergic disease (atopic dermatitis, food allergy, asthmatic bronchitis) in infants.
(Ushiyama et al 2002)

The study of Torres et al (2010) showed that protein restriction during pregnancy
could negatively influence normal foetal brain development by changes in maternal
lipid metabolism.

An altered neurochemical profile of the developing hippocampus may underlie some
of the cognitive deficits observed in human infants with perinatal iron deficiency. (Rao
et al 2003) Perinatal iron deficiency results in persistent hippocampus-based
cognitive deficits in adulthood despite iron supplementation. (Rao et al 2011)

Elevated pre-pregnancy body mass index, excessive gestational weight gain, and
gestational diabetes are known determinants of foetal growth.
Severe antenatal stress following maternal bereavement, especially due to loss of a
child or a husband, is associated with an increased risk of certain childhood cancers
in the offspring, such as hepatic cancer and non-Hodgkin disease. (Vestergaard et al
2012)

Children have a high sensitivity to maternal stress in utero and in early childhood,
those with higher stress in both periods were particularly at risk for wheeze and
asthma. (Chiu et al 2012)

Alcohol, morphine, nicotine, marijuana, and possibly cocaine can influence
reproductive aspects of the neurobehavioral sexual differentiation process to varying
degrees. (Mc Givern and Handa 1996)

Maternal stress during pregnancy has been repeatedly associated with problematic
child development. Prenatal exposure to severe life events increases the risk of
hospitalization for asthma in the offspring. Foetal programming may be a plausible
explanation for the association. (Khashan et al 2012)

Prenatal exposure to drugs or alcohol is associated with physical birth defects and an
increased risk of neuropsychological problems. Other factors, such as maternal
psychopathology, stress and poor living circumstances, may influence childhood
development in addition to the teratological effect of prenatal substance exposure.
(Irner et al 2012)

Anxiety, depression, and stress during pregnancy are associated with offspring
childhood overweight at age 7. (Ingstrup et al 2012)


	
                                                                                    2	
  
Androgens are deficient in the Central Nervous System (CNS) of male homosexuals.
Hormonal factors (gonadal and adrenal hormones, hormone receptors, transduction
mechanism of the hormonal signal, neurosteroids, neurotransmitters etc.) play a
determining role in the formation of gender identity. (Corsello et al 2011, Giordano
and Giusti 1995) Can it be that the nutrition of pregnant mothers (antiandrogens
coming from pesticides, insecticides, cosmetic parabens, spearmint, some herbs)
plays a role in gender identity? (Gray et al 2001)

Maternal neuroticism, which predisposes to negative mood, may be a risk factor for
foetal growth restriction. (Chatzi et al 2012)

Stress in the intrauterine milieu may impact brain development and emergent
function, with long-term implications in terms of susceptibility for affective disorders.
(Buss et al 2012)

All these data (and there is much more research to be done in this area) suggest that
different problems in childhood can be prevented during pregnancy and during
lactation.

The major problem is that mothers and future mothers are not always well enough
informed that the influence of their lifestyle, stress level and nutrition is of the outmost
importance to deliver a healthy baby with all possible chances in life.

We see here a major role, not only for general practitioners, gynaecologists and even
schools but also for osteopaths to deliver that necessary information to pregnant
women and future mothers.

Even the social health care system will benefit from a major information campaign in
schools and in the practices of medical doctors, gynaecologists and osteopaths.
Healthy children cost less and when eventual problems persist during later life the
society pays for the treatments.

Major advices to be given:
      No alcohol, tobacco or drug use minimum 3 months before and during
      pregnancy and lactation.
      Do not get pregnant in life periods with lots of stress. Choose life moments
      with no stress and lots of happiness.
      No stress and sufficient relaxation as well physically as mentally during
      pregnancy and lactation.
      Use no medication of whatever kind when possible (there are of course
      exceptions but get informed by your medical doctor on the possible risk for the
      pregnancy and foetus).
      See to it that you have a normal BMI before getting pregnant and see to it that
      your body weight doesn’t change drastically during pregnancy.
      See to it that you have a healthy diet with sufficient polyunsaturated fatty
      acids, normal amounts of carbohydrates, sufficient Iodine, proteins, vitamins
      and minerals.
      Avoid working with chemicals of whatever kind.



