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A Stage-Based Model

  of Personal Informatics Systems
  Ian Li
  Anind Dey
  Jodi Forlizzi

  HCII, Carnegie Mellon University
Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
Gnothi seauton.




Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
   2
Know thyself.




Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
   3
Self-knowledge is valuable.




Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
   4
A way to get self-knowledge
  Collect information about yourself, 

  e.g., oneʼs behaviors, habits, and thoughts.

  Reflect on the information about yourself.




Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
   5
Personal Informatics
  A class of systems that help people 

  collect and reflect on their behavior 

  to gain self-knowledge




Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
   6
Physical Activity

  Finance

  Electricity

  Diabetes

  Health

  Mood


                http://personalinformatics.org/tools

Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
   7
Alice
                                                  •  20 years old
                                                  •  Family history of heart
                                                     disease
                                                  •  Wants to be more active,
                                                     but doesnʼt know how
                                                     because sheʼs busy



Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
   8
1. Alice prepares.




Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
   9
2. Alice collects data.
                                                                                             Mon   
1573
                                                                                             Tue   
4392
                                                                                             Wed   
4537
                                                                                             Thu   
5842
                                                                                             Fri   
10258
                                                                                             Sat   
7528
                                                                                             Sun   
1368
                                                                                             Mon   
1497
                                                                                             Tue   
1837


Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
               10
3. Alice transcribes data. 
  Transcribe to Excel




                                           M
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Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
        11
4. Alice reflects on the data.

                                                                         Active



                                     Inactive
                                               Inactive



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 Su
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                          T



Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
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5. Alice takes action.
                                                                                 Walk in the park
                                                                                   instead of
                                                                                  watching TV




                                           M
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                      T



Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
           13
Model of Personal Informatics
              PREPARATION          COLLECTION         INTEGRATION          REFLECTION        ACTION




Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
            14
Model of Personal Informatics
              PREPARATION          COLLECTION         INTEGRATION          REFLECTION        ACTION




  1.  Barriers cascade.
  2.  Stages are iterative.
                                                            Design

  3.  User- vs. System-driven
                                                          Guidelines
  4.  Facets
Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
            15
Introduction
   Personal Informatics
   Surveys and Interviews
     
The Stages
     
Properties of the Stages
   Case Studies
   Conclusion

Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
   16
Introduction
   Personal Informatics
   Surveys and Interviews
     
The Stages
     
Properties of the Stages
   Case Studies
   Conclusion

Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
   17
Personal Informatics
  Self-tracking
  Personal analytics
  Living by numbers




Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
   18
PREPARATION   COLLECTION   INTEGRATION    REFLECTION    ACTION




  Other research have explored these different
  stages in isolation:
  •  Collection
     •  MyLifeBits (Gemmell et al. 2006)
     •  SenseCam (Hodges et al. 2006)
  •  Reflection
     •  Casual InfoVis (Pousman et al. 2007)

Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
    19
PREPARATION   COLLECTION   INTEGRATION    REFLECTION    ACTION




  Other projects have combined collection and
  reflection on personal information
  •  Physical Activity: FishʼnʼSteps (Lin ʼ06), Shakra
         (Maitland ʼ06), UbiFit (Consolvo ʻ08)
  •  Sustainability: StepGreen (Mankoff ʼ08), UbiGreen
         (Froehlich ʼ09)
  •  Many systems for finance, health, physical
     activity, productivity, etc.

Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
    20
Why a model 

  of Personal Informatics?
  A growing field with many HCI challenges
  •  Tools are used over a long period of time.
  •  User is involved throughout the process.

  No comprehensive list of problems

  Developers need a guide for development 

  and assessment of these tools
Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
   21
Introduction
   Personal Informatics
   Surveys and Interviews
     
The Stages
     
Properties of the Stages
   Case Studies
   Conclusion

Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
   22
Survey
  What personal informatics tools they use

  What problems they encountered




Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
   23
Survey Questions
  •  How difficult is it to collect this personal
     information?
  •  What was your initial motivation to reflect
     on this collected personal information?
  •  What patterns have you found?

  Transcript of the survey is at:
  http://personalinformatics.org/lab/survey 
Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
   24
Participants
  Advertised the survey in blogs about
  personal informatics.

