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Personal Informatics & HCI

  Ian Li
  HCI Institute
  Carnegie Mellon University



Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
Gnothi seauton.




Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
   2
Know thyself.




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   3
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   4
Personal Informatics
  A class of systems that help people 

  collect and reflect on their behavior 

  to gain self-knowledge




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http://personalinformatics.org/tools

  Physical Activity

  Finance

  Electricity

  Diabetes

  Health

  Mood


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HCI can help with the design of
  personal informatics systems.




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Human-Computer Interaction
  The study of interaction between people and
  computers

  Intersection of computer science, behavioral
  sciences, and design




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Why HCI?
  Personal informatics systems must provide
  users with different kinds of support.
  •  Make daily usage easier and facilitate use
     over a long period of time.
  •  Organize the data.
  •  Help users understand the data.
  •  Help users act on new knowledge.

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Alice
                                              •  20 years old
                                              •  Family history of heart
                                                 disease
                                              •  Wants to be more active,
                                                 but doesnʼt know how
                                                 because sheʼs busy



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1. Alice prepares.




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2. Alice collects data.
                                                   Mon   
1573
                                                   Tue   
4392
                                                   Wed   
4537
                                                   Thu   
5842
                                                   Fri   
10258
                                                   Sat   
7528
                                                   Sun   
1368
                                                   Mon   
1497
                                                   Tue   
1837


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3. Alice transcribes data. 
  Transcribe to Excel




                                       M
          T
 W Th
 F
 Sa
 Su
 M
   T



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                                 13
4. Alice reflects on the data.

                                                           Active



                                  Inactive
                          Inactive



                                       M
          T
 W Th
 F
 Sa
 Su
 M
   T



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                                 14
5. Alice takes action.
                                                             Walk in the park
                                                               instead of
                                                              watching TV




                                       M
          T
 W Th
 F
 Sa
 Su
 M
   T



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                                 15
PREPARATION        COLLECTION          INTEGRATION   REFLECTION   ACTION




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PREPARATION   COLLECTION   INTEGRATION   REFLECTION   ACTION




  Collection
  The stage when people collect information
  about themselves (e.g., inner thoughts, behavior,
  social interactions, and their immediate environment).




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PREPARATION   COLLECTION   INTEGRATION   REFLECTION   ACTION




  Collection Barriers
  •  Using the tool
  •  Remembering
  •  Lack of time
  •  Motivation
  •  Finding data
  •  Accuracy
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PREPARATION   COLLECTION   INTEGRATION   REFLECTION   ACTION




  Collection Barriers
  •  Using the tool
                                         One problem is:

  •  Remembering
                                            “Keeping up the
  •  Lack of time
                                           motivation to do so;
  •  Motivation
                                             like finding payback
                                                             for the investment of
  •  Finding data
                                                             time and effort.”
  •  Accuracy
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PREPARATION   COLLECTION   INTEGRATION   REFLECTION   ACTION




  Reflection
  The stage when people reflect on their
  personal information.
  •  Users may reflect immediately (short-term)
  •  Or after several days or weeks (long-term) 


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                                       20
PREPARATION   COLLECTION   INTEGRATION   REFLECTION   ACTION




  Reflection Barriers
  •  Lack of time
  •  Self-criticism
  •  Visualization
  •  Interpretation
  •  Sparse data
  •  No context
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PREPARATION   COLLECTION   INTEGRATION   REFLECTION   ACTION




  Reflection Barriers
                                        “Itʼs hard to get a
  •  Lack of time
                                           holistic view of the
  •  Self-criticism
                                         data since the time
                                                             filters are at most one
  •  Visualization
                                                             month and Iʼd like to
  •  Interpretation
                                                             look at several
  •  Sparse data
                                            months at once.”
  •  No context
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                                       22
Properties of the Stages
  1.  Barriers cascade
  2.  Stages are iterative
  3.  User- vs. System-driven
  4.  Facets




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3. User- vs. System-driven

     User-driven
                                  System-driven




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3. User- vs. System-driven
                                             Mon   
1573
                                             Tue   
4392
                                             Wed   
4537
                                             Thu   
5842
                                             Fri   
10258
                                             Sat   
7528
                                             Sun   
1368
                                             Mon   
1497
                                             Tue   
1837




                 User-driven
                      System-driven

  Collection


  Integration


  Reflection

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                    25
3. User- vs. System-driven



                                                   User-driven
   System-driven

  Collection


  Integration


  Reflection

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                            26
3. User- vs. System-driven
  Design Guideline
  Consider the tradeoffs between user-driven
  and system-driven stages.