	
                                                                                        3	
  
Avoid food and products with anti-androgen effect and xeno-oestrogens or
       other toxic substances.
       Use non-medical remedies for problems like nausea, heartburn,
       constipation…
       Exercise but don’t exaggerate.
       Practice relaxation, yoga, meditation, mindfulness, …
       Avoid illness.
       Check your family and partners’ health for genetic disorders. Eventually
       consult your doctor.
       If you have a medical condition, make sure it is under control, eventually with
       medication but ask your doctor about the influence on the pregnancy.
       Your male partner also has to be informed. Male partners can improve their
       own reproductive health and overall health by limiting alcohol, quitting smoking
       or drug use, making healthy food choices, and reducing stress. Studies show
       that men, who drink a lot, smoke, or use drugs can have problems with their
       sperm quality. These might cause you to have problems getting pregnant.
       Your partner should also talk to his doctor about his.
       Get treated by an osteopath, even when there are no complaints. He/she will
       optimize your health with the possibilities he/she has.
       Go to your dentist before getting pregnant.
       Don’t ask for medication during labour and childbirth.

Bibliography

Bautista, C. J., & Zambrano, E. (n.d.). (2010) [Biology and biochemical aspects of
long-chains polyunsaturated fatty acid during gestation]. Revista de investigación
clínica; organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición, 62(3), 267-75.
Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20815133

Chatzi, L., Koutra, K., Vassilaki, M., Vardiampasis, A., Georgiou, V., Koutis, A.,
Lionis, C., et al. (2012). Maternal personality traits and risk of preterm birth and fetal
growth restriction. European psychiatry  : the journal of the Association of European
Psychiatrists. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22534551

Corsello, S. M., Di Donna, V., Senes, P., Luotto, V., Ricciato, M. P., Paragliola, R. M.,
& Pontecorvi, A. (2011). Biological aspects of gender disorders. Minerva
endocrinologica,           36(4),          325-39.             Retrieved            from
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22322655

Mathilda Chiu, Y.-H., Coull, B. A., Cohen, S., Wooley, A., & Wright, R. J. (2012).
Prenatal and postnatal maternal stress and wheeze in urban children: effect of
maternal sensitization. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine,
186(2), 147-54. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22582161

de Luis, D. A., Aller, R., & Izaola, O. (2005). [Iodine deficiency during pregnancy ].
Anales de medicina interna (Madrid, Spain  : 1984), 22(9), 445-8. Retrieved from
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16386080




	
                                                                                      4	
  
Gray LE, Ostby J, Furr J, Wolf CJ, Lambright C, Parks L, Veeramachaneni DN,
Wilson V, Price M, Hotchkiss A, Orlando E, Guillette L. (2001). "Effects of
environmental antiandrogens on reproductive development in experimental animals".
Human Reproduction Update 2 (3): 248–64.

Irner, T. B., Teasdale, T. W., & Olofsson, M. (2012). Cognitive and social
development in preschool children born to women using substances. Journal of
addictive        diseases,       31(1),     29-44.     Retrieved       from
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22356667

Ingstrup, K. G., Schou Andersen, C., Ajslev, T. A., Pedersen, P., Sørensen, T. I. A.,
& Nohr, E. A. (2012). Maternal Distress during Pregnancy and Offspring Childhood
Overweight.      Journal  of    obesity,     2012,    462845.     Retrieved    from
http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3364588&tool=pmcentrez
&rendertype=abstract

Johnson, J. G., Cohen, P., Kasen, S., & Brook, J. S. (2002). Childhood adversities
associated with risk for eating disorders or weight problems during adolescence or
early adulthood. The American journal of psychiatry, 159(3), 394–400. Retrieved
from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11870002

Khashan, A. S., Wicks, S., Dalman, C., Henriksen, T. B., Li, J., Mortensen, P. B., &
Kenny, L. C. (2012). Prenatal stress and risk of asthma hospitalization in the
offspring: a Swedish population-based study. Psychosomatic medicine, 74(6), 635-
41. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22753636

McGivern, R. F., & Handa, R. J. (1996). Prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse:
methodological considerations and effects on sexual differentiation. NIDA research
monograph,              164,          78-124.            Retrieved            from
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8809869

Rao, R., Tkac, I., Townsend, E. L., Gruetter, R., & Georgieff, M. K. (2003). Perinatal
iron deficiency alters the neurochemical profile of the developing rat hippocampus.
The      Journal     of     nutrition, 133(10),       3215-21.     Retrieved     from
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14519813

Rao, R., Tkac, I., Schmidt, A. T., & Georgieff, M. K. (2011). Fetal and neonatal iron
deficiency causes volume loss and alters the neurochemical profile of the adult rat
hippocampus.      Nutritional  neuroscience,     14(2),   59-65.    Retrieved   from
http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3170050&tool=pmcentrez
&rendertype=abstract

Swaab D. (2010) Wij zin ons brein. Van baarmoeder tot Alzheimer. Ed. Contact,
Nederland.