  68 users of personal informatics tools

  11 participated in follow-up interviews over
  instant messenger 

Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
   25
Types of Information
  Automatically collected
  •  Financial institutions (banks, credit cards)
  •  Utility companies (electricity, heating)
  •  Computers (email and browsing history)




Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
   26
Types of Information
  Manually collected
  •  Fewer participants, but greater variety

  Calendar events, status updates, work
  activities, blog posts, weight, exercise,
  browser bookmarks, time at work, mood,
  journal, sleeping habits, food consumption, productivity,
  health, medication intake, symptoms, miles ran, sports
  activities, blood pressure, blood sugar level, dream journal,
  step counts, relationship status, books read, transportation

Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
   27
Reasons
  Interested in personal data
  •  “data nerd”
  •  “a student of information visualization”
  •  “this data is about ME (her emphasis).”

  Trigger events (e.g., problems with physical
  activity, nutrition, weight, etc.)

Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
   28
Analysis
  Identified barriers that people experienced.

  Affinity diagrams to identify themes 

  Derived a model composed of:
  •  5 stages
  •  4 properties
                                                          http://www.flickr.com/photos/ludens/3185982588/

Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
              29
Introduction
   Personal Informatics Systems
   Surveys and Interviews
     
The Stages
     
Properties of the Stages
   Case Studies
   Conclusion

Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
   30
PREPARATION          COLLECTION         INTEGRATION          REFLECTION        ACTION




Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
            31
PREPARATION   COLLECTION   INTEGRATION    REFLECTION    ACTION




  Preparation
  The stage before people start collecting
  information.
  •  What information to record
  •  How to record the information


Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
    32
PREPARATION   COLLECTION   INTEGRATION    REFLECTION    ACTION




  Preparation Barriers
  •  Choosing the right information to collect
  •  Finding the right tool to use




Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
    33
PREPARATION   COLLECTION   INTEGRATION    REFLECTION    ACTION




  Collection
  The stage when people collect information
  about themselves (e.g., inner thoughts, behavior,
  social interactions, and their immediate environment).




Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
    34
PREPARATION   COLLECTION   INTEGRATION    REFLECTION    ACTION




  Collection Barriers
  •  Using the tool
  •  Remembering
  •  Lack of time
  •  Motivation
  •  Finding data
  •  Accuracy
Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
    35
PREPARATION   COLLECTION   INTEGRATION    REFLECTION    ACTION




  Collection Barriers
  •  Using the tool
                                             One problem is:

  •  Remembering
                                                “Keeping up the
  •  Lack of time
                                               motivation to do so;
  •  Motivation
                                                 like finding payback
                                                                 for the investment of
  •  Finding data
                                                                 time and effort.”
  •  Accuracy
Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
    36
PREPARATION   COLLECTION   INTEGRATION    REFLECTION    ACTION




  Integration
  The stage when the information from the
  Collection stage is prepared, combined, and
  transformed for the user to reflect on. 




Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
    37
PREPARATION   COLLECTION   INTEGRATION    REFLECTION    ACTION




  Integration Barriers
  •  Organization
  •  Scattered
     visualizations
  •  Transcribing data
  •  Multiple inputs

Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
    38
PREPARATION   COLLECTION   INTEGRATION    REFLECTION    ACTION




  Integration Barriers
                                          “Itʼd be neat if I could
  •  Organization
                                               graph [the data]
  •  Scattered                                                   straight from the web
                                                                 site instead of
     visualizations
                                                                 manually typing in the
  •  Transcribing data
                                          data to a
  •  Multiple inputs
                                            spreadsheet.”

Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
    39
PREPARATION   COLLECTION   INTEGRATION    REFLECTION    ACTION




  Reflection
  The stage when people reflect on their
  personal information.
  •  Users may reflect immediately (short-term)
  •  Or after several days or weeks (long-term) 


Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
    40
PREPARATION   COLLECTION   INTEGRATION    REFLECTION    ACTION




  Reflection Barriers
  •  Lack of time
  •  Self-criticism
  •  Visualization
  •  Interpretation
  •  Sparse data
  •  No context
Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
    41
PREPARATION   COLLECTION   INTEGRATION    REFLECTION    ACTION




  Reflection Barriers
                                            “Itʼs hard to get a
  •  Lack of time
                                               holistic view of the
  •  Self-criticism
                                             data since the time
                                                                 filters are at most one
  •  Visualization
                                                                 month and Iʼd like to
  •  Interpretation
                                                                 look at several
  •  Sparse data
                                                months at once.”
  •  No context
Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
    42
PREPARATION   COLLECTION   INTEGRATION    REFLECTION    ACTION




  Action
  The stage when people choose what they are
  going to do with their new-found
  understanding of themselves.




Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
    43
PREPARATION   COLLECTION   INTEGRATION    REFLECTION    ACTION




  Action Barriers
  •  Not knowing what to do with the
     information
     •  Alerts
     •  Incentives
     •  Suggestions 

Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
    44
Introduction
   Personal Informatics
   Surveys and Interviews
     
The Stages
     
Properties of the Stages
   Case Studies
   Conclusion

Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
   45
PREPARATION   COLLECTION   INTEGRATION    REFLECTION    ACTION




  1. Barriers cascade
  2. Stages are iterative




Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
    46
1. Barriers Cascade
  Problems in the earlier stages can affect the
  later stages.




Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
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1. Barriers Cascade.




                                           M
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Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
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1. Barriers Cascade.




                                           M
       T
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                   T


Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
        49
1. Barriers Cascade
  P44 lacked time and motivation during
  Collection stage.

  About Reflection stage, he said:
  “I wish I could report successes on this front,
  but my lack of regular collection has made
  this difficult.”


Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
   50
1. Barriers Cascade
  Design Guideline
  Consider all the stages when designing PI
  systems.
                             PREPARATION   COLLECTION   INTEGRATION    REFLECTION    ACTION




Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
    51
2. Stages are Iterative
  Users may need to incorporate 

  new types of data, tools, and processes 

  as they progress through the stages.




Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
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2. Stages are Iterative




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Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
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2. Stages are Iterative




                                           M
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Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
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2. Stages are iterative.
  P48 switched between Google spreadsheets,
  Daytum, and your.flowingdata to collect
  restaurants visited.

  But the tools did not allow importing data.




Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
   55
2. Stages are Iterative.
  Design Guideline
  Flexibility is important.

  •  Support easy importing and exporting of
     data.




Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
   56
PREPARATION   COLLECTION   INTEGRATION    REFLECTION    ACTION




  1. Barriers cascade.
  2. Stages are iterative.
  3. User- or system-driven
  4. Facets




Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
    57
3. User- vs. System-driven

     User-driven
                                                                 System-driven




Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
     58
3. User- vs. System-driven
                                                  Mon     
1573
                                                  Tue     
4392
                                                  Wed     
4537
                                                  Thu     
5842
                                                  Fri     
10258
                                                  Sat     
7528
                                                  Sun     
1368
                                                  Mon     
1497
                                                  Tue     
1837




                   User-driven
                          System-driven

  Collection


  Integration


  Reflection

Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
   59
3. User- vs. System-driven



                                                                    User-driven
             System-driven

  Collection


  Integration


  Reflection

Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
             60
3. User- vs. System-driven
  Design Guideline
  Consider the tradeoffs between user-driven
  and system-driven stages.




Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
   61
4. Facets
  Peopleʼs lives are composed of many facets.
  •  Home life vs. work life
  •  Daily interactions with other people
  •  Health
  •  Finance




Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
   62
4. Facets
  Users expressed desire to see associations
  between different facets of their lives.
  •  “To understand trends in symptoms,
     behaviors, and circumstances.” P26
  •  “If it were easily collected, information on
     food intake, calories, fat, etc., would make
     an interesting starting point for analysis.”
     P49 who tracks medication intake

Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
   63
4. Facets
  Most personal informatics are uni-faceted.

  Some personal informatics systems have
  multi-faceted collection, but only support
  uni-faceted reflection.




Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
   64
4. Facets
                                    Location
                         Activity
              People
                                     Office
                           Shopping
              Family

                                                                         Active



                                     Inactive
                                               Inactive



                                           M
       T
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                          T

Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
               65
4. Facets
  Design Guideline
  Supporting multiple facets may help users
  find associations between facets of their
  lives.

  → Explore support for multiple facets.



Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
   66
Model of Personal Informatics
  5 Stages

  4 Properties
  •  Design guidelines




Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
   67
Introduction
   Personal Informatics
   Surveys and Interviews
     
The Stages
     
Properties of the Stages
   Case Studies
   Conclusion

Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
   68
Case Studies
  1.  Twitter-based systems
  2.  Mint (http://mint.com)
  3.  IMPACT




Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
   69
IMPACT
  Different from most personal informatics
  systems for physical activity:

  •  Collects physical activity information 

     and context (e.g., type of activity, location, people)

  •  Visualizations to help users become aware

     of factors in their lives that affect their
     physical activity.
Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
   70
Two prototypes – Two studies
  IMPACT 1.0
                                                    IMPACT 2.0
  Manual collection
                                             Semi-automated
                                                                 collection




Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
   71
Collection vs. Reflection
                                                                  Short-term                 Long-term
                                                                  Reflection
                 Reflection

     IMPACT 1.0
 Manual                                               GOOD
                  NOT GOOD
                 Collection 

     IMPACT 2.0
 Automated                                       NOT GOOD
                    GOOD
                 Collection




Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
                72
The model and IMPACT
  The model helped analyze the different
  aspects of IMPACT.