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   27
Introduction
   Model of Personal Informatics
   Collection vs. Reflection
   Maintaining Compliance
   Increase Use by Sharing
   Easing Data Integration
   Other Projects

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PREPARATION        COLLECTION          INTEGRATION   REFLECTION   ACTION




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                                       29
IMPACT
  Different from most personal informatics
  systems for physical activity:

  •  Collects physical activity information 

     and context (e.g., type of activity, location, people)

  •  Visualizations to help users become aware

     of factors in their lives that affect their
     physical activity.
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               30
Two prototypes – Two studies
  IMPACT 1.0
                                      IMPACT 2.0
  Manual collection
                               Semi-automated
                                                   collection




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IMPACT 1.0




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Awareness of opportunities
  “It turns out I get the most walking done to
  and from work…and walking around my
  neighborhood for an hour or two made a
  difference.” P35




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IMPACT 2.0




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No difference
  Compared to other systems:
  •  No visualizations
  •  Steps-only visualizations




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Long-term value
  Six months later, users who collected
  contextual information reflected on their data
  better.




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Collection vs. Reflection
                                                   Short-term   Long-term
                                                   Reflection
   Reflection

     IMPACT 1.0
 Manual                             GOOD
       NOT GOOD
                 Collection 

     IMPACT 2.0
 Automated                         NOT GOOD
     GOOD
                 Collection




Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
                             39
Introduction
   Model of Personal Informatics
   Collection vs. Reflection
   Maintaining Compliance
   Increase Use by Sharing
   Easing Data Integration
   Other Projects

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   40
Barriers       Example Quote

                                                      Tool (13/67)   “not having ready access to a
                                                                     computer at the time symptoms
                                                                     happen” P6

                                                      Memory         “Forgetting to record it. Because I
                                                      (12/67)        am often not at my personal
                                                                     computer.” P57

                                                      Lack of time “not difficult, time consuming at
            PREPARATION        COLLECTION          INTEGRATION    REFLECTION      ACTION
                                                      (11/67)       times.” P16
                                                      Finding        “Sometimes life isnʼt interesting
                                                      data (7/67)    enough to make me want to write
                                                                     it down, other times I canʼt find
                                                                     any worthy writing material.” P54

                                                      Accuracy       “Guestimating mass of food
                                                      (6/67)         matching homemade or
                                                                     restaurant foods against
                                                                     database entries” P5
                                                      Motivation     “keeping up the motivation to do
                                                      (5/67)         so, finding payback for the
                                                                     investment of time and effort.” P4

Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
                                                           41
Experience Sampling
  Collect self-reports from users
  •  3 questions per self-report
  •  10 self-reports per day
  •  28 days
  •  840 pieces of information from user




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Experience Sampling




Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
Experience Sampling+Feedback




Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
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Increased compliance by 23%




Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
Maintained compliance
                                              Control
         A+I
    A+M

                             1
         Compliance Rate




                           0.8

                           0.6

                           0.4

                           0.2

                             0
                                      P1
             P2
        P3
    P4
   P5


Ian Li               Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
                        51
Personal Insights
  “When I was doing something productive my
  mood was not high. My mood was highest
  when I was playing games.” 

  “Apparently, I am least productive with work
  (Word, Excel) at night when I use AIM. I
  never use AIM in the morning, thus much
  more productive with work.”

Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
   52
Introduction
   Model of Personal Informatics
   Collection vs. Reflection
   Maintaining Compliance
   Increase Use by Sharing
   Easing Data Integration
   Other Projects

Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
   53
PREPARATION        COLLECTION          INTEGRATION   REFLECTION   ACTION




Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
                                       54
System Issues
  Value of self-reflection is not immediate

  Low participation by users




Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
   55
System Issues
  Value of self-reflection is not immediate
  Use sharing as initial motivation
  Low participation by users
  Sharing increases participation 




Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
   56
http://moodjam.org




Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
                     57
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Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
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Introduction
   Model of Personal Informatics
   Collection vs. Reflection
   Maintaining Compliance
   Increase Use by Sharing
   Easing Data Integration
   Other Projects

Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
   60
Barriers       Example Quote

                                                      Tool (13/67)   “not having ready access to a
                                                                     computer at the time symptoms
                                                                     happen” P6

                                                      Memory         “Forgetting to record it. Because I
                                                      (12/67)        am often not at my personal
                                                                     computer.” P57

            PREPARATION        COLLECTION
                                                      Lack of timeREFLECTION
                                                   INTEGRATION
                                                                    “not difficult, ACTION
                                                                                   time consuming at
                                                      (11/67)       times.” P16
                                                      Finding        “Sometimes life isnʼt interesting
                                                      data (7/67)    enough to make me want to write
                                                                     it down, other times I canʼt find
                                                                     any worthy writing material.” P54

                                                      Accuracy       “Guestimating mass of food
                                                      (6/67)         matching homemade or
                                                                     restaurant foods against
                                                                     database entries” P5
                                                      Motivation     “keeping up the motivation to do
                                                      (5/67)         so, finding payback for the
                                                                     investment of time and effort.” P4

Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
                                                           61
System Issues
  Access to collection tool

  Lack of integration of data sources

  Most tools collect only one type of data




Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
   62
Grafitter
  Access to collection tool
  Support multiple social media
  Lack of integration of data sources
  Cull data automatically
  Most tools collect only one type of data
  Flexible and easy-to-enter format


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Supports multiple social media
  Twitter
  Delicious
  Instant Messenger
  Blogger




Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
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Flexible and easy-to-enter
  Extension of Twitter hashtags
  #mood(happy) Just had ice cream.
  A long day #work(11) and itʼs not over.
  Lunch with friends #lunch(amy, bob)




Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
   65
http://grafitter.com




Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
                      66
Grafitter
  Up since February 2009
  Continuing development
  •  Support privacy
  •  Additional visualizations
  •  Multi-faceted reflection




Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
   67
Introduction
   Model of Personal Informatics
   Collection vs. Reflection
   Maintaining Compliance
   Increase Use by Sharing
   Easing Data Integration
   Other Projects

Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
   68
http://ianli.com/dd/




Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
                       69
http://tinyurl.com/actionshot/




Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
                                 70
http://belikeben.com
  Be Like Ben




Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
                       71
http://ianli.com/tlc/




Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
                       72
Thank you!
  ianli@cmu.edu


  http://ianli.com

  http://personalinformatics.org
  http://personalinformatics.org/lab/model/

  Funded by


Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
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Personal Informatics and HCI, Ian Li, June 2010