Torres, N., Bautista, C. J., Tovar, A. R., Ordáz, G., Rodríguez-Cruz, M., Ortiz, V.,
Granados, O., et al. (2010). Protein restriction during pregnancy affects maternal liver
lipid metabolism and fetal brain lipid composition in the rat. American journal of
physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism, 298(2), E270-7. Retrieved from



	
                                                                                    5	
  
http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2822484&tool=pmcentrez
&rendertype=abstract

Ushiyama, Y., Matsumoto, K., Shinohara, M., Wakiguchi, H., Sakai, K., Komatsu, T.,
& Yamamoto, S. (n.d.). (2002) Nutrition during pregnancy may be associated with
allergic diseases in infants. Journal of nutritional science and vitaminology, 48(5),
345-351.       Center    for  Academic     Publications    Japan.   Retrieved   from
http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=14749672

Li, J., Vestergaard, M., Obel, C., Cnattingus, S., Gissler, M., Ahrensberg, J., & Olsen,
J. (2012). Antenatal maternal bereavement and childhood cancer in the offspring: a
population-based cohort study in 6 million children. British journal of cancer.
Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22759879

                                             	
  
	
  

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Preventive Paediatric Osteopathy

  • 1. Preventive  Paediatric  Osteopathy     Luc  Peeters,  MSc.Ost.  &  Grégoire  Lason,  MSc.Ost.   The  International  Academy  of  Osteopathy  -­‐  IAO     www.osteopathy.eu     Osteopaths often treat children with different kinds of disorders. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), restlessness, food intolerance, behaviour problems, motoric retardation, sleep disorders, Minimal Brain Damage (MBD)… are all familiar disorders on which osteopathy, and craniosacral osteopathy in particular, tries to have a positive influence. Sometimes osteopaths have an effect on the health and functioning of these children (or they think they do), and sometimes they don’t. The well trained osteopath, who keeps up with recent scientific findings, must be aware that there is more and more proof that several of these disorders are caused during pregnancy and that information towards pregnant women and towards women who want to get pregnant is of the outmost importance to have the maximum chance on a healthy and happy baby that grows up with all possible chances to get a happy and healthy life. When a mother doesn’t consume enough essential fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation, brain, eyes and liver of a child will not develop properly. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids from biosynthesis in the mothers’ liver are essential components of the cell membranes of the brain, retina and liver, foetal and new-born heart. (Bautista and Zambrano 2010) The mother’s liver must therefore work properly. Glucose deficiency is the starting signal for childbirth. When a child uses some 15% of the mothers’ metabolism, childbirth is near. It is shown that girls that suffer from eating disturbances such as anorexia, bulimia had often problems around childbirth. One can ask the question whether their hippocampus couldn’t sufficiently cope with glucose levels at that time. (Swaab 2010) Could the carbohydrate metabolism of the   1  
  • 2. mother play a role? Even childhood adversities versus certain food that leads to weight problems during adolescence and early adulthood can be caused by parental behaviour. (Johnson et al 2002) Thyroid hormones are related with brain development and metabolic regulation. Mothers that have insufficient intake of Iodine increase the risk of neonatal mortality, decrease of intelligence, delayed growth and congenital deformities. Iodine supplementation during pregnancy decreases these phenomena. (de Luis et al 2005) The antigens in the mother’s diet influence the risk of developing allergies during pregnancy and therefore a high intake of carbohydrates and lipids may accelerate allergic disease (atopic dermatitis, food allergy, asthmatic bronchitis) in infants. (Ushiyama et al 2002) The study of Torres et al (2010) showed that protein restriction during pregnancy could negatively influence normal foetal brain development by changes in maternal lipid metabolism. An altered neurochemical profile of the developing hippocampus may underlie some of the cognitive deficits observed in human infants with perinatal iron deficiency. (Rao et al 2003) Perinatal iron deficiency results in persistent hippocampus-based cognitive deficits in adulthood despite iron supplementation. (Rao et al 2011) Elevated pre-pregnancy body mass index, excessive gestational weight gain, and gestational diabetes are known determinants of foetal growth. Severe antenatal stress following maternal bereavement, especially due to loss of a child or a husband, is associated with an increased risk of certain childhood cancers in the offspring, such as hepatic cancer and non-Hodgkin disease. (Vestergaard et al 2012) Children have a high sensitivity to maternal stress in utero and in early