  IMPACT highlights the necessity to consider
  the interactions between the different stages

  (e.g., Collection vs. Reflection)


  IMPACT shows value of multi-faceted support
Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
   73
Introduction
   Personal Informatics
   Surveys and Interviews
     
The Stages
     
Properties of the Stages
   Case Studies
   Conclusion

Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
   74
Contribution: Barriers and Model
  Identified a list of problems
  •  Highlights the many HCI challenges of
     building effective personal informatics tools

  Defined a model of personal informatics
  •  Common framework for describing,
     comparing, and evaluating such systems

Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
   75
Contribution: Design Guidelines
  Described 4 properties with implications for
  design of personal informatics systems
  1.  Consider the design of all the stages.
  2.  Flexibility between tools is important.
  3.  Balance automation and user control.
  4.  Explore support for finding relationships
      between facets of oneʼs life.

Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
   76
Thank you!
  http://personalinformatics.org/
  http://personalinformatics.org/lab/model

  Ian Li        
ianli@cmu.edu
  Anind Dey 
anind@cs.cmu.edu
  Jodi Forlizzi 
forlizzi@cs.cmu.edu

  Funded by


Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi   A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics   CHI 2010
   77

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A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics Systems (CHI 2010 Talk)

  • 1. A Stage-Based Model
 of Personal Informatics Systems Ian Li Anind Dey Jodi Forlizzi HCII, Carnegie Mellon University Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010
  • 2. Gnothi seauton. Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 2
  • 3. Know thyself. Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 3
  • 4. Self-knowledge is valuable. Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 4
  • 5. A way to get self-knowledge Collect information about yourself, 
 e.g., oneʼs behaviors, habits, and thoughts. Reflect on the information about yourself. Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 5
  • 6. Personal Informatics A class of systems that help people 
 collect and reflect on their behavior 
 to gain self-knowledge Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 6
  • 7. Physical Activity Finance Electricity Diabetes Health Mood http://personalinformatics.org/tools Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 7
  • 8. Alice •  20 years old •  Family history of heart disease •  Wants to be more active, but doesnʼt know how because sheʼs busy Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 8
  • 9. 1. Alice prepares. Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 9
  • 10. 2. Alice collects data. Mon 1573 Tue 4392 Wed 4537 Thu 5842 Fri 10258 Sat 7528 Sun 1368 Mon 1497 Tue 1837 Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 10
  • 11. 3. Alice transcribes data. Transcribe to Excel M T W Th F Sa Su M T Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 11
  • 12. 4. Alice reflects on the data. Active Inactive Inactive M T W Th F Sa Su M T Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 12
  • 13. 5. Alice takes action. Walk in the park instead of watching TV M T W Th F Sa Su M T Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 13
  • 14. Model of Personal Informatics PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 14
  • 15. Model of Personal Informatics PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION 1.  Barriers cascade. 2.  Stages are iterative. Design
 3.  User- vs. System-driven Guidelines 4.  Facets Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 15
  • 16. Introduction Personal Informatics Surveys and Interviews The Stages Properties of the Stages Case Studies Conclusion Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 16
  • 17. Introduction Personal Informatics Surveys and Interviews The Stages Properties of the Stages Case Studies Conclusion Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 17
  • 18. Personal Informatics Self-tracking Personal analytics Living by numbers Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 18
  • 19. PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Other research have explored these different stages in isolation: •  Collection •  MyLifeBits (Gemmell et al. 2006) •  SenseCam (Hodges et al. 2006) •  Reflection •  Casual InfoVis (Pousman et al. 2007) Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 19
  • 20. PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Other projects have combined collection and reflection on personal information •  Physical Activity: FishʼnʼSteps (Lin ʼ06), Shakra (Maitland ʼ06), UbiFit (Consolvo ʻ08) •  Sustainability: StepGreen (Mankoff ʼ08), UbiGreen (Froehlich ʼ09) •  Many systems for finance, health, physical activity, productivity, etc. Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 20
  • 21. Why a model 
 of Personal Informatics? A growing field with many HCI challenges •  Tools are used over a long period of time. •  User is involved throughout the process. No comprehensive list of problems Developers need a guide for development 
 and assessment of these tools Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 21
  • 22. Introduction Personal Informatics Surveys and Interviews The Stages Properties of the Stages Case Studies Conclusion Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 22
  • 23. Survey What personal informatics tools they use What problems they encountered Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 23
  • 24. Survey Questions •  How difficult is it to collect this personal information? •  What was your initial motivation to reflect on this collected personal information? •  What patterns have you found? Transcript of the survey is at: http://personalinformatics.org/lab/survey Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 24