  • 1. Personal Informatics & HCI Ian Li HCI Institute Carnegie Mellon University Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010
  • 2. Gnothi seauton. Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 2
  • 3. Know thyself. Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 3
  • 4. Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 4
  • 5. Personal Informatics A class of systems that help people 
 collect and reflect on their behavior 
 to gain self-knowledge Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 5
  • 6. http://personalinformatics.org/tools Physical Activity Finance Electricity Diabetes Health Mood Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 6
  • 7. HCI can help with the design of personal informatics systems. Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 7
  • 8. Human-Computer Interaction The study of interaction between people and computers Intersection of computer science, behavioral sciences, and design Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 8
  • 9. Why HCI? Personal informatics systems must provide users with different kinds of support. •  Make daily usage easier and facilitate use over a long period of time. •  Organize the data. •  Help users understand the data. •  Help users act on new knowledge. Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 9
  • 10. Alice •  20 years old •  Family history of heart disease •  Wants to be more active, but doesnʼt know how because sheʼs busy Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 10
  • 11. 1. Alice prepares. Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 11
  • 12. 2. Alice collects data. Mon 1573 Tue 4392 Wed 4537 Thu 5842 Fri 10258 Sat 7528 Sun 1368 Mon 1497 Tue 1837 Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 12
  • 13. 3. Alice transcribes data. Transcribe to Excel M T W Th F Sa Su M T Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 13
  • 14. 4. Alice reflects on the data. Active Inactive Inactive M T W Th F Sa Su M T Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 14
  • 15. 5. Alice takes action. Walk in the park instead of watching TV M T W Th F Sa Su M T Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 15
  • 16. PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 16
  • 17. PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Collection The stage when people collect information about themselves (e.g., inner thoughts, behavior, social interactions, and their immediate environment). Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 17
  • 18. PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Collection Barriers •  Using the tool •  Remembering •  Lack of time •  Motivation •  Finding data •  Accuracy Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 18
  • 19. PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Collection Barriers •  Using the tool One problem is:
 •  Remembering “Keeping up the •  Lack of time motivation to do so; •  Motivation like finding payback for the investment of •  Finding data time and effort.” •  Accuracy Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 19
  • 20. PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Reflection The stage when people reflect on their personal information. •  Users may reflect immediately (short-term) •  Or after several days or weeks (long-term) Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 20
  • 21. PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Reflection Barriers •  Lack of time •  Self-criticism •  Visualization •  Interpretation •  Sparse data •  No context Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 21
  • 22. PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Reflection Barriers “Itʼs hard to get a •  Lack of time holistic view of the •  Self-criticism data since the time filters are at most one •  Visualization month and Iʼd like to •  Interpretation look at several •  Sparse data months at once.” •  No context Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 22
  • 23. Properties of the Stages 1.  Barriers cascade 2.  Stages are iterative 3.  User- vs. System-driven 4.  Facets Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 23
  • 24. 3. User- vs. System-driven User-driven System-driven Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 24
  • 25. 3. User- vs. System-driven Mon 1573 Tue 4392 Wed 4537 Thu 5842 Fri 10258 Sat 7528 Sun 1368 Mon 1497 Tue 1837 User-driven System-driven Collection Integration Reflection Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 25
  • 26. 3. User- vs. System-driven User-driven System-driven Collection Integration Reflection Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 26
  • 27. 3. User- vs. System-driven Design Guideline Consider the tradeoffs between user-driven and system-driven stages. Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 27
  • 28. Introduction Model of Personal Informatics Collection vs. Reflection Maintaining Compliance Increase Use by Sharing Easing Data Integration Other Projects Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 28
  • 29. PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 29
  • 30. IMPACT Different from most personal informatics systems for physical activity: •  Collects physical activity information 
 and context (e.g., type of activity, location, people) •  Visualizations to help users become aware
 of factors in their lives that affect their physical activity. Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 30
  • 31. Two prototypes – Two studies IMPACT 1.0 IMPACT 2.0 Manual collection Semi-automated collection Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 31
  • 32. IMPACT 1.0 Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 32
  • 33. Awareness of opportunities “It turns out I get the most walking done to and from work…and walking around my neighborhood for an hour or two made a difference.” P35 Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 33
  • 34. IMPACT 2.0 Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 34
  • 35. Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 35
  • 36. Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 36
  • 37. No difference Compared to other systems: •  No visualizations •  Steps-only visualizations Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 37