childhood, those with higher stress in both periods were particularly at risk for wheeze and asthma. (Chiu et al 2012) Alcohol, morphine, nicotine, marijuana, and possibly cocaine can influence reproductive aspects of the neurobehavioral sexual differentiation process to varying degrees. (Mc Givern and Handa 1996) Maternal stress during pregnancy has been repeatedly associated with problematic child development. Prenatal exposure to severe life events increases the risk of hospitalization for asthma in the offspring. Foetal programming may be a plausible explanation for the association. (Khashan et al 2012) Prenatal exposure to drugs or alcohol is associated with physical birth defects and an increased risk of neuropsychological problems. Other factors, such as maternal psychopathology, stress and poor living circumstances, may influence childhood development in addition to the teratological effect of prenatal substance exposure. (Irner et al 2012) Anxiety, depression, and stress during pregnancy are associated with offspring childhood overweight at age 7. (Ingstrup et al 2012)   2  
  • 3. Androgens are deficient in the Central Nervous System (CNS) of male homosexuals. Hormonal factors (gonadal and adrenal hormones, hormone receptors, transduction mechanism of the hormonal signal, neurosteroids, neurotransmitters etc.) play a determining role in the formation of gender identity. (Corsello et al 2011, Giordano and Giusti 1995) Can it be that the nutrition of pregnant mothers (antiandrogens coming from pesticides, insecticides, cosmetic parabens, spearmint, some herbs) plays a role in gender identity? (Gray et al 2001) Maternal neuroticism, which predisposes to negative mood, may be a risk factor for foetal growth restriction. (Chatzi et al 2012) Stress in the intrauterine milieu may impact brain development and emergent function, with long-term implications in terms of susceptibility for affective disorders. (Buss et al 2012) All these data (and there is much more research to be done in this area) suggest that different problems in childhood can be prevented during pregnancy and during lactation. The major problem is that mothers and future mothers are not always well enough informed that the influence of their lifestyle, stress level and nutrition is of the outmost importance to deliver a healthy baby with all possible chances in life. We see here a major role, not only for general practitioners, gynaecologists and even schools but also for osteopaths to deliver that necessary information to pregnant women and future mothers. Even the social health care system will benefit from a major information campaign in schools and in the practices of medical doctors, gynaecologists and osteopaths. Healthy children cost less and when eventual problems persist during later life the society pays for the treatments. Major advices to be given: No alcohol, tobacco or drug use minimum 3 months before and during pregnancy and lactation. Do not get pregnant in life periods with lots of stress. Choose life moments with no stress and lots of happiness. No stress and sufficient relaxation as well physically as mentally during pregnancy and lactation. Use no medication of whatever kind when possible (there are of course exceptions but get informed by your medical doctor on the possible risk for the pregnancy and foetus). See to it that you have a normal BMI before getting pregnant and see to it that your body weight doesn’t change drastically during pregnancy. See to it that you have a healthy diet with sufficient polyunsaturated fatty acids, normal amounts of carbohydrates, sufficient Iodine, proteins, vitamins and minerals. Avoid working with chemicals of whatever kind.   3  
  • 4. Avoid food and products with anti-androgen effect and xeno-oestrogens or other toxic substances. Use non-medical remedies for problems like nausea, heartburn, constipation… Exercise but don’t exaggerate. Practice relaxation, yoga, meditation, mindfulness, … Avoid illness. Check your family and partners’ health for genetic disorders. Eventually consult your doctor. If you have a medical condition, make sure it is under control, eventually with medication but ask your doctor about the influence on the pregnancy. Your male partner also has to be informed. Male partners can improve their own reproductive health and overall health by limiting alcohol, quitting smoking or drug use, making healthy food choices, and reducing stress. Studies show that men, who drink a lot, smoke, or use drugs can have problems with their sperm quality. These might cause you to have problems getting pregnant. Your partner should also talk to his doctor about his. Get treated by an osteopath, even when there are no complaints. He/she will optimize your health with the possibilities he/she has. Go to your dentist before getting pregnant. Don’t ask for medication during labour and childbirth. Bibliography Bautista, C. J., & Zambrano, E. (n.d.). (2010) [Biology and biochemical aspects of long-chains polyunsaturated fatty acid during gestation]. Revista de investigación clínica; organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición, 62(3), 267-75. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20815133 Chatzi, L., Koutra, K., Vassilaki, M., Vardiampasis, A., Georgiou, V., Koutis, A., Lionis, C., et al. (2012). Maternal personality traits and risk of preterm birth and fetal growth restriction. European psychiatry  : the journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22534551 Corsello, S. M., Di Donna, V., Senes, P., Luotto, V., Ricciato, M. P., Paragliola, R. M., & Pontecorvi, A. (2011). Biological aspects of gender disorders. Minerva endocrinologica, 36(4), 325-39. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22322655 Mathilda Chiu, Y.-H., Coull, B. A., Cohen, S., Wooley, A., & Wright, R. J. (2012). Prenatal and postnatal maternal stress and wheeze in urban children: effect of maternal sensitization. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 186(2), 147-54. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22582161 de Luis, D. A., Aller, R., & Izaola, O. (2005). [Iodine deficiency during pregnancy ]. Anales de medicina interna (Madrid, Spain  : 1984), 22(9), 445-8. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16386080   4  
  • 5. Gray LE, Ostby J, Furr J, Wolf CJ, Lambright C, Parks L, Veeramachaneni DN, Wilson V, Price M, Hotchkiss A, Orlando E, Guillette L. (2001). "Effects of environmental antiandrogens on reproductive development in experimental animals". Human Reproduction Update 2 (3): 248–64. Irner, T. B., Teasdale, T. W., & Olofsson, M. (2012). Cognitive and social development in preschool children born to women using substances. Journal of addictive diseases, 31(1), 29-44. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22356667 Ingstrup, K. G., Schou Andersen, C., Ajslev, T. A., Pedersen, P., Sørensen, T. I. A., & Nohr, E. A. (2012). Maternal Distress during Pregnancy and Offspring Childhood Overweight. Journal of obesity, 2012, 462845. Retrieved from http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3364588&tool=pmcentrez &rendertype=abstract Johnson, J. G., Cohen, P., Kasen, S., & Brook, J. S. (2002). Childhood adversities associated with risk for eating disorders or weight problems during adolescence or early adulthood. The American journal of psychiatry, 159(3), 394–400. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11870002 Khashan, A. S., Wicks, S., Dalman, C., Henriksen, T. B., Li, J., Mortensen, P. B., & Kenny, L. C. (2012). Prenatal stress and risk of asthma hospitalization in the offspring: a Swedish population-based study. Psychosomatic medicine, 74(6), 635- 41. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22753636 McGivern, R. F., & Handa, R. J. (1996). Prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse: methodological considerations and effects on sexual differentiation. NIDA research monograph, 164, 78-124. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8809869 Rao, R., Tkac, I., Townsend, E. L., Gruetter, R., & Georgieff, M. K. (2003). Perinatal iron deficiency alters the neurochemical profile of the developing rat hippocampus. The Journal of nutrition, 133(10), 3215-21. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14519813 Rao, R., Tkac, I., Schmidt, A. T., & Georgieff, M. K. (2011). Fetal and neonatal iron deficiency causes volume loss and alters the neurochemical profile of the adult rat hippocampus. Nutritional neuroscience, 14(2), 59-65. Retrieved from http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3170050&tool=pmcentrez &rendertype=abstract Swaab D. (2010) Wij zin ons brein. Van baarmoeder tot Alzheimer. Ed. Contact, Nederland. Torres, N., Bautista, C. J., Tovar, A. R., Ordáz, G., Rodríguez-Cruz, M., Ortiz, V., Granados, O., et al. (2010). Protein restriction during pregnancy affects maternal liver lipid metabolism and fetal brain lipid composition in the rat. American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism, 298(2), E270-7. Retrieved from   5  
  • 6. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2822484&tool=pmcentrez &rendertype=abstract Ushiyama, Y., Matsumoto, K., Shinohara, M., Wakiguchi, H., Sakai, K., Komatsu, T., & Yamamoto, S. (n.d.). (2002) Nutrition during pregnancy may be associated with allergic diseases in infants. Journal of nutritional science and vitaminology, 48(5), 345-351. Center for Academic Publications Japan. Retrieved from http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=14749672 Li, J., Vestergaard, M., Obel, C., Cnattingus, S., Gissler, M., Ahrensberg, J., & Olsen, J. (2012). Antenatal maternal bereavement and childhood cancer in the offspring: a population-based cohort study in 6 million children. British journal of cancer. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22759879     No   part   of   this   article   may   be   http://www.facebook.com/IAOdeutsch   All  rights  reserved.  ©  2012.     reproduced   or   made   public   by   http://www.facebook.com/IAOenglish   printing,   photocopying,   microfilming,   http://www.facebook.com/IAOnederlands   or   by   any   means   without   the   prior   http://www.facebook.com/IAOfrancais   written  permission  of  the  publisher.                   iNeuro  APP   iCranialNerves  APP     6