  • 25. Participants Advertised the survey in blogs about personal informatics. 68 users of personal informatics tools 11 participated in follow-up interviews over instant messenger Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 25
  • 26. Types of Information Automatically collected •  Financial institutions (banks, credit cards) •  Utility companies (electricity, heating) •  Computers (email and browsing history) Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 26
  • 27. Types of Information Manually collected •  Fewer participants, but greater variety Calendar events, status updates, work activities, blog posts, weight, exercise, browser bookmarks, time at work, mood, journal, sleeping habits, food consumption, productivity, health, medication intake, symptoms, miles ran, sports activities, blood pressure, blood sugar level, dream journal, step counts, relationship status, books read, transportation Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 27
  • 28. Reasons Interested in personal data •  “data nerd” •  “a student of information visualization” •  “this data is about ME (her emphasis).” Trigger events (e.g., problems with physical activity, nutrition, weight, etc.) Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 28
  • 29. Analysis Identified barriers that people experienced. Affinity diagrams to identify themes Derived a model composed of: •  5 stages •  4 properties http://www.flickr.com/photos/ludens/3185982588/ Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 29
  • 30. Introduction Personal Informatics Systems Surveys and Interviews The Stages Properties of the Stages Case Studies Conclusion Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 30
  • 31. PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 31
  • 32. PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Preparation The stage before people start collecting information. •  What information to record •  How to record the information Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 32
  • 33. PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Preparation Barriers •  Choosing the right information to collect •  Finding the right tool to use Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 33
  • 34. PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Collection The stage when people collect information about themselves (e.g., inner thoughts, behavior, social interactions, and their immediate environment). Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 34
  • 35. PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Collection Barriers •  Using the tool •  Remembering •  Lack of time •  Motivation •  Finding data •  Accuracy Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 35
  • 36. PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Collection Barriers •  Using the tool One problem is:
 •  Remembering “Keeping up the •  Lack of time motivation to do so; •  Motivation like finding payback for the investment of •  Finding data time and effort.” •  Accuracy Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 36
  • 37. PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Integration The stage when the information from the Collection stage is prepared, combined, and transformed for the user to reflect on. Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 37
  • 38. PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Integration Barriers •  Organization •  Scattered visualizations •  Transcribing data •  Multiple inputs Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 38
  • 39. PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Integration Barriers “Itʼd be neat if I could •  Organization graph [the data] •  Scattered straight from the web site instead of visualizations manually typing in the •  Transcribing data data to a •  Multiple inputs spreadsheet.” Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 39
  • 40. PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Reflection The stage when people reflect on their personal information. •  Users may reflect immediately (short-term) •  Or after several days or weeks (long-term) Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 40
  • 41. PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Reflection Barriers •  Lack of time •  Self-criticism •  Visualization •  Interpretation •  Sparse data •  No context Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 41
  • 42. PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Reflection Barriers “Itʼs hard to get a •  Lack of time holistic view of the •  Self-criticism data since the time filters are at most one •  Visualization month and Iʼd like to •  Interpretation look at several •  Sparse data months at once.” •  No context Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 42
  • 43. PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Action The stage when people choose what they are going to do with their new-found understanding of themselves. Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 43
  • 44. PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Action Barriers •  Not knowing what to do with the information •  Alerts •  Incentives •  Suggestions Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 44
  • 45. Introduction Personal Informatics Surveys and Interviews The Stages Properties of the Stages Case Studies Conclusion Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 45
  • 46. PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION 1. Barriers cascade 2. Stages are iterative Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 46
  • 47. 1. Barriers Cascade Problems in the earlier stages can affect the later stages. Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 47
  • 48. 1. Barriers Cascade. M T W Th F Sa Su M T Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 48
  • 49. 1. Barriers Cascade. M T W Th F Sa Su M T Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 49