  • 38. Long-term value Six months later, users who collected contextual information reflected on their data better. Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 38
  • 39. Collection vs. Reflection Short-term Long-term Reflection Reflection IMPACT 1.0 Manual GOOD NOT GOOD Collection IMPACT 2.0 Automated NOT GOOD GOOD Collection Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 39
  • 40. Introduction Model of Personal Informatics Collection vs. Reflection Maintaining Compliance Increase Use by Sharing Easing Data Integration Other Projects Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 40
  • 41. Barriers Example Quote Tool (13/67) “not having ready access to a computer at the time symptoms happen” P6 Memory “Forgetting to record it. Because I (12/67) am often not at my personal computer.” P57 Lack of time “not difficult, time consuming at PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION (11/67) times.” P16 Finding “Sometimes life isnʼt interesting data (7/67) enough to make me want to write it down, other times I canʼt find any worthy writing material.” P54 Accuracy “Guestimating mass of food (6/67) matching homemade or restaurant foods against database entries” P5 Motivation “keeping up the motivation to do (5/67) so, finding payback for the investment of time and effort.” P4 Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 41
  • 42. Experience Sampling Collect self-reports from users •  3 questions per self-report •  10 self-reports per day •  28 days •  840 pieces of information from user Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 42
  • 43. Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 43
  • 44. Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 44
  • 45. Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 45
  • 46. Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 46
  • 47. Experience Sampling Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010
  • 48. Experience Sampling+Feedback Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010
  • 49. Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 49
  • 50. Increased compliance by 23% Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010
  • 51. Maintained compliance Control A+I A+M 1 Compliance Rate 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 51
  • 52. Personal Insights “When I was doing something productive my mood was not high. My mood was highest when I was playing games.” “Apparently, I am least productive with work (Word, Excel) at night when I use AIM. I never use AIM in the morning, thus much more productive with work.” Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 52
  • 53. Introduction Model of Personal Informatics Collection vs. Reflection Maintaining Compliance Increase Use by Sharing Easing Data Integration Other Projects Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 53
  • 54. PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 54
  • 55. System Issues Value of self-reflection is not immediate Low participation by users Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 55
  • 56. System Issues Value of self-reflection is not immediate Use sharing as initial motivation Low participation by users Sharing increases participation Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 56
  • 57. http://moodjam.org Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 57
  • 58. Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 58
  • 59. Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 59
  • 60. Introduction Model of Personal Informatics Collection vs. Reflection Maintaining Compliance Increase Use by Sharing Easing Data Integration Other Projects Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 60
  • 61. Barriers Example Quote Tool (13/67) “not having ready access to a computer at the time symptoms happen” P6 Memory “Forgetting to record it. Because I (12/67) am often not at my personal computer.” P57 PREPARATION COLLECTION Lack of timeREFLECTION INTEGRATION “not difficult, ACTION time consuming at (11/67) times.” P16 Finding “Sometimes life isnʼt interesting data (7/67) enough to make me want to write it down, other times I canʼt find any worthy writing material.” P54 Accuracy “Guestimating mass of food (6/67) matching homemade or restaurant foods against database entries” P5 Motivation “keeping up the motivation to do (5/67) so, finding payback for the investment of time and effort.” P4 Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 61
  • 62. System Issues Access to collection tool Lack of integration of data sources Most tools collect only one type of data Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 62
  • 63. Grafitter Access to collection tool Support multiple social media Lack of integration of data sources Cull data automatically Most tools collect only one type of data Flexible and easy-to-enter format Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 63
  • 64. Supports multiple social media Twitter Delicious Instant Messenger Blogger Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 64
  • 65. Flexible and easy-to-enter Extension of Twitter hashtags #mood(happy) Just had ice cream. A long day #work(11) and itʼs not over. Lunch with friends #lunch(amy, bob) Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 65
  • 66. http://grafitter.com Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 66
  • 67. Grafitter Up since February 2009 Continuing development •  Support privacy •  Additional visualizations •  Multi-faceted reflection Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 67
  • 68. Introduction Model of Personal Informatics Collection vs. Reflection Maintaining Compliance Increase Use by Sharing Easing Data Integration Other Projects Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 68
  • 69. http://ianli.com/dd/ Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 69
  • 70. http://tinyurl.com/actionshot/ Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 70
  • 71. http://belikeben.com Be Like Ben Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 71
  • 72. http://ianli.com/tlc/ Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 72
  • 73. Thank you! ianli@cmu.edu
 http://ianli.com
 http://personalinformatics.org http://personalinformatics.org/lab/model/ Funded by Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 73