  • 50. 1. Barriers Cascade P44 lacked time and motivation during Collection stage. About Reflection stage, he said: “I wish I could report successes on this front, but my lack of regular collection has made this difficult.” Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 50
  • 51. 1. Barriers Cascade Design Guideline Consider all the stages when designing PI systems. PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 51
  • 52. 2. Stages are Iterative Users may need to incorporate 
 new types of data, tools, and processes 
 as they progress through the stages. Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 52
  • 53. 2. Stages are Iterative M T W Th F Sa Su M T Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 53
  • 54. 2. Stages are Iterative M T W Th F Sa Su M T Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 54
  • 55. 2. Stages are iterative. P48 switched between Google spreadsheets, Daytum, and your.flowingdata to collect restaurants visited. But the tools did not allow importing data. Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 55
  • 56. 2. Stages are Iterative. Design Guideline Flexibility is important. •  Support easy importing and exporting of data. Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 56
  • 57. PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION 1. Barriers cascade. 2. Stages are iterative. 3. User- or system-driven 4. Facets Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 57
  • 58. 3. User- vs. System-driven User-driven System-driven Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 58
  • 59. 3. User- vs. System-driven Mon 1573 Tue 4392 Wed 4537 Thu 5842 Fri 10258 Sat 7528 Sun 1368 Mon 1497 Tue 1837 User-driven System-driven Collection Integration Reflection Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 59
  • 60. 3. User- vs. System-driven User-driven System-driven Collection Integration Reflection Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 60
  • 61. 3. User- vs. System-driven Design Guideline Consider the tradeoffs between user-driven and system-driven stages. Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 61
  • 62. 4. Facets Peopleʼs lives are composed of many facets. •  Home life vs. work life •  Daily interactions with other people •  Health •  Finance Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 62
  • 63. 4. Facets Users expressed desire to see associations between different facets of their lives. •  “To understand trends in symptoms, behaviors, and circumstances.” P26 •  “If it were easily collected, information on food intake, calories, fat, etc., would make an interesting starting point for analysis.” P49 who tracks medication intake Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 63
  • 64. 4. Facets Most personal informatics are uni-faceted. Some personal informatics systems have multi-faceted collection, but only support uni-faceted reflection. Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 64
  • 65. 4. Facets Location Activity People Office Shopping Family Active Inactive Inactive M T W Th F Sa Su M T Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 65
  • 66. 4. Facets Design Guideline Supporting multiple facets may help users find associations between facets of their lives. → Explore support for multiple facets. Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 66
  • 67. Model of Personal Informatics 5 Stages 4 Properties •  Design guidelines Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 67
  • 68. Introduction Personal Informatics Surveys and Interviews The Stages Properties of the Stages Case Studies Conclusion Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 68
  • 69. Case Studies 1.  Twitter-based systems 2.  Mint (http://mint.com) 3.  IMPACT Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 69
  • 70. IMPACT Different from most personal informatics systems for physical activity: •  Collects physical activity information 
 and context (e.g., type of activity, location, people) •  Visualizations to help users become aware
 of factors in their lives that affect their physical activity. Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 70
  • 71. Two prototypes – Two studies IMPACT 1.0 IMPACT 2.0 Manual collection Semi-automated collection Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 71
  • 72. Collection vs. Reflection Short-term Long-term Reflection Reflection IMPACT 1.0 Manual GOOD NOT GOOD Collection IMPACT 2.0 Automated NOT GOOD GOOD Collection Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 72
  • 73. The model and IMPACT The model helped analyze the different aspects of IMPACT. IMPACT highlights the necessity to consider the interactions between the different stages
 (e.g., Collection vs. Reflection) IMPACT shows value of multi-faceted support Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 73
  • 74. Introduction Personal Informatics Surveys and Interviews The Stages Properties of the Stages Case Studies Conclusion Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 74
  • 75. Contribution: Barriers and Model Identified a list of problems •  Highlights the many HCI challenges of building effective personal informatics tools Defined a model of personal informatics •  Common framework for describing, comparing, and evaluating such systems Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 75
  • 76. Contribution: Design Guidelines Described 4 properties with implications for design of personal informatics systems 1.  Consider the design of all the stages. 2.  Flexibility between tools is important. 3.  Balance automation and user control. 4.  Explore support for finding relationships between facets of oneʼs life. Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 76
  • 77. Thank you! http://personalinformatics.org/ http://personalinformatics.org/lab/model Ian Li ianli@cmu.edu Anind Dey anind@cs.cmu.edu Jodi Forlizzi forlizzi@cs.cmu.edu Funded by Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 77